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Small Business Product Promotion

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					Title: An Investigation into Effective Small Business Product
                  Promotion in ABC Organisation



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                                          Research
                                           Project
                               1
                                                Acknowledgements



I would like to thank my family and friends for their continued support and understanding over the last few years. I
would also like to thank all my lecturers for their valuable teaching and ongoing support; in particular I would like to
thank my project supervisor Mrs XYZ for her support and guidance in completing this research project. A big thank
you too, to the staff and management of ABC Organisation Inverness, in particular LS and NB who provided
access to their business in order to conduct the primary research element of this project. Finally I would like to
thank all those who took the time to take part in the research survey, for without their honest and unbiased
responses this project would not have had much significance.




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                                                           Contents Page



Section                                                                                                 Page



Acknowledgements                                                                                        i

Executive Summary                                                                                       iii

1. Introduction                                                                                         1
2. Methodology                                                                                          2
3. Literature Review                                                                                    4
4. (Initial) Data Analysis and Presentation                                                             7
5. Critical Interpretation of Data                                                                      10
6. Conclusions                                                                                          13
7. Recommendations                                                                                      14
References                                                                                              16




Figures

Figure 4.1 – How long have you been visiting ABC Organisation?                                          7

Figure 4.2 – Do you visit other hair & beauty establishments in the Lochaber area?                      7

Figure 4.3 – How likely would you be to purchase hair & beauty products online?                         8

Figure 4.4 – How likely would you be to purchase hair & beauty services online?                         8

Figure 4.5 – Which of the following ABC Organisation products/services are you aware of?                9

Figure 4.6 – Rating of promotional tools in terms of influence on overall purchasing decisions?         9

Figure 5.1 – Product knowledge vs. length of patronage                                                  10

Figure 5.2 – Product knowledge of those who do remember reading about ABC Organisation in the IMAG 11




                                                                    3
Figure 5.3 – Product knowledge of those who do not remember reading about ABC Organisation in the IMAG   11

Figure 5.4 – Product knowledge of customers whose needs are not fully met by ABC Organisation            12




Appendices

Appendix A – REC1a Research Ethics Form

Appendix B – ABC Organisation Questionnaire

Appendix C – Frequency Tables

Appendix D – Cross Tabulations




                                                                4
                                                Executive Summary


The purpose of this investigation was to conduct, analyse and interpret research on behalf of a local business, in
this case on behalf of local Lochaber business, ABC Organisation, which has been in operation since 1997, and to
make recommendations based on those findings.



The sponsoring organisation recognised the need for a rethink of their own promotional practices, and this
research report investigated the theory behind the practice of small business product/service promotion and the
sponsor’s own product promotions efforts. Initially this relied on the evaluation of secondary sources such as
journals and text books, and then used a quantitative primary data approach using a structured questionnaire-
based survey to gather data from existing clients of the business. The research took place over the winter from
January to April 20XX with the main outcome being to identify and propose effective product/service promotion
techniques that could be used by a small business such as this one to attract new customers and at the same time
retain existing ones.



This report provided the sponsor with a clearer understanding of its promotional standing. The main findings were
that the provision of a number of new services had gone unnoticed by customers; that the tracking of campaign
effectiveness was essential; that customers were only loyal so long as all their hair & beauty requirements were
being met; and that their promotional activities were not achieving the expected outcomes.



Based on the findings of both secondary and primary research recommendations were made to the sponsor on
how best to proceed with future promotional activity. In order to improve promotional effectiveness, increase
product and service awareness, and ultimately improve profitability the main priority was the development of a plan
of action – identifying the need for all components of the promotional mix to work towards goals and objectives
clearly defined by the organisation in order to maximise their effectiveness.

Specifically this will require them to gear promotional activities towards stimulating sales by increasing awareness
amongst both new and existing customers encouraging first-time and repeat purchases. Proposed promotional
activities include the promotion of products and services on the sponsor’s refurbished website, the improvement of
current local magazine advertorial promotions, as well as the establishment of a Facebook and/or Twitter as an
effective tool for the promotion of product and service offerings.




                                                           5
1.       Introduction


1.1      Overview


The project sponsor, ABC Organisation has been in operation since 19XX. The business has diversified over the
years from offering hair and beauty products/services, to now offering ancillary services such as hypnotherapy and
teeth whitening. This local business hopes to grow through the provision of these additional offerings, however
their current challenge and reason for the commissioning of this research project is the undertaking of efficient and
effective product promotion in order to increase product and service awareness.


1.2      Justification


Characteristic of many small businesses, the sponsor has invested a substantial amount of time and money in
setting up these additional service and product offerings, but due to poor promotions planning have failed to attract
the desired response. Despite a strong client base and prime location, the provision of services such as teeth
whitening and hypnotherapy has gone largely unnoticed by both new and existing customers.


1.3      Aim and Objectives


The overall purpose of this research report is to establish effective product promotion techniques that can be used
by small businesses to both attract new customers and retain existing ones. In order to meet the overall research
aim, the specific research objectives were to:
       identify common product promotion mistakes made by small businesses
       identify effective techniques for small business product promotion
       evaluate the sponsors current promotional efforts by surveying new and existing customers
       to recommend to the sponsor the way forward in terms of product promotions practice




                                                         6
2.       Methodology

The overall research aim was the evaluation of the promotion mix as a tool for customer acquisition and retention.
Secondary research involved a review of relevant literature, while primary research was conducted through a
quantitative study into customer perceptions of promotion.


As both Kumar (2005) and The University of Maryland (2006) explain, secondary research involves the use of
existing data which has come about as a result of previous research and is therefore subject to validity and
reliability issues. Secondary sources such as textbooks, reference materials, newspapers, web resources and
journals such as The Journal of Consumer Marketing and Business Horizons were consulted in line with secondary
research objectives (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2007), which were to establish common mistakes made by
small businesses when conducting promotions, and to identify and evaluate effective promotional techniques.


Primary research was conducted in line with the ‘UHI Code of Practice for Research Involving Human Participants’
(Appendix A) and in line with the overall research aim and objectives which were to evaluate the sponsor’s current
promotional efforts in the eyes of their existing and new customers, while at the same time identifying to the
sponsor the way forward in terms of effective promotional planning.


Following pilot testing a structured quantitative questionnaire-based survey (Appendix B) was administered to
respondents; the questionnaire was pre-printed, consisted of closed questions such as dichotomous, multiple
choice and ordinal scale questions for ease of analysis and was administered to respondents in a controlled
environment over a one week period. A self-administered questionnaire was chosen over other approaches such
as interviews, focus groups and consumer panels, due to ease of analysis and the structure of the information
gathering process (Blumberg, Cooper and Schindler 2005).


The survey was based on a convenience (non-probability) sample of 70 new and existing ABC Organisation
customers. As Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2007) identify, a convenience sample involves simply selecting
participants on the basis of convenience, accessibility, and expediency until the sample size has been reached -
for research purposes it is assumed that the sample population was representative of the population as a whole
and was devised based on historical revenue data: for example with an average of 7.5% of weekly business taking
place on a Monday, 7.5% of respondents were chosen to participate in the research based conveniently on their
presence in the establishment on the day.




                                                        7
The survey consisted of 22 data and statistical analysis questions with the purpose of gaining the respondents’
views on promotion, evaluating the sponsor’s current promotional efforts and identifying other areas of statistical
interest to the organisation. Following the completion of all surveys, the pre-coded research data was analysed
using the SPSS statistical analysis software. Results were presented graphically using frequency tables and
histograms, while correlations of various results were tested and analysed using ANOVA (analysis of variance)
techniques such as Spearman’s Rank Correlation which identifies links between independent variables (Ott and
Longnecker 2010), a detailed analysis of the results of this study are included in the ‘critical interpretation of data’
section.




                                                           8
3.       Literature Review

Promotion refers to the process of communicating with consumers, in an attempt to influence a favourable
purchasing decision (Institute of Sales Promotion 2010). As Vignali (2001) suggests promotion is one of the core
components of the marketing mix and as a result has a major impact on market success. The Chartered Institute of
Marketing (2009) look at promotion in terms of the promotional mix – described as a set of techniques available to
a business in order to facilitate the effective communication of product or service benefits to existing and
prospective customers. Jobber (2001) and Baker (2003) identify advertising, personal selling, public relations,
direct marketing and sales promotion as core components of the promotional mix together with in more recent
years the internet and online promotion. Blythe (2001) emphasises the importance of the word ‘mix’ when
developing a promotional strategy, proposing that a successful and efficient campaign will be made up of several if
not all components of the promotional mix all working towards common aims and objectives, which as Fill (2006),
Blythe and Rowley (1998) identify could be in the short-term, to drive sales or counter the promotional efforts of
competitors, or in the long run to maintain or improve market share.


Marketing practitioners commonly distinguish between ‘above’ or ‘below’ the line promotion, with advertising lying
above and all other components lying below. Baker explains that short-term promotional objectives are achieved
below the line, while long-term brand building requires extensive and costly action above-the-line. The promotional
mix involves a mixture of promotional techniques, the composition of which Longenecker (2009) and Mercer (1996)
advise is determined by aspects such as the geographical character of the target market and the characteristics or
complexity of the product/service offering itself. In order to be effective the small business owner must identify the
optimal mix of promotional techniques that will reach the target market, and then allocate financial resources
accordingly.


Advertising is arguably one of the most effective promotional techniques, with its objective being to evoke a
purchasing decision or to at least generate product enquiries, through non-personal communication through a paid-
for mass medium (Brassington and Pettitt 2006). Kotler et al. (2008) believe personal selling, although the most
costly to use, the most effective promotional tool, citing its ability to foster relationships between sales personnel
and consumers as unique and effective. With its role of promoting goodwill between a business and its
stakeholders, public relations as a component of the promotional mix should not be overlooked (O’Guinn, Allen and
Semenik 2009). Jobber identifies the role of direct marketing in promotion, describing how tools such as direct mail
and door-to-door leafleting aim to acquire and retain consumers by communicating with them not through an
intermediary but directly. Unlike other forms of marketing communication, an immediate response is usually
warranted allowing the effectiveness of the campaign to be quickly and efficiently assessed.




                                                          9
Sales promotions on the other hand are marketing communications efforts that affect the price/value relationship of
a product/service offering, and thereby generate immediate sales and have a substantial impact on brand value
(Schultz, Robinson and Petrison 1998). Kurtz, Mackenzie and Snow (2009) outline the basic aim of sales
promotion as being the encouragement of current customers through rewards to make a repurchase, increasing
sales of complementary products and at the same time attracting consumer attention. Business Link (2009) and Fill
(2006) explain the growth of the use of the internet for sales promotional efforts, with research finding online
promotions to achieve on average three to five times more responses than direct mail, through the use of e-
coupons, SMS promotions and viral campaigns. Chaston (2000) goes as far as describing the internet and its role
in the promotional mix as a small business owners ‘dream’, unable to identify any other promotional technique as
effective - a promotional platform where a business can communicate with customers anywhere around the world
at anytime of the day, and at the same time have the ability to instantly communicate changes of price or product
offering through inexpensive messages to all consumers simultaneously. Along with this, the emergences of online
social media networks have made mass communication between business and consumer accessible to all
businesses, so much so that social media is argued to be a hybrid element of the promotional mix (Mangold and
Faulds 2009).


The promotional efforts of many small businesses including the project sponsor fall short of requirement through
committing common promotional mistakes. A haphazard promotions strategy is probably the most common
mistake, while underestimating the costs involved in promotion or relying entirely on paid advertisements can
seriously affect the outcome of a campaign (Sugars 2006). Failing to track the effectiveness of a promotional
activity and communicating an ambiguous promotional message is according to McMurtry (2003) the most costly
promotional mistake. McMurtry outlines several other reasons for promotions failing, stating that failed promotions
are generally: egocentric; overreaching; void of ownership; and budget-oriented. Roylance (2006) and Bangs
(2002) confirm that there is no point undertaking promotional activity unless the promotional objectives are clearly
identified, the message tested and a means for establishment of success identified, both advise of the difficulty of
undoing these mistakes.


Business Gateway (2009) and Brassington and Pettitt (2006) emphasise the importance of effective promotions
planning, explaining how developing an efficient and effective, fully integrated and consistent approach helps turn
customer interest into sales. With small business generally characterised by limited financial means, making poor
promotional decisions carries with it substantial financial risk (Chaston and Mangles 2002). A point shared by
Kurtz, Mackenzie and Snow (2009) and Lam et al (2001) who agree that the effectiveness of all promotional
activities must be measured and evaluated in order to fully benefit from the promotional investment made.




                                                        10
Successful promotion is generally accepted to come about following several key steps; Lake (2010), Petit and
McEnally (1985), and Dunne and Lusch (2008) all outline between them a five to seven step process for the
development of an effective promotional campaign; starting with the assessment of marketing communication
opportunities and the determination of promotional objectives, before leading to aspects relating to the promotional
message itself and finally progressing to the determination of the campaigns effectiveness. Barrow et al. (2008)
and Shimp (2007) confirm that this latter element must be carried out if the desired outcomes are to be achieved.


The issue of campaign effectiveness is one the project sponsor is keen to address through the primary research,
which will seek to evaluate the use of the business’s current promotional mix in order to ascertain its effectiveness
as both a tool for customer retention and new product promotion.




                                                         11
4.       (Initial) Data Analysis and Presentation

An initial analysis of the data obtained from the primary research (questionnaire-based survey) was conducted
using SPSS with individual results being presented using frequency tables (Appendix C). The initial findings offered
some interesting insight into the effectiveness of the sponsor’s current promotional efforts and are detailed below.


Figure 4.1 How long have you been visiting ABC Organisation?




It is interesting to note that although 80% of respondents had been visiting ABC Organisation for over 8 months
and would therefore be expected to have a good knowledge of the business and its product/service offerings nearly
half looked to other establishments in order to meet all their hair and beauty requirements, while over 60% of
respondents confessed to purchasing hair and beauty products from other establishments.


Figure 4.2 Do you visit other hair & beauty establishments in the Lochaber area?




In response to the questions on consumer shopping habits, the majority of respondents who on average did most
of their day-to-day purchasing offline indicated a lack of interest in the online provision of hair and beauty
products/services with most respondents (48.6% for products and 68.6% for services) indicating that they would be
very unlikely to purchase hair and beauty online, it is also interesting to note that 82.9% of respondents had never




                                                         12
visited the sponsors website and after being made aware of the sites existence 45.7% of respondents indicated
they still had no interest in visiting.


Figure 4.3 How likely would you be to purchase hair & beauty products online?




Figure 4.4 How likely would you be to purchase hair & beauty services online?




Further evaluating the promotional efforts of the sponsor, the respondents were tested on their knowledge of
products and services offered by the business. The results were surprising to the sponsor as a large amount of
information on products and services is available on the sponsor’s website as well as within their monthly IMAG
magazine advertorial. Of the 68.6% of respondents who read the IMAG magazine only 66.7% remembered reading
the advertorial which is an important promotional source for the business. Looking at the results presented in figure
4.5 it is clear to see a major issue for the business is the creation of product awareness as many of the businesses
products and services have gone largely unnoticed by customers.




                                                         13
Figure 4.5 Which of the following ABC Organisation products/services are you aware of?




In order to identify to the sponsor the way forward in terms of effective product promotion respondents were asked
to rate various promotional tools in terms of their influence on purchasing decisions. The results presented below
identify free samples and product vouchers as the most effective ways to influence a purchase decision.


           Figure 4.6 Rating of promotional tools in terms of influence on overall purchasing decisions?




                                                        14
5.       Critical Interpretation of Data


The initial analysis of research data was followed by further analysis seeking to identify important relationships
between results such as the testing of whether customers who had been visiting ABC Organisation for longer knew
more about their products and services. The results below reveal how the provision of some products and services
are noticed by some customers more than others - while 94.3% of respondents did not know about the provision of
hypnotherapy 77.1% of respondents did know about Dermalogica facials. Looking at the cross tabulations
(Appendix D) and using Pearson’s Chi Squared test it is established that there is no direct correlation between the
two variables i.e. the customers product knowledge is not influenced significantly by their length of patronage but
rather by other aspects such as the promotion of the products/services themselves.


Figure 5.1 Product knowledge vs. length of patronage




                                                        15
Further evaluating the sponsor’s product promotions efforts, the level of influence of the sponsors website and
advertorials in the local Fort William advertiser the IMAG are investigated. With 82.9% of respondents never
having visited the website its influence on overall customer product knowledge and purchasing was deemed to be
self explanatory and was not analysed. With 51.4% of respondents having read the IMAG and remembered
reading the ABC Organisation advertorial it was expected that product/service knowledge amongst these
individuals would be high, however looking at the results below it is interesting to note that the respondents who did
not remember reading the IMAG advertorial had more product knowledge than those who did remember reading it,
identifying an issue with the effectiveness of this promotional technique.


Figure 5.2 Product knowledge of those who do remember reading about ABC Organisation in the IMAG




Figure 5.3 Product knowledge of those who do not remember reading about ABC Organisation in the IMAG




                                                          16
An analysis was conducted in order to establish the relationship between salon loyalty and product/service
knowledge i.e. if those who knew about the products and services offered still visited other establishments or if
customers look to other establishments believing that ABC Organisation do not meet all their requirements. The
results indicate that many customers who looked to other establishments were unaware of the provision of services
such as micro-dermabrasion, bridal hair, hypnotherapy and even to an extent St Tropez tanning.


Figure 5.4 Product knowledge of customers whose needs are not fully met by ABC Organisation




The findings of the primary research are supported by the review of secondary literature which states how in order
for a product promotions campaign to be effective the optimal mix of techniques must be identified. A haphazard,
unplanned approach to product promotion will not have the desired outcome. The internet is identified as a small
business product promotions ‘dream’, however in order for it to be a successful medium for product promotion the
business’s online presence needs to be promoted in order to achieve a click through rate of any significance.




                                                        17
6.       Conclusion

An investigation into the theory of product promotion was conducted with the basic goal of identifying common
promotional mistakes and identifying the effectiveness of promotional techniques at the business’s disposal. The
main findings of the secondary research are summarised below:
        Roylance (2006) and Bangs (2002) state there is no point undertaking unplanned, haphazard, untracked
         promotional activities (p5, para 2)
        McMurtry (2003) finds failing to track promotional effectiveness a common and costly mistake (p5, para 2)
        Blythe (2001) emphasizes how components of promotional campaign must work towards common aims
         and objectives (p4, para 1)
        Kurtz, Mackenzie and Snow (2009) outline the encouragement of existing customers to make a
         repurchase and the influencing of new customers to make an initial purchase as the basic aim of sales
         promotion (p5, para 1)


Through primary research the sponsors’ promotional efforts were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness as a tool
for the acquisition and retention of customers. The main findings of the primary research are summarised below:
        60% of respondents were not loyal customers (p7, para 2)
        48.6% of respondents indicated they would not purchase products online, 68.6% indicated they would not
         purchase services online (p7, para 3)
        58% of respondents had never visited the sponsors website, 45.7% said they had no interest in ever
         visiting (p7, para 3)
        major issue for business is product awareness as provision of some products/services have gone
         unnoticed e.g. 94.3% of respondents unaware of hypnotherapy service (p10, para 1)
        free samples/vouchers identified as most influential promotional tools (p9, para 1)
        effectiveness of IMAG questioned as readers had less product knowledge than non-readers (p11, para 1)
        customers who frequented other establishments were unaware of provision of services such as micro-
         dermabrasion, St Tropez tanning, and hypnotherapy – indicating a loss of potential revenue to
         competitors (p12, para 2)


The findings of this report provide the sponsor with a clearer understanding of its current promotional situation
allowing them to make improvements in terms of promotional effectiveness.




                                                         18
7.        Recommendations

Drawing on the findings of both secondary and primary research the following recommendations are made to the
sponsor. By putting these recommendations into practice the promotional efforts of the sponsor will start to become
more integrated and effective in terms of cost minimisation, product and service awareness building, and profit
making.


7.1       Recommendation One


The main priority is the development of a plan of action in terms of future promotional activity. All components of
the promotional campaign must work towards a clearly defined set of goals and objectives and must be properly
targeted in order to ensure maximum effectiveness with regards to customer acquisition and retention.


7.2       Recommendation Two


The next issue for the company to address is that of potential loss of business to competitors, the knowledge that
customers, unaware of the full range of products/services offered are looking to competitors to fulfil some of their
hair & beauty requirements demonstrates the current lack of promotional effectiveness. Promotional activities must
be geared towards stimulating sales by increasing awareness amongst both new and existing customers.


7.3       Recommendation Three


The organisation is currently performing a refurbishment of its website in order to increase its functionality as a
business tool and its effectiveness as a promotional tool. A priority with regards to the promotion of
products/service online is the effective targeting of customers, remembering that 45.7% of respondents said they
had no interest in ever visiting the website. Customers need to be made more aware of the website for it to be
effective, thus the website must be promoted at every opportunity. The website offers the business an opportunity
for cross promotion with local businesses such as hotels and B+B’s or even with suppliers.


7.4       Recommendation Four


The IMAG advertorial is a good form of product promotion, however as a priority it’s following needs to be extended
and its effectiveness tracked. Copies of the advertorial could be e-mailed to customers as well as being placed on
the business’s website. A money-off voucher /promotional code should be placed within the advertorial enticing
customers to act on the promotional message; this would also allow the sponsor to track promotional effectiveness.




                                                        19
7.5      Recommendation Five


The establishment of a Facebook/Twitter page could also be useful as it would provide customers with a platform
for word-of-mouth referral, while providing the business with the opportunity to gain invaluable customer feedback
as well as allowing the business to communicate promotions more effectively and efficiently.




                                                        20
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Vignali, C. (2001) ‘Kellogg’s – Internationalisation Versus Globalisation of the Marketing Mix’, British Food Journal,
103 (2) PP. 112 – 130. Emerald Insight [online] available from
<http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=38D814B8C7BA7AF3B021B4AB5AD5353
6?contentType=Article&contentId=870578> [18 March 2010]




                                                          23
                                          Appendices



Section                                                Page



Appendix A – REC1a Research Ethics Form                i


Appendix B – ABC Organisation Questionnaire            iii


Appendix C – Frequency Tables                          v


Appendix D – Cross Tabulations                         x




                                              24
                                   REC1a - Application for Ethical Approval
                                    -          UHI Student Projects -

All undergraduate, taught postgraduate and research students registered on any UHI programme undertaking a
research project involving human participants must have their research approved by their project supervisor prior
to undertaking any form of fieldwork or data collection exercise. The Research Ethics Committee largely delegates
responsibility for ethical approval to the student’s project supervisors, whom are responsible for exercising
appropriate professional judgement in this review.

Before completing this form (REC1a), please read the UHI Code of Practice for Research Involving Human
Participants. The checklist overleaf has been designed to identify any potential ethical issues in the research.
Once completed, submit the form to your project supervisor for ethical approval. If ethical issues are identified,
applicants will be need to complete the REC2a form and submit this through their supervisor to the Research
Ethics Committee for scrutiny.
Further information on the research ethics policy and approval process is located on the UHI website at
www.uhi.ac.uk/research.ethics
                              -----------------------------------------------------------------
Name of Student (applicant)                REMOVED FOR ANONYMITY
Status                                     Undergraduate
(Undergrad/Postgrad/Research)
Email address:                             REMOVED FOR ANONYMITY
Contact Address                            REMOVED FOR ANONYMITY

Telephone number:                          REMOVED FOR ANONYMITY

Project Title                       An Investigation into Effective Small Business Product
                                    Promotion
Module Name and Number              Research Skills + Project – UN108427
To be completed by Project Supervisor
Name of Supervisor                  Sandra Chache
Supervisor’s Email address          Sandra.chache@inverness.uhi.ac.uk

Yes                                        The student has read the UHI Code of Practice
Yes                                        The topic merits further research
Yes                                        The student has the skills to carry out the research
Yes                                        The participant information sheet or leaflet is appropriate
Yes                                        The procedures for recruitment and obtaining informed consent
                                           are appropriate
Project Supervisor’s Comments - ‘Approved’
I am satisfied that this candidate will encounter minimum risk related to the primary research approach identified.
The primary research methodology involves a quantitative approach, using a structured questionnaire, which will
be applied on a personal basis to clients of the business.
There is a small chance that some participants in the survey may fall into the category of those who are elderly,
disabled, or those with incapacity; there is a chance that some respondents will be members of an ethnic minority,
living or working within the area; there is a chance that, for some respondents, the English language may not be
their first language. However I believe this does not constitute a risk that needs to be managed under the auspices
of the Research Ethics Committee.




                                                        25
                                         Research Ethics Checklist
                            Please answer each question by circling either YES or NO


                                                                                                      No
1    Will the study involve participants who are particularly vulnerable or unable to give
     informed consent (e.g. children, students, people with learning disabilities, etc.)?

2                                                                                                     No
     Will the study involve participants under the age of 16?

3                                                                                                     Yes Possibly for
     Will any of the participants be elderly, disabled, or those with incapacity?                     survey

4                                                                                                     Yes Possibly for
     Will any of the participants be members of ethnic minorities?                                    survey

5                                                                                                     Yes possibly for
     Will any of the interviews or questioning of participants be conducted in a language other
     than the respondent ‘s first language?                                                           survey

6    Will the study require the co-operation of a gatekeeper for initial access to the groups or      Yes – the
     individuals to be recruited? (e.g. school students, members of self-help group, residents of     business owner
     nursing home)
7    Will it be necessary for participants to take part in the study without their                    No
     knowledge/consent
     at the time? (e.g. covert observation of people in non-public places)
8    Will the study involve discussion of topics, which the participants would find sensitive (e.g.   No
     sexual activity, own drug use)?
9    Are drugs, placebos or other substances (e.g. food substances, vitamins) to be                   No
     administered to the study participants?
10                                                                                                    No
     Will the study involve invasive, intrusive or potentially harmful procedures?
11                                                                                                    No
     Will blood or tissue samples be obtained from participants?
12                                                                                                    No
     Is pain or more than mild discomfort likely to result from the study?
13   Could the study induce psychological stress or anxiety, or cause harm or negative                No
     consequences beyond the risks encountered in everyday life?
14                                                                                                    No
     Will the study involve prolonged or repetitive testing?
15   Will financial inducements (other than reasonable expenses and compensation for time)            No
     be offered to participants?
16                                                                                                    No
     Will the study involve recruitment of patients or staff through the NHS?




                                                         26
If you answered NO to all 16 questions, the signed and completed form should be submitted to the UHI Research
Ethics Officer for their records. All students should retain a copy of the form and submit it with their research report
or dissertation (bound in at the beginning). Work that is submitted without this form will be returned unassessed.



If you answered YES to any of the questions, you will need to complete a REC2a and describe more fully how you
plan to deal with the potentially ethical issues identified in questions 1 to 16 above. This does not mean the research
will necessarily be disallowed, but the proposal will need to be approved by the UHI Research Ethics Committee
before research can commence? If you answered YES to question 16, you will also need to comply with NHS
guidelines that can be found at www.corec.org.uk.



NOTE: If in doubt, always forward your proposal to the Research Ethics Committee. Any significant change in the
question, design or conduct over the course of the research should be notified to the Project Supervisor who may
require a new application for ethical approval.



Signed: REMOVED FOR ANONYMITY (Student Investigator) 16.11.20xx



Signed: Sandra Chache (Project Supervisor) 14.12.20xx




                                                           27
Please take 5 minutes to complete this survey which forms part of a research project commissioned by
Inverness College as part of the BA (Hons) Business and Management programme.
Place a cross (√) in the relevant box.
Q1        How long have you been visiting ABC Organisation?
          0 – 3 months              4 – 7 months

          8 – 11 months             12 months and over
Q2        On average how frequently do you visit ABC Organisation?
          Less than once a month

          About once a month

          About twice a month

          About three times a month

          More than three times a month
Q3        Do you visit other hair & beauty               establishments in the Lochaber area?
          Yes             No
Q4        Do you purchase hair & beauty products from other establishments?
          Yes             No
Q5        Thinking about your general purchases over the last 3 months which of the following products or
          services have you bought?
          Insurance                 Entertainment

          Gifts                     DIY             Groceries          Travel

          Home Decor                        Other
Q6        Thinking about your general purchases over the last 3 months which of the following
          products/services have you bought online?
          Insurance                 Entertainment

          Gifts                     DIY              Groceries         Travel

          Home Decor                Other
Q7       How likely would you be to purchase hair & beauty products online?
          Very likely

          Somewhat likely

          Neither likely/unlikely

          Somewhat unlikely

          Very unlikely




                                                                 28
Q8    How likely would you be to purchase hair & beauty services online?
       Very likely

      Somewhat likely

      Neither likely/unlikely

      Somewhat unlikely

      Very unlikely
Q9    How many times in the past 3 months have you visited the ABC Organisation website?
      1x             2x             3x

      4x                       5x               More

      I have never visited
Q10   Thinking about your answer to Q9, what was/would be your main reasons for visiting the ABC
      Organisation website?(√) all that apply
      Product/service information

      Product purchase

      Appointment booking

      Price comparison

      I would not visit the site               (skip to Q12)
Q11   Thinking about your answer to Q10, what effect would price promotion have on your decision to
      buy hair & beauty products online?
      Very likely to buy

      Somewhat likely to buy

      Neither likely/unlikely

      Somewhat unlikely to buy

      Highly unlikely to buy
Q12   Do you, or have you ever read the IMAG magazine?
       Yes                 No
Q13   Do you remember reading the editorial offering hair and beauty advice, located in the IMAG
      magazine?
      Yes                 No
Q14   Which of the following ABC Organisation products/services are you aware of?
      St Tropez Tanning                  Micro-dermabrasion         Dermalogica Facials   Bridal Hair

       Teeth Whitening                       Hypnotherapy




                                                               29
Q15    How did you first learn about teeth whitening at ABC Organisation?
          online @ www.bodycareandhairworks.com
          in store poster
          conversation with store employee
          word of mouth
          had not heard about it until today
Q16   Rate the following promotional tools in terms of how much influence they have on your overall
      purchasing decisions? (with 1 being no influence at all, and 5 being a substantial influence)

      A special offer leaflet drop to your home
      1 1        2         3        4         5
      An e-mail newsletter promoting products/services
          1          2        3          4           5
          An invitation to a product launch event               1        2          3        4        5
      A voucher offering a discount on products/service 1                2          3        4        5
      A promotional advertisement in a local magazine
      1              2        3          4           5
          A free sample with purchase                           1        2          3        4        5
Q17       Are you
          Male                Female
Q18       What is your age?
          18 to 49            50 to 64               65 to 74            75 to 84            85 and over
Q19   Do you have regular access to the internet?
          Yes                 No               (skip to Q21)
Q20   Do you access the internet from
      Home                    Work              Both
Q21   How much do you spend a month on hair + beauty products?
          £25 and under       £26 to £50                        £51 to £75          £76 to £100       £101 to £150
          £151 to £200        £201 to £250           £251 to £300        £301 and over
Q22   How much do you spend a month on hair + beauty services?
          £25 and under       £26 to £50                        £51 to £75          £76 to £100       £101 to £150
          £151 to £200        £201 to £250           £251 to £300        £301 and over




                                                                    30
           THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND FOR TAKING PART IN THIS SURVEY.
        ALL RESULTS ARE STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND ARE FOR RESEARCH PURPOSES ONLY.



                                     FREQUENCY TABLES

Q1   How long have you been visiting ABC Organisation?
                                         Frequency     Percent
     0 – 3 months                                 8         11.4
     4 – 7 months                                 6           8.6
     8 – 11 months                                4           5.7
     12 months and over                          52         74.3
     TOTAL                                       70          100

Q2   On average how frequently do you visit ABC Organisation?
                                         Frequency     Percent
     Less than once a month                      38         54.3
     About once a month                          24         34.4
     About twice a month                          6           8.6
     More than three times a month                2           2.9
     TOTAL                                       70          100

Q3   Do you visit other hair & beauty establishments in the Lochaber area?
                                         Frequency     Percent
     Yes                                         32         45.7
     No                                          38         54.3
     TOTAL                                       70          100

Q4   Do you purchase hair & beauty products from other establishments?
                                         Frequency     Percent
     Yes                                         44         62.9
     No                                          26         37.1
     TOTAL                                       70          100




                                                31
Q5   Thinking about you general purchases over the last 3 months which of the following products or
     services have you bought?
                                         Frequency    Percent
     Insurance
                                  Yes           18         25.7
                                   No           52         74.3
                                 Total          70          100
     Entertainment
                                  Yes           24         34.3
                                   No           46         65.7
                                 Total          70          100
     Gifts
                                  Yes           58         82.9
                                   No           12         17.1
                                 Total          70          100
     DIY
                                  Yes           10         14.3
                                   No           60         85.7
                                 Total          70          100
     Groceries
                                  Yes           62         88.6
                                   No            8         11.4
                                 Total          70          100
     Travel
                                  Yes           26         37.1
                                   No           44         62.9
                                 Total          70          100
     Home Decor
                                  Yes           16         22.9
                                   No           54         77.1
                                 Total          70          100
     Other
                                  Yes           14           20
                                   No           56           80
                                 Total          70          100




                                                32
Q6   Thinking about your general purchase over the last 3 months which of the following
     products/services have you bought online?
                                         Frequency     Percent
     Insurance
                                  Yes            8          11.4
                                   No           62          88.6
                                 Total          70           100
     Entertainment
                                  Yes           12          17.1
                                   No           58          82.9
                                 Total          70           100
     Gifts
                                  Yes           32          45.7
                                   No           38          54.3
                                 Total          70           100
     DIY
                                  Yes            2            2.9
                                   No           68          97.1
                                 Total          70           100
     Groceries
                                  Yes            6            8.6
                                   No           64          91.4
                                 Total          70           100
     Travel
                                  Yes           16          22.9
                                   No           54          77.1
                                 Total          70           100
     Home Decor
                                  Yes            2            2.9
                                   No           68          97.1
                                 Total          70           100
     Other
                                  Yes           14            20
                                   No           56            80
                                 Total          70           100


Q7   How likely would you be to purchase hair & beauty products online?
                                         Frequency     Percent
     Very likely                                 10         14.3
     Somewhat likely                              8         11.4
     Neither likely/unlikely                     10         14.3
     Somewhat unlikely                            8         11.4
     Very unlikely                               34         48.6
     TOTAL                                       70          100

Q8   How likely would you be to purchase hair & beauty services online?
                                         Frequency     Percent
     Very likely                                  2           2.9
     Somewhat likely                             10         14.3
     Neither likely/unlikely                      6           8.6
     Somewhat unlikely                            4           5.7
     Very unlikely                               48         68.6
     TOTAL                                       70          100




                                                33
Q9    How many times in the past 3 months have you visited the ABC Organisation website?
                                               Frequency    Percent
      1x                                                2          2.9
      2x                                                2          2.9
      3x                                                6          8.6
      4x                                                2          2.9
      I have never visited                             58        82.9
      TOTAL                                            70         100

Q10   Thinking about your answer to Q9, what was/would be your main reasons for visiting the ABC
      Organisation website? (√) all that apply
                                               Frequency    Percent
      Product/service information
                                        Yes           30         42.9
                                         No           40         57.1
                                       Total          70          100
      Product purchase
                                        Yes           10         14.3
                                         No           60         85.7
                                       Total          70          100
      Appointment booking
                                        Yes           28           40
                                         No           42           60
                                       Total          70          100
      Price comparison
                                        Yes           10         14.3
                                         No           60         85.7
                                       Total          70          100
      I would not visit the site
                                        Yes           32         45.7
                                         No           38         54.3
                                       Total          70          100

Q11   Thinking about your answer to Q10, what effect would price promotion have on your decision to
      buy hair & beauty products online?
                                               Frequency    Percent
      Very likely to buy                                8        11.4
      Somewhat likely to buy                           10        14.3
      Neither likely/unlikely to buy                   18        25.7
      Somewhat unlikely to buy                          2          2.9
      Total                                            38        54.3
      Missing System                                   32        45.7
      TOTAL                                            70         100

Q12   Do you, or have you ever read the IMAG magazine?
                                               Frequency    Percent
      Yes                                              48        68.6
      No                                               22        31.4
      TOTAL                                            70         100




                                                      34
Q13   Do you remember reading the editorial offering hair and beauty advice, located in the IMAG
      magazine?
                                                   Frequency    Percent
      Yes                                                  36        51.4
      No                                                   18        25.7
      Total                                                54        77.1
      Missing System                                       16        22.9
      TOTAL                                                70         100


Q14   Which of the following ABC Organisation products/services are you aware of?
                                                   Frequency    Percent
      St Tropez Tanning
                                            Yes           44         62.9
                                             No           26         37.1
                                           Total          70          100
      Micro-dermabrasion
                                            Yes           14           20
                                             No           56           80
                                           Total          70          100
      Dermalogica Facials
                                            Yes           54         77.1
                                             No           16         22.9
                                           Total          70          100
      Bridal Hair
                                            Yes           24         34.3
                                             No           46         65.7
                                           Total          70          100
      Teeth Whitening
                                            Yes           46         65.7
                                             No           24         34.3
                                           Total          70          100
      Hypnotherapy
                                            Yes            4           5.7
                                             No           66         94.3
                                           Total          70          100


Q15   How did you first learn about teeth whitening at ABC Organisation?
                                                   Frequency    Percent
      In store poster                                      24        34.3
      Conversation with store employee                     16        22.9
      Word of mouth                                         6          8.6
      Had not heard about it until today                   24        34.3
      TOTAL                                                70         100




                                                          35
Q16   Rate the following promotional tools in terms of how much influence they have on your overall
      purchasing decisions?
                                                                        Frequency      Percent
      A special offer leaflet drop to your home
                                               No influence at all                20        28.6
                                                   Little influence               14           20
                                                            Neutral               26        37.1
                                                 Some influence                    4          5.7
                                           A substantial influence                 6          8.6
                                                               Total              70         100
      An e-mail newsletter promoting products/services
                                               No influence at all                20        28.6
                                                   Little influence               12        17.1
                                                            Neutral               20        28.6
                                                 Some influence                   14           20
                                           A substantial influence                 4          5.7
                                                               Total              70         100
      An invitation to a product launch event
                                               No influence at all                16        22.9
                                                   Little influence               16        22.9
                                                            Neutral               22        31.4
                                                 Some influence                    8        11.4
                                           A substantial influence                 8        11.4
                                                               Total              70         100
      A voucher offering a discount on products/service
                                               No influence at all                 -            -
                                                   Little influence                4          5.7
                                                            Neutral               20        28.6
                                                 Some influence                   24        34.3
                                           A substantial influence                22        31.4
                                                               Total              70         100
      A promotional advertisement in a local magazine
                                               No influence at all                14           20
                                                   Little influence                4          5.7
                                                            Neutral               22        31.4
                                                 Some influence                   20        28.6
                                           A substantial influence                10        14.3
                                                               Total              70         100
      A free sample with purchase
                                               No influence at all                 4          5.7
                                                   Little influence                4          5.7
                                                            Neutral               18        25.7
                                                 Some influence                   14           20
                                           A substantial influence                30        42.9
                                                               Total              70         100

Q17   Are you?
                                                   Frequency           Percent
      Female                                               70               100
      TOTAL                                                70               100




                                                            36
Q18   What is your age?
                                         Frequency       Percent
      18 to 49                                      34        48.6
      50 to 64                                      22        31.4
      65 to 74                                      12        17.1
      75 to 84                                       2          2.9
      TOTAL                                         70         100


Q19   Do you have regular access to the internet?
                                          Frequency      Percent
      Yes                                         62          88.6
      No                                           8          11.4
      TOTAL                                       70           100


Q20   Do you access the internet from
                                          Frequency      Percent
      Home                                        46          65.7
      Work                                         2            2.9
      Both                                        14             20
      Total                                       62          88.6
      Missing System                               8          11.4
      TOTAL                                       70           100


Q21   How much do you spend a month on hair + beauty products?
                                          Frequency      Percent
      £25 and under                               42             60
      £26 to £50                                  12          17.1
      £51 to £75                                  14             20
      £101 to £15                                  2            2.9
      TOTAL                                       70           100


Q22   How much do you spend a month on hair + beauty services?
                                          Frequency      Percent
      £25 and under                               20          28.6
      £26 to £50                                  26          37.1
      £51 to £75                                  20          28.6
      £76 to £100                                  2           2.9
      £101 to £150                                 2           2.9

      TOTAL                                         70         100




                                                    37
                                                                                               CROSS TABULATIONS
1. Product Knowledge vs. Length of Patronage

                                  St Tropez Tanning              Micro-dermabrasion            Dermalogica Facials                Bridal Hair                  Teeth Whitening                  Hypnotherapy
                                 Yes (%)        No (%)           Yes (%)           No (%)       Yes (%)          No (%)    Yes (%)          No (%)            Yes (%)           No (%)        Yes (%)    No (%)
     0-3 months                    5.7            5.7              0.0              11.4          8.6             2.9        0.0             11.4               8.6              2.9            0.0       11.4
     4 -7 months                   2.9            5.7              0.0              8.6           8.6             0.0        0.0                8.6             2.9              5.7            0.0       8.6
     8 - 11 months                 2.9            2.9              0.0              5.7           5.7             0.0        5.7                0.0             2.9              2.9            0.0       5.7
     12 months and over            51.4          22.9             20.0              54.3         54.3             20.0       28.6            45.7               45.7             28.6           5.7       68.6
     Total                         62.9          37.1             20.0              80.0         77.1             22.9       34.3            65.7               60.0             40.0           5.7       94.3
2. ABC Organisation IMAG Advertorials
                                        St Tropez Tanning           Micro-dermabrasion Dermalogica Facials                   Bridal Hair              Teeth Whitening               Hypnotherapy
                                    Yes (%)             No (%)           Yes (%)      No (%)     Yes (%)         No (%)   Yes (%)      No (%)         Yes (%)          No (%)     Yes (%)       No (%)
      Yes                               29.6             37.0              3.7         63.0        48.1           18.5     14.8         51.9           25.9             40.7           0.0       66.7
      No                                25.9             7.4              14.8         18.5        25.9           7.4      18.5         14.8           22.2             11.1           7.4       25.9
      Total                             55.6             44.4             18.5         81.5        74.1           25.9     33.3         66.7           48.1             51.9           7.4       92.6
3. Product knowledge of customers whose needs are not fully met by ABC Organisation
                                        St Tropez Tanning            Micro-dermabrasion Dermalogica Facials                   Bridal Hair              Teeth Whitening                 Hypnotherapy
                                    Yes (%)             No (%)           Yes (%)      No (%)      Yes (%)        No (%)   Yes (%)       No (%)         Yes (%)         No (%)      Yes (%)      No (%)
      Yes                               28.6             17.1             11.4         34.3        31.4           14.3     14.3          31.4           31.4             14.3           5.7      40.0
      No                                34.3             20.0              8.6         45.7        45.7            8.6     20.0          34.3           28.6             25.7           0.0      54.3
      Total                             62.9             37.1             20.0         80.0        77.1           22.9     34.3          65.7           60.0             40.0           5.7      94.3




                                                                                                            38