The particle theory by huangyuarong

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									The Particle Theory
 The Particle Theory
The Particle Theory explains how all
    matter (liquid, solid, gas) are
   structured and how they react
      under certain conditions.

The Particle Theory consists of five
             statements.
The Particle Theory
1. All matter is made up of
     very small particles.
2. There is space between
          particles.
  The Particle Theory
Particles in a Gas   •Very far apart; big spaces
                     between particles
                     •Move very quickly; move
                     in any direction
                     •Have no definite shape or
                     volume; fill up the
                     container they are in
                     •Weak attraction between
                     particles
   The Particle Theory
Particles in a Liquid   • Particles are closer
                          together; move more
                          slowly
                        • Particles in a liquid
                          are loosely bonded
                          so they slide over
                          each other
                        • Liquids have a
                          definite volume, but
                          not shape
   The Particle Theory
Particles in a Solid   • Particles are very
                         close and tightly
                         packed together;
                         particles do not
                         move around
                       • Particles in a solid
                         are attracted to each
                         other; strong bonds
                       • Solids have a definite
                         shape and volume
The Particle Theory

3. All particles in a pure
substance are the same.
   The Particle Theory
A pure substance is a material made up
   of only one kind of extremely small
                  particle.
Each pure substance has its own kind of
   particle, different in shape and size
     from the particles of other pure
                substances.
   The Particle Theory




The white particles in this picture represent sugar,
    while the blue particles represent water.
T The Particle Theory
    he Particle Theory
     •   Other examples of pure s
4. The particles in matter are
       always in motion.
The Particle Theory
               Looking at the website
http://www.chem.perdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/states
.html, will give you a visual representation on how
        quickly the states of matter move.




     Gas               Liquid          Solid
The Particle Theory
When particles are heated, or gain
 energy, they move faster and the
spaces in between them expand in
               size.
The Particle Theory
When particles are cooled, or lose
 energy they move slower and the
 spaces in between them contract
              in size.
The Particle Theory
If the transfer of energy is quite
   dramatic, the state of matter
             changes.
The Particle Theory
  The Particle Theory
The temperature of a liquid, solid or a gas
 refers to how fast its particles are moving.
  The faster the particles move, the higher
              the temperature.




     High          Medium         Low
  Temperature    Temperature   Temperature
The Particle Theory

5. Particles are attracted to
         each other.
The Particle Theory
    A substance will dissolve
(the particles are broken down so
   small they are invisible to the
naked eye), in another because the
  particles of each substance are
      attracted to each other.
     The Particle Theory
    This is what
   happens when
 sugar is dissolved
       in water.
The water particles
   are attracted to
      the sugar
  particles, making
    them dissolve.
The Particle Theory
          In scientific terms, the
           sugar in this picture is
           the solute, (substance
            being dissolved) and
               the water is the
                   solvent.
            They mix to form a
                  solution.
The Particle Theory

Solutes and solvents may
 take the form any of the
three states of matter: gas
      liquid or solid.
The Particle Theory
          This solution of water
            (solvent) and sugar
                (solute) is a
               homogeneous
                  solution.
          Water is often called
           the universal solvent
               because it can
               dissolve many
                  particles.
The Particle Theory
            A solution only
               forms when
              particles are
            attracted to each
             other, and the
           solute dissolves in
               the solvent.
The Particle Theory
          A solution is said to be
               a homogeneous
              solution when the
               mixture of two
             substances look the
              same throughout;
                the individual
             particles cannot be
                     seen.
     The Particle Theory
                                        When different
                                           parts of a
                                        mixture can be
                                        seen, it is called
                                                a
                                        heterogeneous
  Concrete is a mechanical mixture
                                        or mechanical
because its individual components can
               be seen.
                                           mixture.
The Particle Theory
                 When one substance
                  will not dissolve in
                     another, the
                  substance is said to
                     be insoluble.

                  This is because the
                    particles are not
                   attracted to each
 Oil and Water            other.
The Particle Theory
                 Oil and water result in
                       a mechanical or
                       heterogeneous
                           mixture.
                  The particles in each
                     substance are not
                      attracted to each
                    other and therefore
                          separate.
 Oil and Water
The Particle Theory
          The idea of particle
            attraction applies
               to many other
             combinations of
                substances.
           It can explain why
              grass stains are
            difficult to get out
                of clothing.
The Particle Theory

          Grass stains are
              caused by
            chlorophyll in
              the grass.
The Particle Theory
         Particles of chlorophyll are
            more attracted to each
               other than water.

         Chlorophyll is insoluble in
          water (universal solvent),
          but will dissolve in other
          solvents such as rubbing
                   alcohol.

								
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