The Particle Theory The Particle Theory The Particle Theory explains how all matter (liquid, solid, gas) are structured and how they react under certain conditions. The Particle Theory consists of five statements. The Particle Theory 1. All matter is made up of very small particles. 2. There is space between particles. The Particle Theory Particles in a Gas •Very far apart; big spaces between particles •Move very quickly; move in any direction •Have no definite shape or volume; fill up the container they are in •Weak attraction between particles The Particle Theory Particles in a Liquid • Particles are closer together; move more slowly • Particles in a liquid are loosely bonded so they slide over each other • Liquids have a definite volume, but not shape The Particle Theory Particles in a Solid • Particles are very close and tightly packed together; particles do not move around • Particles in a solid are attracted to each other; strong bonds • Solids have a definite shape and volume The Particle Theory 3. All particles in a pure substance are the same. The Particle Theory A pure substance is a material made up of only one kind of extremely small particle. Each pure substance has its own kind of particle, different in shape and size from the particles of other pure substances. The Particle Theory The white particles in this picture represent sugar, while the blue particles represent water. T The Particle Theory he Particle Theory • Other examples of pure s 4. The particles in matter are always in motion. The Particle Theory Looking at the website http://www.chem.perdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/states .html, will give you a visual representation on how quickly the states of matter move. Gas Liquid Solid The Particle Theory When particles are heated, or gain energy, they move faster and the spaces in between them expand in size. The Particle Theory When particles are cooled, or lose energy they move slower and the spaces in between them contract in size. The Particle Theory If the transfer of energy is quite dramatic, the state of matter changes. The Particle Theory The Particle Theory The temperature of a liquid, solid or a gas refers to how fast its particles are moving. The faster the particles move, the higher the temperature. High Medium Low Temperature Temperature Temperature The Particle Theory 5. Particles are attracted to each other. The Particle Theory A substance will dissolve (the particles are broken down so small they are invisible to the naked eye), in another because the particles of each substance are attracted to each other. The Particle Theory This is what happens when sugar is dissolved in water. The water particles are attracted to the sugar particles, making them dissolve. The Particle Theory In scientific terms, the sugar in this picture is the solute, (substance being dissolved) and the water is the solvent. They mix to form a solution. The Particle Theory Solutes and solvents may take the form any of the three states of matter: gas liquid or solid. The Particle Theory This solution of water (solvent) and sugar (solute) is a homogeneous solution. Water is often called the universal solvent because it can dissolve many particles. The Particle Theory A solution only forms when particles are attracted to each other, and the solute dissolves in the solvent. The Particle Theory A solution is said to be a homogeneous solution when the mixture of two substances look the same throughout; the individual particles cannot be seen. The Particle Theory When different parts of a mixture can be seen, it is called a heterogeneous Concrete is a mechanical mixture or mechanical because its individual components can be seen. mixture. The Particle Theory When one substance will not dissolve in another, the substance is said to be insoluble. This is because the particles are not attracted to each Oil and Water other. The Particle Theory Oil and water result in a mechanical or heterogeneous mixture. The particles in each substance are not attracted to each other and therefore separate. Oil and Water The Particle Theory The idea of particle attraction applies to many other combinations of substances. It can explain why grass stains are difficult to get out of clothing. The Particle Theory Grass stains are caused by chlorophyll in the grass. The Particle Theory Particles of chlorophyll are more attracted to each other than water. Chlorophyll is insoluble in water (universal solvent), but will dissolve in other solvents such as rubbing alcohol.
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