Group Influence Notes - Raleigh Charter High School

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Group Influence Notes - Raleigh Charter High School Powered By Docstoc
					                                                      Group Influence
              Question 1: Does the presence of others enhance or diminish performance?
                                                                  Does the presence of the group
                                                                          make you feel…
Solo Situation          Group Situation       What effect does    More or less     More or less      How hard      Concept name
                                              the presence of     aroused (ie,    responsible for   is the task?
                                              the group have on   heart racing,         your
                                              your performance?    excited or     performance or
                                                                   nervous)?         outcome?
  Running a 50 m     Competing with others
 dash by yourself.       in a 50 m dash.
Subtracting large    Competing with others
numbers in your         to subtract large
head by yourself.     numbers in your head
                             quickly.
  An individual          A group project
  project where      everyone gets the same
 everyone gets a       grade based on the
 grade based on           final product.
   the product.
  Watching your      Watching your favorite
     favorite          basketball team
 basketball team     compete in the NCAA
 compete in the       tournament with a
NCAA tournament         group of fans.
   by yourself.

________________________ – the presence of others enhance performance at a well-rehearsed or easy skill (races,
well-rehearsed recitals, plays, speeches)
_________________________ – the presence of others diminishes performance at difficult tasks (poorly rehearsed
recitals and speeches, tests you didn’t study for)
__________________________ – the presence of others diminishes performance due to diffusion of responsibility
(group project)
__________________________ – the presence of others makes one act in unrestrained ways (fans at sports event)

            Question 2: Who leans toward more cautious decisions: individuals or groups?
Group _________________ – group discussion strengthens a group’s dominant point of view and produces a shift
toward a more extreme decision in that direction
_______________________ – members of a group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving
at a decision
    Factors that contribute to groupthink:
     1. high degree of group _________________               4. high decision __________________
         (people in the group like each other/the group)     5. _______________________ leadership
     2. group works in ______________________                6. lack of _________________________________
     3. individual members don’t share information                for appraisal

                                                    Persuasion Techniques
Two methods of persuading others:
    _______________________________ – the person ponders the content and logic of message.
          o Example: You should buy this car because __________________________________________
    ____________________________________ -- the individual is encouraged to not look at the content of the
      message, but at the source. Factors such as the _________________ and expertise of the source, the mere
      ________________ of the arguments presented, stimuli such as ____________________ played with the ad,
      and _________________.
          o Example: You should buy this type of car because _____________________________________
Attitudes changed through the __________________ route to persuasion are strong, stable, predictive of behavior and
resistant to change, while attitudes formed through the ___________________ route are weak. However, the central
route requires active processing. Thus, the peripheral route is more effective when the subject doesn’t want to put forth
the effort to process (such as for low-impact decisions, like what shoes to wear today).
             o ______________________________ - influence resulting from a desire to gain approval of others.
             o ______________________________ - influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’
                 opinions
                                          Group Influence ANSWERS
            Question 1: Does the presence of others enhance or diminish performance?
      (try to get the kids to fill out the chart with your assistance. You need to tell them that
                          “arousal” means a state of anxiety or excitement.

 Group Situation        How is behavior     Arousal     Sense of          Task            Concept name
                           altered by                 Responsibility    difficulty
                          presence of
                            others?
  Running a 50         Run faster          High       High             Low           Social facilitation
  meter dash.

 Giving a speech       Freeze, forget      High       High             High          Social inhibition
that you haven’t       words
    practiced
A group project for    Slack off           Low        Low                            Social loafing
     class where
 everyone gets the
     same grade
   Watching your       Act crazy,          High       Low                            deindividuation
 favorite basketball   uninhibited
team win the NCAA
    tournament.

Social facilitation – the presence of others enhance performance at a well-rehearsed or easy skill (competitions,
recitals, plays, speeches)
Social inhibition – the presence of others diminishes performance at difficult tasks (competitions, recitals, tests)
Social loafing – the presence of others diminishes performance due to diffusion of responsibility (group project)
Deindividuation – the presence of others makes one act in unrestrained ways (fans at sports event)
Discussion: Here are a few of my experiences with these: 1) When I was in high school, I spoke at graduation. I
was terrified so I practiced a million times. I never got the speech right in practice, but at graduation, I was
flawless (not to brag—I went into autopilot and have no conscious memory of the time I was talking, but have
seen the videotapes). This was social facilitation. 2) When I was about 23, I had to give a speech on the genetic
regulation of neural development to a group of 600 professors. Again, I was terrified so I practiced a zillion
times. Unfortunately, this time I froze. I got up and drew a complete blank. Why was this different than last
time? Because I was giving a speech about a topic I didn’t understand. It was a much harder task. This was
social inhibition.
Anyone willing to share your experiences?

           Question 2: Who leans toward more cautious decisions: individuals or groups?

Group polarization – group discussion strengthens a group’s dominant point of view and produces a shift toward a
more extreme decision in that direction
Groupthink – members of a group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a
decision
    Factors that contribute to groupthink:
    1. high degree of group cohesiveness (people in the group like each other and the group)
    2. group works in isolation
    3. individual members don’t share information unique to them
    4. high decision stress
   5. Dominating leadership
   6. lack of standard procedures for appraisal
Discussion: It is now believed that the Bay of Pigs was the result of groupthink. Can anyone tell
the class what happened at the Bay of Pigs? When you become president someday, what will
you do to prevent groupthink?
              Question 3: What is the best way persuade someone of your beliefs?

Persuasion – Two methods of persuading others:
     Central route to persuasion – the person ponders the content and logic of message.
            o Example: You should buy this car because it gets excellent gas mileage and a high resale value.
     Peripheral route to persuasion -- the individual is encouraged to not look at the content of the message, but
        at the source. Factors such as the attractiveness and expertise of the source, the mere number of the
        arguments presented, stimuli such as music played with the ad, and scarcity
            o Example: You should buy this type of car because there are TEN reasons to buy it! Brad Pitt drives
                this car! Listen to the cool music playing! This is the last one on the lot! Get it while you can!
Attitudes changed through the central route to persuasion are strong, stable, predictive of behavior and resistant
to change, while attitudes formed through the peripheral route are weak. However, the central route requires
active processing. Thus, the peripheral route is more effective when the subject doesn’t want to put forth the
effort to process (such as for low-impact decisions, like what shoes to wear today).
            o Normative social influence - influence resulting from a desire to gain approval of others.
                     You should quit smoking because it is considered a low class and makes people think
                         you are stupid.
            o Informational social influence - influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’
                opinions
                     You should quit smoking because it could give you cancer.

				
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