A. Cowan

1. Cooley (early 1900’s): “The
   Looking-Glass Self”
• the self is a product of our social
   interactions with others
• how we “imagine” others perceive
(ie: the instructor criticized me
he/she thinks I am stupid          I am
Note: on this slide,
please put Figure
3.1 from page 71
Charles Horton Cooley
    (American) (1864-1929)
2. Mead (1930): expanded on Cooley’s research
  Model: Self emerges as 3 distinct stages
  I Preparatory Stage
     children imitate people around them
     especially parents (lawnmowers, watering cans…)

  II Play Stage
      imitates actions of others
     superheroes, doctor, parent

  III Game Stage
      8-9 years old
      child knows own social position as well as those of
      can now respond to numerous members of the social
      “generalized others”          when a person acts he/she
  takes into account an entire group of people
      know what is expected of them
      as they mature, self is influenced by “significant others”
George Herbert Mead
   (American) (1863-1961)
3. Freud: 1856- 1939
• -our sexual drives/libido motivate
  our behaviour
• -inborn drives which fight with each
• -by interacting with others, we learn
  the expectations of society and then
  select the most appropriate
Sigmund Freud
Psychosexual Stages of development:
• different areas of the body in each stage
   become the focus of pleasure.
• Conflicts at each stage that if are not resolved
   will carry on through adulthood
5 stages:
•   I Oral Stage
•   II Anal Stage
•   III Phallic Stage
•   IV Latency Stage
•   V Genital
I Oral Stage

• 0-1.5 years
• child pre-occupies himself with
  nursing and accepting things in the
• child who isn’t nursed- pessimistic,
  envious, suspicious
• child who is nursed on every whim-
  optimistic, gullible
II Anal Stage
• 1.5 – 3 years
• toilet training
• id: get rid of bodily
  fluids, superego +
  ego: societal
  pressures to withhold
III Phallic Stage
• 3- 6 years
• most crucial sexual conflict
• “Oedipus Stage” (boys)
-unconscious sexual desires for mother
-becomes rival with dad/competition
-“castration anxiety”-fear will be caught
   masterbating and will cut penis off
-eventually identifies with father
• “Electra complex” (girls)
-opposite of boys: love for dad
-“penis envy”-realize don’t have same genitals as
   boys and becomes envious
• this stage is where Freud says homosexual
   tendencies may stem from if these issues are
   not resolved
IV Latency Stage

• 6 years to puberty
• sexual drive lies dormant
• put energy into other things
  (school, friendships,
V Genital
• puberty +
• genitals are primary focus again
• heterosexual relationships to
  resolve desires

4. Piaget (1896 – 1980):
• There is no self in terms of a looking
  glass self
• self-centered; no “you and me”, just
• demand attention towards themselves

• 1954: Cognitive Theory of
4 Stages

I Sensorimotor Stage               Birth – 2 years
-young children use their five senses to make

II Operational Stage             2 – 7 years
-use words and symbols to distinguish ideas and

III Concrete Operational Stage      7 – 11 years
-logical thinking (clay molded is same clay but
shape has changed)

IV Formal Operational Stage        11 + up
-sophisticated abstract thought and can deal
with ideas and values in a logical manner.
Jean Piaget
(Swiss)(1896 – 1980)
5. Kohlberg: 1970’s

Moral Development Theory
  1) avoid punishments and receive
  2) impress others, respect authority
  3) maintain social order and uphold
universal ethics
Lawrence Kohlberg
Carol Gilligan
1936- present
7. Gilligan
-criticized Kohlberg’s model because it was developed only on
-compassion and care must be a component of moral
-women and men have different views on morality
Men = law and order
Women = social relationships and consequences

Her Theory of Women’s Moral Development
Stage 1: Selfish “I want….I need….”
Stage 2: recognizes responsibility
Stage 3: Makes decisions based on greatest good for all.
6. Erikson: (1904 –1994)

Psychosocial Stages of Development
  each stage consists of a crisis that
must be faced
  more an individual resolves crises
successfully the healthier he/she will be
  social development continues
throughout a person’s entire life until
    Erik Erikson
First Year of Life

Infancy: Trust versus mistrust
• If significant others provide for basic
  physical and emotional needs,
  infant develops a sense of trust. If
  basic needs are not met, an attitude
  of mistrust toward the world,
  especially toward interpersonal
  relationships, is the result.
Ages 1-3
Early Childhood: Autonomy versus
  shame and doubt
• A time for developing autonomy. Basic
  struggle is between a sense of self-
  reliance and a sense of self-doubt. Child
  needs to explore and experiment, to
  make mistakes, and to test limits. If
  parents promote dependency, child's
  autonomy is inhibited, and capacity to
  deal with world successfully is
Ages 3-6
Preschool age: Initiative versus guilt
• Basic task is to achieve a sense of
  competence and initiative. If children are
  given freedom to select personally
  meaningful activities, they tend to
  develop a positive view of self and follow
  through with their projects. If they are not
  allowed to make own decisions, they
  tend to develop guilt over taking
  initiative. They then refrain from taking
  an active stance and allow others to
  choose for them.
Ages 6-12
School age: Industry versus inferiority
• Child needs to expand understanding of
  world, continue to develop appropriate
  sex-role identity, and learn the basic
  skills required for school success. Basic
  task is to achieve a sense of industry,
  which refers to setting and attaining
  personal goals. Failure to do so results
  in a sense of inadequacy.
Ages 12-18
Adolescence: Identity versus role
• A time of transition between childhood
  and adulthood. A time for testing limits,
  for breaking dependent ties, and for
  establishing a new identity. major
  conflicts center on clarification of self-
  identity, life goals, and life's meaning.
  Failure to achieve a sense of identity
  results in role confusion.
Ages 18-35

Young Adulthood: Intimacy versus
• Developmental task at this time is
  to form intimate relationships.
  Failure to achieve intimacy can lead
  to alienation and isolation
Ages 35-60
Middle age: Generativity versus
• There is a need to go beyond self and
  family and be involved in helping the
  next generation. This is a time of
  adjusting to the discrepancy between
  one's dreams and one's actual
  accomplishments. Failure to achieve a
  sense of productivity often leads to
  psychological stagnation.
Ages 60+

Later life: Integrity versus despair
• If one looks back on life with few
  regrets and feels personally worth-
  while, ego integrity results. Failure
  to achieve ego integrity can lead to
  feelings of despair, hopelessness,
  guilt, resentment, and self-rejection.

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