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MEXICO: HISTORY TIMELINE OF MAJOR EVENTS DATE EVENT/TOPIC DESCRIPTION 1502 Montezuma becomes Moctezuma II ( aka Montezuma ) (1466-1520) assumes Aztec emperor throne 1519 Hernan Cortez arrives in Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes (1485-1547) founds Mexico Veracruz. Cortes enters Tenochtitlan and captures Moctezuma. 1520 Montezuma killed Moctezuma II ( aka Montezuma ) is killed 1528 Catholic Conversions Juan de Zumarraga (1468-1548) arrives as bishop of Mexico City and begins native conversion to Catholicism 1718 Texas Settled Franciscan missionaries settle in Texas which is of New Spain. Mission San Antonio de Valero was established which later became famous as the Alamo 1810 Mexican Independence September 16 Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1753-1811) preaches his Grito de Dolores, sparking rebellion and the War of Independence 1811 Hidalgo killed Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla is captured and executed 1822 Emperor of Mexico General Augustin de Iturbide assumes control as Emperor of Mexico 1829 End of slavery President Vicente Guerrero abolishes slavery 1829 Spanish defeated (again) A Spanish attempt at re-conquest is halted by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (1794-1876) Texas declares its independence 1836 Battle for the Alamo A band of 189 Texas volunteers defied a Mexican army of thousands for 13 days of siege at the Alamo 1836 Capture of Santa Ana Battle of San Jacinto - General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna is captured by Sam Houston 1846 US-Mexican War Pg. 147- 1848 The treaty of Guadalupe Pg. 147- Hidalgo reduces Mexico's territory 1858 Benito Juarez becomes Pg. 148- President 1862 French occupy Mexico City the French occupy Mexico City and Napoleon III of France appoints Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria as Emperor of Mexico 1862 Cinco de Mayo May 5- Battle of Puebla: The battle ended in a victory for the Mexican Army over the occupying French forces. The victory is celebrated annually in Mexico during the festivities of Cinco de Mayo, the 5th of May. 1864 Maximilian is executed Maximilian is executed 1910 Mexican Revolution Pg. 221- 1913 Madero is assassinated Madero is assassinated. Victoriano Huerta seizes power. 1914 Huerta resigns. Huerta resigns. He is viewed with suspicion by the United States for his alleged pro-German sympathies. Huerta is succeeded by Venustiano Carranza 1916 US forces cross the border Pg. 223- after “Pancho Villa” 1917 New Constitution Pg. 222- 1920 Carranza is murdered Carranza is murdered. Civil war follows. 1929 Formation of PRI Party The National Revolutionary Party is formed. In 1946 it is re- named the Institutional Revolutionary Party, or PRI. 1934 President Lazaro Cardenas Pg. 236-237- 1942 WWII Mexico declares war on Japan and Germany. MEXICO: HISTORY TIMELINE OF MAJOR EVENTS (cont.) DATE EVENT DESCRIPTION 1968 Tlatelolco Massacre Pg. 296- 1985 Earthquake in Mexico City Earthquake in Mexico City kills thousands and makes many more homeless. 1993 NAFTA Pg. 313-315- 1994 Zapatistas and Indian rights Pg. 317- 1994 Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Presidential elections won by PRI candidate Ernesto Zedillo Ponce Leon becomes president de Leon, after the previous candidate, Luis Donaldo Colosio, was murdered. 1995 EZLN agreement The government and the EZLN reach an agreement on greater autonomy for the indigenous Mayans of Chiapas. 1997 PRI losses The PRI suffers heavy losses in elections and loses its overall majority in the lower house of parliament for the first time since 1929. 1997 Indian massacre 45 Indians killed by paramilitary gunmen in a Chiapas village. The incident causes an international outcry, President Zedillo starts an investigation. 2000 Vicente Fox becomes Vicente Fox of the opposition Alliance for Change wins president presidential elections, the first opposition candidate ever to do so. Parliamentary elections see the Alliance for Change emerge as the strongest party, beating the PRI by just over 1%. 2001 Subcomandante Marcos Zapatista guerrillas, led by Subcomandante Marcos, stage their 'Zapatour', a march from Chiapas to Mexico City to highlight their demands. 2001 Indigenous rights Parliament passes a bill increasing the rights of indigenous people. A few days later, Subcomandante Marcos rejects the bill, saying it leaves the Indian population worse off than before. Marcos says the uprising in Chiapas will continue. 2002 Former President Luis Former President Luis Echeverria is questioned about massacres Echeverria is questioned of student protesters in 1968, when he was interior minister, and in 1971 when he was president. 2004 Genocide of 1971 Investigator deems 1971 shooting of student protesters by government forces to have been genocide; judge refuses to order arrest of former President Luis Echeverria on charges that he ordered attack. 2006 Disappeared women of A federal post of special prosecutor is created to tackle violent Juarez crime against women. Mexico had been criticized by the UN and rights groups over the unsolved murders of more than 300 women over 12 years in the border city of Ciudad Juarez. 2006 Felipe Calderon becomes Conservative candidate Felipe Calderon is declared the winner of president presidential elections with a razor-thin majority over his leftist rival, Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, who challenges the result with mass street protests. The Federal Electoral Tribunal confirms Mr. Calderon's win in September. 2006 US-Mexico border fence US President George W Bush signs legislation to build 1,125km (700 miles) of fencing along the US-Mexico border. Mexico condemns plans for the barrier, which is intended to curb illegal immigration. 2006 Federal police in Michoacan A new federal police force is created to tackle drugs cartels; thousands of troops are deployed in the western state of Michoacan as part of a major anti-drug trafficking drive. 2007 Carlos Slim A financial website says that Mexican telecoms tycoon Carlos Slim has overtaken Microsoft founder Bill Gates to become the world's richest person. 2008 Protest against violence Hundreds of thousands join marches throughout Mexico to protest against continuing wave of drugs-related violence. 2009 Army troops in Ciudad Army troops enter Ciudad Juarez, on the border with the US, as Juarez open warfare erupts between rival drug gangs. 2009 Swine flu Authorities close schools and public buildings after dozens are confirmed to have been killed by the virulent new swine flu virus. 2010 U.S. responsibility for President Calderon calls on United States to share responsibility in violence battle against drug trafficking, after murder of three people connected to US consulate in border city of Ciudad Juarez. 2011 Protest against violence Thousands participate in protests across Mexico against drug- related violence. The marches are called by Mexican poet Javier Sicilia, whose son was murdered in March 2011; protests continue throughout the summer. 2012 Drug war violence Drug war violence in Mexico took a life an average of every half hour last year in Mexico, the government estimates. Total deaths stand at over 47,515, according to the government tally.
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