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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT THEORIES A. Cowan INTERACTIONIST THEORY 1. Cooley (early 1900’s): “The Looking-Glass Self” • the self is a product of our social interactions with others • how we “imagine” others perceive us (ie: the instructor criticized me he/she thinks I am stupid I am stupid Note: on this slide, please put Figure 3.1 from page 71 Charles Horton Cooley (American) (1864-1929) 2. Mead (1930): expanded on Cooley’s research Model: Self emerges as 3 distinct stages I Preparatory Stage children imitate people around them especially parents (lawnmowers, watering cans…) II Play Stage imitates actions of others superheroes, doctor, parent III Game Stage 8-9 years old child knows own social position as well as those of others can now respond to numerous members of the social environment “generalized others” when a person acts he/she takes into account an entire group of people know what is expected of them as they mature, self is influenced by “significant others” George Herbert Mead (American) (1863-1961) PSYCHOANALYST THEORY 3. Freud: 1856- 1939 • -our sexual drives/libido motivate our behaviour • -inborn drives which fight with each other • -by interacting with others, we learn the expectations of society and then select the most appropriate behaviour Sigmund Freud (German)(1856-1939) Psychosexual Stages of development: • different areas of the body in each stage become the focus of pleasure. • Conflicts at each stage that if are not resolved will carry on through adulthood 5 stages: • I Oral Stage • II Anal Stage • III Phallic Stage • IV Latency Stage • V Genital I Oral Stage • 0-1.5 years • child pre-occupies himself with nursing and accepting things in the mouth • child who isn’t nursed- pessimistic, envious, suspicious • child who is nursed on every whim- optimistic, gullible II Anal Stage • 1.5 – 3 years • toilet training • id: get rid of bodily fluids, superego + ego: societal pressures to withhold them III Phallic Stage • 3- 6 years • most crucial sexual conflict • “Oedipus Stage” (boys) -unconscious sexual desires for mother -becomes rival with dad/competition -“castration anxiety”-fear will be caught masterbating and will cut penis off -eventually identifies with father • “Electra complex” (girls) -opposite of boys: love for dad -“penis envy”-realize don’t have same genitals as boys and becomes envious • this stage is where Freud says homosexual tendencies may stem from if these issues are not resolved IV Latency Stage • 6 years to puberty • sexual drive lies dormant • put energy into other things (school, friendships, athletics) V Genital • puberty + • genitals are primary focus again • heterosexual relationships to resolve desires COGNITIVE THEORY 4. Piaget (1896 – 1980): • There is no self in terms of a looking glass self • self-centered; no “you and me”, just “me” • demand attention towards themselves • 1954: Cognitive Theory of Development 4 Stages I Sensorimotor Stage Birth – 2 years -young children use their five senses to make discoveries II Operational Stage 2 – 7 years -use words and symbols to distinguish ideas and objects III Concrete Operational Stage 7 – 11 years -logical thinking (clay molded is same clay but shape has changed) IV Formal Operational Stage 11 + up -sophisticated abstract thought and can deal with ideas and values in a logical manner. Jean Piaget (Swiss)(1896 – 1980) 5. Kohlberg: 1970’s Moral Development Theory 1) avoid punishments and receive rewards 2) impress others, respect authority 3) maintain social order and uphold universal ethics Lawrence Kohlberg (American)(1927-1988) Carol Gilligan (American) 1936- present 7. Gilligan -criticized Kohlberg’s model because it was developed only on males -compassion and care must be a component of moral reasoning -women and men have different views on morality Men = law and order Women = social relationships and consequences Her Theory of Women’s Moral Development Stage 1: Selfish “I want….I need….” Stage 2: recognizes responsibility Stage 3: Makes decisions based on greatest good for all. 6. Erikson: (1904 –1994) Psychosocial Stages of Development each stage consists of a crisis that must be faced more an individual resolves crises successfully the healthier he/she will be social development continues throughout a person’s entire life until death Erik Erikson (German/American)(1902-1994) First Year of Life Infancy: Trust versus mistrust • If significant others provide for basic physical and emotional needs, infant develops a sense of trust. If basic needs are not met, an attitude of mistrust toward the world, especially toward interpersonal relationships, is the result. Ages 1-3 Early Childhood: Autonomy versus shame and doubt • A time for developing autonomy. Basic struggle is between a sense of self- reliance and a sense of self-doubt. Child needs to explore and experiment, to make mistakes, and to test limits. If parents promote dependency, child's autonomy is inhibited, and capacity to deal with world successfully is hampered. Ages 3-6 Preschool age: Initiative versus guilt • Basic task is to achieve a sense of competence and initiative. If children are given freedom to select personally meaningful activities, they tend to develop a positive view of self and follow through with their projects. If they are not allowed to make own decisions, they tend to develop guilt over taking initiative. They then refrain from taking an active stance and allow others to choose for them. Ages 6-12 School age: Industry versus inferiority • Child needs to expand understanding of world, continue to develop appropriate sex-role identity, and learn the basic skills required for school success. Basic task is to achieve a sense of industry, which refers to setting and attaining personal goals. Failure to do so results in a sense of inadequacy. Ages 12-18 Adolescence: Identity versus role confusion • A time of transition between childhood and adulthood. A time for testing limits, for breaking dependent ties, and for establishing a new identity. major conflicts center on clarification of self- identity, life goals, and life's meaning. Failure to achieve a sense of identity results in role confusion. Ages 18-35 Young Adulthood: Intimacy versus isolation • Developmental task at this time is to form intimate relationships. Failure to achieve intimacy can lead to alienation and isolation Ages 35-60 Middle age: Generativity versus stagnation • There is a need to go beyond self and family and be involved in helping the next generation. This is a time of adjusting to the discrepancy between one's dreams and one's actual accomplishments. Failure to achieve a sense of productivity often leads to psychological stagnation. Ages 60+ Later life: Integrity versus despair • If one looks back on life with few regrets and feels personally worth- while, ego integrity results. Failure to achieve ego integrity can lead to feelings of despair, hopelessness, guilt, resentment, and self-rejection.
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