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Personality Development

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					Personality Development

      Dr Ros Weston
       Psychology
Definition:

Child (1968)

“More or less stable, internal factors that make one person’s behaviour consistent
from one time to another, and different from the behaviour other people would
manifest in comparable situations”

•   Stable
•   Internal
•   Consistent
•   Different


                              Personality is ‘INTERNAL’

Freud’s theories on Personality Development
Change and development are the key words : internal process + past experiences
The dynamics of behaviour which is what distinguishes this theory from the cognitive
(Glassman, 1995)
                         Innate drives + early experiences



       id ego super ego         pleasure principle        defence mechanisms
                                                          Anna Freud
                                                          “defence against instinct”
                                                           The child learns
                                                           defensive behaviours to
                                                           control id
Defence Mechanisms                         Psycho - sexual Development
   1    Repression
   2    Displacement                                  Energy - libido
   3    Projection                                          &
                                                     Eros & Thanatos
   4    Denial                       •Oral
   5    Intellectualisation          •Anal
                                     •Phallic (Oedipus & Electra complexes)
                                     •Latency
                                     •Genital
Other Defence Mechanisms
• Fixation
                             Affective strategies in personality development
•   Regression

Case studies:      Anna O
                   Little Hans
                   Myers & Brewin (1994) Childhood Memories
                   Williams (1994) Sexual Abuse
                   McGunnies (1949) Perception defence
                   “things are likely to be ignored if they are unpleasant or
                   emotionally threatening”
                   Levinger & Clarke (1961) supported this using emotionally
                   provoking words. (they recalled the words that had neutral
                   associations)

(Evaluatory comment on each of these and on Freud’s theory of personality
development)
                Neo - Freudians
                 Erikson (1959)

                    Conflict

                     WAR
                                        Parents
                                        friends
natural processes     expectations of   teachers
of maturation         society           employers
                                        norms &
                                        values
                                 Chart of Eight Stages
Evaluatory Comments
•     Used clinical evidence (therapist case studies using Freud’s clinical method)
• theory imprecise & anecdotal
• experimental research provides indirect support for Erikson
     (Ainsworth & Bell: 1970) (Bowlby, 1952)
• Stage 4 has been supported by work of Damon & Hart (1988)
     (older children used more internal psychological terms. Younger children
     focused on concrete & tangible )
• Strengths : - focuses on social process & ego development
                  - the facing of developmental tension / conflicts
                  - most of the conflicts lie with the family (Freud also said : When
                    you are looking at a ‘sick’ (mentally) or disturbed person you often
                    don’t have to look far for a cause. (that does not mean the parents
                    are to blame. It is the conflict that is problematic)
• Does not give detail of how you move from one stage to another
• Dwaretzky (1996) feels there is little convincing evidence for E theory
• Hard to test this theory
• The evidence is correlational
It gives a very tidy account of development
                            Social Learning Theory
                           Key term : Significant others
                                Social Modelling
                                   • Attention
                                  • Retention
                                • Reproduction
                                  • Motivation              Classical
                                 • Conditioning
                                                            Operant

                                       Vicarious
                                                            Observation &
                                       reinforcement        internalisation

This is exact                  •   Bandura’s work           Reciprocal determination
opposite of learned
                                                             Self efficacy (self -
helplessness
                                                             image & belief in self

                •     What would help a child learn self - efficacy?
                             -?     -?      -?     -?
                                                                    Continue…………
•   Evidence      -      Bobo doll
                  -      Harter & Monsour (1992)
                  -      Bandura & Cervone (1983)

•   Evaluatory Comment

                  -      More than one self? (Baars, 1997)
                  -      Not a development theory
                                 Situationalism

•   Bandura suggested that personality is not a stable trait of an individual
•   Mischel & Peake’s theory (1982) suggest a consistency paradox. Research
    failed to show consistency
•   Behavioural specificity (M & P, 1982)
•   We think it is a stable trait because we see people in similar situations
•   Individual differences (M & P, 1993)
    Person variables
•   Cognitive & behavioural
•   Encoding & personal constructs
•   Expectancy
•   Subjective stimulus value
•   self - regulatory systems & plans

Evidence
• Context - dependent learning research (Abernety, 1940)
• Generalising learning
• Lack of fragmentation
                                    What is gender?
                                 (as part of personality)


                              Sex    Gender            Sexual identity



        Behaviour                                            Gender identity


    Situation (upbrining &
    social context)                                  Gender role
                               Gender stereo types

See : - Debates and all the work we did on real and perceived differences
     - Psychoanalytical theory
     - Social learning
     - Cognitive (Kohlberg)
     - Behaviourist
     - Humanistic (Carl Rogers : Erikson)
              Kohlbergs (1966) Cognitive - developmental theory (1966)
“The child actively constructs his own experiences and they are not products of
     social
training”
• Basic - gender identity (2-3½)
• Gender stability (3½ - 4½)
• Gender consistency (4½ - 7yrs)
     (fits with Piaget’s notion of conservation)
Evidence
• Munroe, Shimmin & Munroe (1984)
     These stages are cross - cultural.
     Slaby & Frey (1975) - attending to some sex models.
     Ruble, Balabon & Cooper (1981) Adverts & gender consistency.
Evaluatory Comments
• Cross cultural
• interactivity
• gender identity - increases gender role
• How they interact in the world requires gender identity
• Criticism : gender role behaviour - depends on gender consistency
• Contradictions
• Individualistic (not social context)
                              Gender Schema Theory
An organised set of beliefs about the sexes (Martin et al, 1987)
• in group, out group schema
• our gender schema
• children are not passive
• gender - schema’s help them pay attention to ………… & interpret the world &
   what they remember
• gender schemas structure experience
Evidence : (Martin et al, 1987)
           (Bradbard et al, 1986)
           (Masters et al, (1979)
Evaluatory Comment
• seems to explain & fit with other theories of child development specially
   cognitive
• individualistic
• schemas are overaggerated
• should be able to change schemas. As Durkin (1995) found: it is easier to
   change concepts
                                                              Continued……...
Now :

Compare social learning theory yourself using biological; social
biological theory by explaining

• Theory (giving)
• evidence (including)
• evaluatory comment
                               Theories of Adolescent Development


The Isle of Wight Study                      Relationship with parents                What evidence
(1976) Rutter’s large scale                  Relationship with peers Cultural         is there that
study.                                       differences                              these are
                                                                                      important

                                                                Marcia’s theory (1966-1980)
What factors cause
disturbance in young people?                                    -Alternatives to choose from
                                                Delinquency     -Have fun commitment been made
What is the problem of                                          Four possible identity statuses
retrospective data?                                             -Identity diffusion
                                                                -Foreclosure
                                                                -Moratorium
Erikson’s theory (1902, 1994)                                   -Identity achievement
                                 Intimacy                       Evidence to support : Meilman
-Identity diffusion              Diffusion
                                 Diffusion
                                               Gender &         (1979)
                                               individual
-Identity crisis                 of            differences      Evidence against : (Munroe &
                                 industry      alpha & beta
                                               bias             Adams (1977)
                                 Negative
                                 identity
-Counter evidence                                                      Coleman’s focal theory
-Support evidence                                                      (1974)
                                                                       ‘Storm & Stress’

				
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