; THREE PHASE PARAMETER DATA LOGGING AND FAULT DETECTION USING GSM TECHNOLOGY
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THREE PHASE PARAMETER DATA LOGGING AND FAULT DETECTION USING GSM TECHNOLOGY

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									   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND
 International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)
 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME

ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)
Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), pp. 324-332
                                                                               IJECET
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.5930 (Calculated by GISI)
                                                                             ©IAEME
www.jifactor.com



       THREE PHASE PARAMETER DATA LOGGING AND FAULT
              DETECTION USING GSM TECHNOLOGY

         1                                                      2
           Sushama S. Kagde                                      Prof. Deshmukh B. T.
            (M.E. Student)                                        (Assistant Professor)
            E & TC Department                                     E & TC Department
        JNEC, Aurangabad, India                                   JNEC, Aurangabad, India
     1                                                       2
       sush_sanju@rediffmail.com                               BAPU_DESH@rediffmail.com



ABSTRACT

        World’s 90-95% industry works on power. Power is the heart of today’s industrial and
commercial revolution. It is generated conventionally as well as some natural resources are
used in order to fulfil today’s power wants. The hydro power stations are the main resources
of the electricity and power. Wind power station and solar power generation are some of
another source. Bio gas power station may also be there. Still as for as the usage increases,
the generation cannot be increased in that proportion. Hence there is always shortage of
electricity. Hence we have to manage the usage of electricity in order to minimize the
shortages. Hence the voltage, current and power factor are to be monitored. This will help to
minimize the power loss due to poor power factor.

Keywords- GSM, Power Factor, Microcontroller, ADC, ALP

I.      INTRODUCTION

         In day to day life how much electricity is important is very well known to all. Energy
utilization gets increased but generation has some limits. In such conditions it is must to save
the energy in any way. Today the use of electricity is increased in a great extent but
generation of energy is not in that proportion. So whatever the energy is there we have to
save it which was the primary need. Generally saving of energy depends on the “power
factor”. So by improving power factor we can save energy. But how it can be done? So it is
accomplished using a circuit which is used to control and improve the power factor.
         Mainly Power factor describes the relationship between real and apparent power of
alternating current (AC) power systems. In an AC power system, current may flow into and
back out of a load without delivering any energy. This reactive current gives rise to


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 International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME

“apparent power” which is larger than the actual power consumed. Power factor is expressed
as the ratio of the actual power to the apparent power. A power factor of 1.0, or “unity” is
desirable because it means that all the power delivered to the load is “real power” and there is
no reactive current component to the load. As the reactive current and apparent power
increase, power factor is expressed as a smaller decimal. Also the various parameters of the
three phase motoring and controlling is also important. But it is not possible to monitor the
parameters continuously by human being. So full fill both the requirements the “The three
phase data logging and fault detection using wireless technology” is developed.

II.     DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEM

        Mainly the system consists of the two parts one is the master station part and other is
the slave station part. And the data transfer is done by using the master slave communication
protocol. For the fast and efficient data transferring the serial data communication is used.
This accomplished by using RS 485 and RS 232 serial interference IC’s. The data analysis
and processing is done with the help of assembly language programming.
        For displaying the measured values of the three phase parameters the 7 segment
display is used at the both stations. The type of the display is 16*2 character display which is
able to show the values of the voltage, current, power factor energy units distributed at master
station and consumed energy units at slave stations. According to the difference in the units
of master and slave station the message was send to the authorised person.




Figure 2.1: Block Diagram of 3- phase parameter Data Logging using wireless Technology- Master Station

        Above figure shows the system developed for the measurement of the parameters of
the three phases that is voltage, current and power factor at master station .The system consist
of the major functioning blocks which are used to perform the specific functions. Following
are the major blocks


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 International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME

         1) Potential transformer
         2) Current transformer
         3) Signal Conditioning
         4) Analog to Digital Converter
         5) Microcontroller
         6) Master-Slave Communication Protocol

        The potential transformer and current transformer are used to sense the voltage and
current of the three phases. The sensed voltage and current are then given to the signal
conditioning block at which the main three operations takes place- filtering, amplifying and
provides the isolation between the previous and next stage of the system. The output of the
signal conditioning is in the analog form for further processing it is necessary to convert the
analog signal into digital one. To perform the same function analog to digital converter is
used. The digital output is then processed by the microcontroller. At the microcontroller with
the help of the assembly language programming the data send to the specific authenticate
person on his/her mobile. So at the far distance also we can be able to monitor the parameters
of the three phases. It also possible to detect the electricity theft using the same system.
        The slave station system is also same as per the master station so the same working
will be taken place at the master station also. Following figure shows the slave station block
diagram.
        For the data transferring from slave to master RS 485 ModBus Communication is
used while at the Master station for the communication RS 232 is used.




       Figure 2.1: Block Diagram of 3- phase parameter Data Logging using wireless Technology- Slave Station

III.     COMPLETE BASE UNIT ROUTINE

   The assembly programming is used for the base unit functioning. It controls the flow of
data from the transducer level to the wireless communication module. The complete Base
Unit Flow chart at master and slave station is as follows:




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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME

3.1 At master station




                                               327
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME




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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME


3.2 At Slave Station




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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME

IV.     SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

Below are some of the possible faulty conditions monitored, analysed and tabularised.

A. Case 1
                     Table 4.1 Voltage, current and power factor readings.
          Phase      Master energy units     Slave energy units       SMS status on
                           (kW/hr)                (kW/hr)                  SIM

       Phase R                20                       18
       Phase Y                21                       21                     YES

       Phase B                22                       22

In the above table, Phase R exceeds the limit of tolerance at the slave end i.e. slave reading is
less than master. It indicates that there is some power theft or illegal use of electricity at that
phase. Hence SMS status becomes active and is send to a responsible number.

B. Case 2
                     Table 4.2 Voltage, current and power factor readings.
          Phase      Master energy units     Slave energy units       SMS status on
                           (kW/hr)                (kW/hr)                  SIM

         Phase R              22                       22
         Phase Y              23                       22                     YES

         Phase B              24                       24

In the above table, Phase Y exceeds the limit of tolerance at the slave end that is salve
reading is 1 unit less than master. It indicates that there is some power theft or illegal use of
electricity at that phase. Hence SMS status becomes active and is send to a responsible
number.

C. Case 3
                     Table 4.3 Voltage, current and power factor readings.
         Phase       Master energy units     Slave energy units       SMS status on
                          (kW/hr)                 (kW/hr)                  SIM

       Phase R                19                       19
       Phase Y                22                       22                      YES

       Phase B                20                       18

In the above table, Phase B exceeds the limit of tolerance at the slave end that is slave
reading shows that it has 2 units less than master. It indicates that there is some power theft or
illegal use of electricity at that phase. Hence SMS status becomes active and is send to a
responsible number.


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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME

D. Case 4
                    Table 4.4 Voltage, current and power factor readings.
            Phase   Master energy units     Slave energy units       SMS status on
                          (kW/hr)                (kW/hr)                  SIM
       Phase R                22                       20              YES
       Phase Y                21                       17              YES
       Phase B                20                       18              YES
In the above table, all the three phases exceed the limit of tolerance at the slave end. It
indicates that there is some power theft or illegal use of electricity at that phase. Hence SMS
status of all the phases become active and is send to a responsible number.

E. Case 5
                    Table 4.5 Voltage, current and power factor readings.
            Phase   Master energy units     Slave energy units       SMS status on
                          (kW/hr)                (kW/hr)                  SIM
        Phase R               24                       23
        Phase Y               20                       18                       YES
        Phase B               20                       20

In the above table, phase R and Y exceed the limit of tolerance at the slave end. It indicates
that there is some power theft or illegal use of electricity at that phase. Hence SMS status
becomes active and is send to a responsible number.

F. Case 6
                    Table 4.2 Voltage, current and power factor readings.
            Phase   Master energy units     Slave energy units       SMS status on
                         (kW/hr)                 (kW/hr)                  SIM
       Phase R               22                        22
       Phase Y               20                        19                       YES
       Phase B               19                        17

In the above table, phase Y and B exceed the limit of tolerance at the slave end. It indicates
that there is some power theft or illegal use of electricity at that phase. Hence SMS status
becomes active and is send to a responsible number.

V.      CONCLUSION

         Due to the system hardware it is possible to locate the area of illegal use of the
electricity. Also Power factor monitoring provision is available which is responsible for
energy saving. For collecting the information regarding to the parameters and energy
utilization Mod-Bus 485 is used which gives fast and efficient serial communication remotely.
The system hardware is user friendly and flexible as per our application requirement. We can
increase the number of slave stations connected easily.



                                               331
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME

REFERENCES

Journal Papers:
 [1]   G M Gear, J T Gleaves “Versatile automatic data logging and real-time analysis
system” .
 [2]    V. Konstantakos, Th. Laopoulos “Self-Evaluation Configuration for Remote Data
Logging Systems”, 1-4244-1348- 6/07/$25.00 ©2007 IEEE.

Proceedings Papers:
[3] Wen-yun H u a n g , z h e n - z h o n g Wang “Application of The Signal Processor
In data Process” proceedings of ICSP ’ 96-0-7803-2912-0

Books:
[4]    Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Janice Gillispie Mazidi, Rolin D. Mckinlay “The 8051
Microcontroller and Embedded Systems” Second Edition,Prentice Hall, Pp 181-403.
[5] Greg Pery, “Visual Basic 6 in 21 Days”, First Edition, SAMS Techmedia, Pp 96-114,
261-314 .




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