Contexts of Interpersonal Persuasion

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					  Persuasion in the
Interpersonal Context
     Monica Luangrath
      Melissa Green
              Today’s Agenda
   Introduction

   Contexts of Interpersonal Persuasion

   Wrap Up
        Interpersonal Persuasion
   One person is attempting
    to induce change in the
    belief, attitude, or
    behavior in one other

   Focuses on face-to-face
    interaction with others.

   Is purposeful and
      8 Variables of Interpersonal
1.   Verbal
2.   Nonverbal
3.   Power and Control
4.   Compliance-Seeking
5.   Conflict
6.   Gender Differences
7.   Culture and Diversity
8.   Leadership
          Persuasive Efforts May Be
             Characterized As…
   Dynamic – participants send and receive signals continuously and
    simultaneously, not static.

   Interactive – participants influence each other, interdependent,
    each person assumes roles of both sender and receiver.

   Proactive – involves the total persons beliefs, attitudes, values,
    social background, previous transactions, which all influence the

   Contextual – environmental and situation factors influence the

   Intense – content of the interaction is most often persona, intimate
    and revealing, risk of rejection, withdrawal, weakness.
       3 Contexts of Interpersonal
     (environmental and situational
       factors which influence the
1.   Organizations

2.   Sales

3.   Interviews
   Corporate Communication Activities Include:

       Public Relations, Investor Relations, Employee
        Relations, Community Relations, Advertising, Media
        Relations, Labor Relations, Government Relations,
        Technical Relations, Training and Employee
        Development, Marketing Communications and
        Management Communications

       Internal and external activities

       Informal and formal communication

       Upward, downward, and lateral flow of
           Flow of Communication
   Research findings

       People higher in the organization communicate more while performing
        their jobs than do people lower in the organization.

       Job responsibilities significantly impact quality and direction of
        communication activities.

       Communication within the organization is usually initiated by someone
        higher in the organization.

       People of the same status are more likely to discuss problems and
        solutions between each other than with someone of higher status.

       Job satisfaction, trust in superiors and mobility aspirations influence
        willingness to engage in upward communication.

       Physical proximity results in more interaction.
     Three Models of Organization-
         Employee Interaction
1.   Exchange Model – Organization incentives and rewards provide
     employee motivation for productivity, employee participation is
     limited, rules seldom changed.

2.   Socialization Model – Organization actively persuades
     employees about the value of organizational goals and objectives,
     still little direct employee participation.

3.   Accommodation Model – Employees actively participate in
     shaping organization rules and production goals. They attempt to
     maximize skills, abilities and unique characteristics of each
     employee. They become partners in the problem-solving and
     decision-making activities of the organization.
      Four Approaches When Dealing
              with Superiors
        Positive interpersonal relationships are crucial to the very survival of
     individuals, teams and organization, especially when communicating with
1.      Ingratiating: employee is overly friendly and warm

2.      Tactician: employee uses reason and evidence in support of
        statements and requests

3.      Bystander: employee generally avoids contact with supervisor

4.      Shotgun: employee relies on a variety of approaches

From a strategic approach, Eisenberg & Goodall suggest the tactic of Managing
Up – a performance that makes the boss look good. The best way to do this is
 by leaning how to read the supervisor’s needs and preferences and designing
                       arguments to accomplish goals.
      3 Classifications of Teams
1.   Project Teams – Organized
     around the design and development
     of new products or services.

2.   Work Teams – Responsible for the
     entire task process that delivers a
     product or service to a client.

3.   Quality-Improvement Teams –
     Focus on customer satisfaction and
     team performance evaluation
     leading to reduce costs.

Most employees in the U.S. work in some
          type of team based unit.
           Organizational Roles
   Through interaction with others we develop various organizational

   Within teams, individuals usually assume one of the three roles…

      1.   Task Role – members summarize and evaluate ideas, a major part in
           idea generation and performance progression.

      2.   Maintenance Role – members are active in reducing tension of conflict
           to maintain harmony and morale.

      3.   Self-Centered Role – harmful to teams, individuals dominates all
           aspects of the project and communication exchanges.

   Successful teams exhibit mutual respect, high degree of
    cooperation and self monitoring behaviors that focus on others
    not self.
   In a sense we are all salespeople

   The basic appeals, strategies, and tactics of persuasion are essential
    to successful sales

   There are multiple approaches to sales (below are 2):

        Selling Formula Approach – Idea that there are certain product
         attributes that will be attractive to all individuals regardless of situation
         or context. Treats all customers alike, sales result form taking customer
         through a series of mental states: attention, interest, desire, and

        Need-Satisfaction Approach – Assumes that purchases are made to
         satisfy needs. Requires greater conversation and persuasion skill
         because in order to make a sale, one must identify the customer’s
         needs and show hwo the product/services will meet those needs.
     3 Phases of the Need Satisfaction
            Approach to Sales

1.    Need Development Phase – salesperson
      encourages customer to discuss his/her needs while
      actively listening to the information.

2.    Need Awareness Phase – salesperson talks more,
      repeating the customer’s needs and checks to see if
      customer confirms the info.

3.    Need Fulfillment Phase – salesperson demonstrates
      how the product will fully meet the customer’s needs.
     Dan O’Hair and Gustav Friedrich’s
      Five Basic Rules of Conduct for
      Successful Customer Relations
1.    Know the Customer

2.    Take Responsibility for
      Customer Satisfaction

3.    Avoid Unresponsive Behavior

4.    Employ Effective
      Communication Skills

5.    Treat Customers with
     Ralph Anderson’s Seven Stage
       Model of Personal Selling
1.   Prospecting and Qualifying – identifying potential customers based on a set of criteria
     (financial capability, social rank, organizational authority, ect)

2.   Planning the Sale – includes establishing objectives, choosing a persuasive strategy,
     planning for an effective and efficient meeting, preparing for customer’s reactions and
     displaying confidence and professionalism

3.   Approaching the Prospect – includes first impressions, firmness of handshake, appearance

4.   Making the Sales Presentation – includes articulating the features and benefits of the

5.   Negotiating resistance or Objections – try to turn objections into a positive, differentiate
     between valid about the product/service from excuses for avoiding a decision

6.   Closing the Sale – (The Million Dollar Round Table (MDRT) has 7 basic rules for closing a
        1.    Establish Credibility
        2.    Know your Product
        3.    Know your Client
        4.    Keep it Simple
        5.    Sell Concepts and Benefits
        6.    Communicate your Enthusiasm, Your Certainty and Commitment
        7.    Take a Chance, Ask for the Close

7.   Servicing the Account – follows the saying, “it is easier and less expensive to keep
     customers than to win new customers
           Other Successful Selling
   Boomerang Technique – turning an objection into a reason for
    buying a product

   “Yes, but…” Technique – quickly following an objection with an
    advantageous or positive attribute of the product

   Offset Technique – admits the objection is valid but then follows
    with a more superior point that more than compensates for the
    original objection

   “Im Coming to That” Technique – something said by the sales
    person when they want to finish saying what they are saying before
    they deal with the objection made

   Direct Denial Technique – attributing the objection to some
    misunderstanding or wrong interpretation of information
      How to Handle Difficult Selling
   Let the Customer Talk

   Reassure the Customer that their Concerns are Important and Will Be Heard

   Do not Personalize the Issue

   Acknowledge when the Customer is Correct

   Apologize and Provide Immediate Corrective Action when you or the
    Company is at Fault

   Ask the Customer for Suggestions on how the Problem/Issue Could be
    Avoided in the Future

    Always Remember that Persuasion is Based on the Concept of Informed
    Choice; the Ethical Burden is on the Persuader to Ensure that Products are
                                Fairly Represented!
Advertising – What Psychological
       Tricks Do They Use

 Video
   Definition by Charles Stewart and William Cash:

       “An interactional communication process between two
        parties, at least one of whom has a predetermined
        and serious purpose, that involves the asking and
        answering questions.”
       “An interview is a formal communication transaction
        where one or both of the parties have specific
        behavioral objectives in mind.”
                 Types of Interviews
   Informational

   Employment

   Appraisal

   Counseling

   And many, many more…

    In most interviews, the same strategies and tactics are found as in
     other persuasive contexts, such as public speaking and advertising.
    Example of When Face-to-Face
    Interview are most Beneficial as
       Opposed to Instantaneous
      Communication (e-mail, cell
           phones, and PDA’s)

   If it is necessary to verify identity

   If it is necessary to challenge/question
    information on the application
Benefits of Face-to-Face Interviews
   Valuable information can be revealed through non-verbal

   Responses during these interviews are often longer and
    more detailed.

   Interviewees are more likely to share personal
    Several Patterns for Developing
    Questions for an Interview as the
    Topical Pattern – questions flow subject to subject, which is the most

    Time Sequence Pattern – develops questions in some chronological

    Cause-to-Effect Sequence Pattern – possible causes of an issue are
     explored, followed by a discussion of effects

    Problem-Solution Sequence – first there is an attempt to understand a
     problem and then explore possible solutions

    The purpose of any pattern is to develop mutual understanding and possibly
    Tips for Successful Interviewing
    Keep Smiling, Be Enthusiastic and Honest

    Make Frequent Eye Contact

    Remain Positive

    Less Can Be More

    Keep Things Conversational

    Be Prepared to Ask Questions

    Take Time to Think Before You Respond

    Don’t Ask About Time Off, Salary, or
     Benefits Until They Ask

    Avoid Negative Comments About Former

    Prepare a Closing Statement/Argument
            Contexts of Interpersonal

   Organizations

   Sales

   Interviews
    Kathleen Reardon’s Definition of
       Interpersonal Persuasion

   The behavior that takes place
    “when two or a few people
    interact in a way that involves
    verbal and nonverbal
    behaviors, personal feedback,
    coherence of behaviors, and
    the purpose of changing
    attitudes and/or the behaviors
    of others.”
     Exam/Discussion Questions
1.   Interpersonal Persuasion is
     one person attempting to
     induce change in the belief,
     attitude, or behavior in one
     other person and focuses on
     face-to-face interaction with
     others. T or F

2.   What are the three contexts
     of Interpersonal Persuasion?

3.   What is one benefit of face-
     to-face interviews?

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