Plant Reproduction and Development - Biology102-104

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Plant Reproduction and Development - Biology102-104 Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 30
Quigley’s Cabinet (2009).
http://quigleyscabinet.blogspot.com/2009/01/corpse-flower.html
   Some angiosperms use wind to carry pollen
    (ex. Oaks, maples, birch, poplar, cottonwood,
    aspen)
   What’s another way that angiosperms
    pollinate?
   Insects are one of the most abundant organisms
    on earth
   Gymnosperms and insects established
    symbiotic relationships about 150 million years
    ago
   Insect visits several plants of same species
    during which pollen is deposited and picked
    up
   Enough pollen or nectar to entice insect to
    regularly visit
   Location of storehouses of pollen and nectar
    had to be advertised to insects
       Flower adapted to show them where to go
       Encourage insects to visit that particular plant
        species
Orphrys apifera.   floralimages.co.uk
   Bees
   Moths
   Butterflies
   Hummingbirds
   Some mammals
   Beetles
   Flies
   Many plants and their pollinators have evolved
    together
   3 categories of pollinators based on benefits
    (real or deceptive) offered to potential
    pollinator
   Sepals – located at base of flower
   Petals – brightly colored and
    often fragrant
   Stamens – male reproductive
    structures; attached just above
    petals
     Filament
     Anther
   Carpel – female reproductive
    structure (pistil)
     Stigma
     Style
     Ovary Ovules
   Lack one or more of floral parts
   May lack male stamens or female carpels
    and are thus termed imperfect
   Ex. Squash, corpse flower – both have
    separate male and female flowers on same
    plant
   Ex. Holly tree – has separate male and
    female plants that produce separate male
    and female flowers


                                           Rye Grass
   Fruit develops from the ovary

   Seed develops from the ovule
   Most plants have specific requirements for
    breaking seed dormancy

   Drying
   Cold
   Seed coat disruption
   Following germination, the embryo which has
    absorbed water bursts its seed coat
   Root emerges first and begins growing rapidly
    during which it is absorbing water and
    minerals
   Water is transported to shoot which allows
    shoot to grow upward
   Cotyledons provide nutrients for the sprouting
    seed
   At some point during development cotyledon
    will absorb the endosperm (food source)
       Different for monocots and dicots
       Dicots absorb endosperm during seed development
       Monocots at germination
   Food stored in seed provides energy for
    sprouting

				
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