Physical _ Cognitive Development in by hcj

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									       Physical & Cognitive
Development in Adolescence

        Human Growth & Development
                         Chapter 11
               Physical Maturation
Growth During Adolescence
  There is a rapid pace of physical and
   sexual maturation
  Growth spurt during adolescence produces
   dramatic changes in height and weight
  Girls’ growth spurts start and stop two
   years earlier than boys’
                          Physical Maturation
Puberty
  Is the period when sexual organs mature, beginning
   earlier for girls than for boys.
  Begins when the pituitary gland in the brain signals other
   glands to begin producing androgens or estrogens at the
   adult level
  Girls begin puberty about 11 or 12; boys begin at 13 or
    14
   Menarche - the onset of menstruation
     Varies in different parts of the world and even with affluence
      levels
  Spermarche - boy’s first ejaculation
     Usually occurs around age 13, although body has been producing
      sperm for about a year
                  Physical Maturation
Puberty
  Primary Sex Characteristics
    Involves organs and structures of the body
     related to reproduction
  Secondary Sex Characteristics
    Involve the visible signs of sexual maturity that
     do not involve sex organs directly
                    Physical Maturation
Body Image
  Involves an adolescent’s own reactions to these
   physical changes
  Western society’s views of menarche have become
   more positive than they used to be so girls tend
   to have higher self-esteem, a rise in status, and
   self-awareness when they begin menstruating.
  Boys’ first ejaculation is roughly equivalent to girls’
   menarche, but it is rarely discussed.
  Girls are often unhappy with their developing
   bodies, a result of strong societal pressures
   regarding the ideal female shape.
                      Physical Maturation
Timing of Puberty
  Is a key factor for how adolescents react to it.
  Early maturation is usually positive for boys:
     Tend to be better in athletics, more popular, have more
      positive self-esteem, and grow up to be more
      cooperative and responsible.
     More likely to have school difficulties and more likely to
      have school difficulties and become more involved in
      delinquency and substance abuse with older friends.
  Early maturation is often difficult for girls:
     Tend to be more popular but they may not be ready to
      deal with dating situations
     Reactions depend on cultural norms (country &
      community)
                      Physical Maturation
Timing of Puberty
  Late maturation is difficult for boys
     Smaller boys are seen as less attractive and have a
      disadvantage in sports
     Dating lives may suffer
     Difficulties often lead to decline in self-concept, which
      can extend into adulthood
     Coping with these challenges may help late-maturing
      boys become assertive, insightful, and more creative
  Late maturing girls:
     Can be overlooked and have low social status at first
     When they catch up their self-esteem is high with higher
      body esteem because they are more slender and “leggy”
      than early maturing girls
                        Physical Maturation
Nutrition, Food, & Eating Disorders
  Adolescent growth spurt requires an increase in food
   (especially key nutrients such as calcium & iron)
     Average girls require 2,200 calories
     Average boys require 2,800 calories
  Obesity is a common concern
     Estimates are than 1 in 5 adolescents are overweight and 1 in
      20 can be formally classified as obese
     Psychological consequences are sever since body image is a
      key focus
     Potential health consequences are a concern
     Obese adolescents have an 80% chance of becoming obese in
      adulthood
                             Physical Maturation
Nutrition, Food, & Eating Disorders
  ANOREXIA NERVOSA
     A severe eating disorder in which individuals refuse to eat, while
      denying that their behavior and appearance, which may become
      skeletal, are out of the ordinary.
          Primarily affects white women between the ages of 12 and 40
          15 - 20% starve themselves to death
          These women are often intelligent, successful, and attractive, and from
           affluent homes
          About 10% of anorexics are male
  Bulimia
     An eating disorder characterized by binges on large quantities of
      food, followed by purges of the food through vomiting or the use of
      laxatives.
          Chemical imbalance results from constant vomiting or diarrhea
          Can have serious effect, including heart failure
                    Physical Maturation
Nutrition, Food, & Eating Disorders:
  Eating Disorders are products of both biological
   and environmental causes, so treatments involve
   multiple approaches
Brain Development & Thought:
  Prefrontal Cortex
     Is the part of the brain that allows people to think,
      evaluate, and make complex judgments,
     Undergoes considerable development throughout
      adolescence and is not fully developed until age 20
     Because the prefrontal cortex is involved in impulse
      control, the ability to inhibit impulses explains the
      tendency toward risky and impulsive behaviors in some
      adolescents
       Cognitive Development &
                      Schooling
Piaget’s Theory
  Formal Operations Period:
    The stage during which people develop the
     ability to think abstractly
       Full capacities of using principles of logic unfold
        gradually, throughout early adolescence
        (approximately ages 12 - 15)
       Not everyone achieves formal operational skills
        (some studies estimate that anywhere from 25 to
        60% of college students do not).
            Cognitive Development &
                           Schooling
Piaget’s Theory
  The ability to think abstractly affects everyday behavior.
     Adolescents become more argumentative
     This makes adolescents more interesting, but challenging.
  Criticism of Piaget’s Theory
     Research finds individual differences in cognitive abilities not
      universal
     Some researchers suggest that cognitive development is more
      continuous, less step-like than Piaget proposed
     Piaget underestimated the skills of infants and young children
     Piaget focuses only on thinking and knowing, missing other kinds
      of intelligence
     More sophisticated forms of thinking may follow this stage and do
      not develop until early adulthood
        Cognitive Development &
                       Schooling
Information Processing Perspective
  Sees changes in cognitive abilities as gradual
   transformations in the way that individuals take in,
   use, and store information.
     From this view, thinking advances during adolescence
      result from the ways people organize their thinking and
      develop new strategies
     Growth of Metacognition - the ability to think about
      one’s own thinking process and the ability to monitor
      one’s cognition
        Cognitive Development &
                       Schooling
Adolescent Egocentrism
  A stage of self-absorption where the world is seen
   only from one’s own perspective
     Adolescents are highly critical of authority figures,
      unwilling to accept criticism, and quick to find fault with
      others.
     Adolescent egocentrism leads to two distortions:
          Imaginary Audience - where adolescents think they are the
           focus of everyone else’s attention
          Personal Fable - the belief that the adolescent is unique
           and exceptional and shared by no one else.
       Cognitive Development &
                      Schooling
School Performance
  On average, students’ grades decline
   during adolescence
    One reason may be that the material is getting
     more complex
    Another is that teachers grade older
     adolescents more stringently
    This decline may also reflect broad educational
     difficulties, especially in the U.S.
            Cognitive Development &
                           Schooling
Socioeconomic Status & School Performance:
  There is a strong relationship between educational
   achievement and socioeconomic status (SES)
     Poorer children have fewer resources, lower health, more
      inadequate schools, and less involved parents
     Differences in educational achievement start from the beginning
      of school with the gap widening throughout the years.
  There are ethnic and racial differences in school
   achievement but the reason for them is not clear.
     African American and Hispanic families are more likely to live
      poverty
     In general, African American and Hispanic students perform at
      lower levels than Caucasians and Asians who perform at higher
      levels
            Cognitive Development &
                           Schooling
Dropping out of School
  500,000 students drop out each year
     Due to pregnancy
     Due to problems with the English language
  Hispanic & African American students are more likely to
   leave school
  Asians, however, drop out at a lower rate than
   Caucasians
  23% of students who live in households in the lowest
   20% of income drop out.
     This rate is 8 times higher than the dropout rate for incomes in
      the highest 20%
     Dropping out perpetuates the cycle of poverty
      Threats to Adolescents’ Well-
                             Being
Illegal Drugs
  In 1900’s drug use rose, after decline in the 1980’s
     More than 20% of 8th graders and close to 50% of seniors said
      they had smoke marijuana at least one in the last year
     Illegal drug use is on the rise
     More than 50% of high school seniors have used an illegal drug at
      least once in their lives
  Some theories of why adolescents try illegal drugs:
     Perceived pleasurable experience
     Escape from daily pressures
     Thrill of doing something illegal
     A number of role-models use drugs
     Peer Pressure
  Threats of Adolescents’ Well-
                         Being
Alcohol
  More than 75% of college students have
   consumed at least one alcoholic drink during the
   last 30 days
  More than 40% say they’ve had five or more
   drinks within the past 2 weeks
  76% of high school seniors drink alcohol
  Binge Drinking
     5+ drinks for men in one sitting
     4+ drinks for women in one sitting
     50% of males & 39% of females report binge drinking in
      the past 2 weeks
  Threats to Adolescents’ Well-
                         Being
Alcohol
  Why do adolescents drink?
     It is an adult thing to do
     Maintaining a “macho” image for male athletes
     Releases inhibitions and tension
     False consensus effect - the assumption that everyone
      else is doing it
  Alcoholics - a person with alcohol problems who
   have learned to depend on alcohol and are unable
   to stop their drinking
     Threats to Adolescent’s Well-
Tobacco -                  Being
  There are significant numbers of adolescents smoking still, although the
   overall proportion has decreased
  Smoking is more prevalent among girls
  Whites smoke more than African Americans
  Why do adolescents smoke?
      Smoking is considered hip or sexy
      Nicotine can produce biological and psychological cravings
      Smoking produces a pleasant emotional state that smokers seek to maintain
      Exposure to parent’s smoking and peer smoking increases the chances that
       an adolescent will take up the habit.
      Smoking is sometimes seen as an adolescent rite of passage, being seen as
       a sign of growing up.
  Smoking 10 cigarettes early in life increases you chances by 80% that
   you will become an habitual smokers
  Threats to Adolescents’ Well-
                         Being
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  AIDS
     A sexually transmitted disease, produced by the HIV
      virus, that has no cure and ultimately causes death
  Other STDs
     Over 2.5 million teenagers contract a STD
     Chlamydia is the most common STD, caused by a
      parasite
     Genital Herpes is a common STD and is caused by a
      virus
     Trichomoniasis - infection caused by a parasite
     Gonorrhea and Syphilis used to be deadly but can now
      be treated with antibiotics

								
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