# The particle theory by huangyuarong

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```									The Particle Theory
The Particle Theory
The Particle Theory explains how all
matter (liquid, solid, gas) are
structured and how they react
under certain conditions.

The Particle Theory consists of five
statements.
The Particle Theory
1. All matter is made up of
very small particles.
2. There is space between
particles.
The Particle Theory
Particles in a Gas   •Very far apart; big spaces
between particles
•Move very quickly; move
in any direction
•Have no definite shape or
volume; fill up the
container they are in
•Weak attraction between
particles
The Particle Theory
Particles in a Liquid   • Particles are closer
together; move more
slowly
• Particles in a liquid
are loosely bonded
so they slide over
each other
• Liquids have a
definite volume, but
not shape
The Particle Theory
Particles in a Solid   • Particles are very
close and tightly
packed together;
particles do not
move around
• Particles in a solid
are attracted to each
other; strong bonds
• Solids have a definite
shape and volume
The Particle Theory

3. All particles in a pure
substance are the same.
The Particle Theory
A pure substance is a material made up
of only one kind of extremely small
particle.
Each pure substance has its own kind of
particle, different in shape and size
from the particles of other pure
substances.
The Particle Theory

The white particles in this picture represent sugar,
while the blue particles represent water.
T The Particle Theory
he Particle Theory
•   Other examples of pure s
4. The particles in matter are
always in motion.
The Particle Theory
Looking at the website
http://www.chem.perdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/states
.html, will give you a visual representation on how
quickly the states of matter move.

Gas               Liquid          Solid
The Particle Theory
When particles are heated, or gain
energy, they move faster and the
spaces in between them expand in
size.
The Particle Theory
When particles are cooled, or lose
energy they move slower and the
spaces in between them contract
in size.
The Particle Theory
If the transfer of energy is quite
dramatic, the state of matter
changes.
The Particle Theory
The Particle Theory
The temperature of a liquid, solid or a gas
refers to how fast its particles are moving.
The faster the particles move, the higher
the temperature.

High          Medium         Low
Temperature    Temperature   Temperature
The Particle Theory

5. Particles are attracted to
each other.
The Particle Theory
A substance will dissolve
(the particles are broken down so
small they are invisible to the
naked eye), in another because the
particles of each substance are
attracted to each other.
The Particle Theory
This is what
happens when
sugar is dissolved
in water.
The water particles
are attracted to
the sugar
particles, making
them dissolve.
The Particle Theory
In scientific terms, the
sugar in this picture is
the solute, (substance
being dissolved) and
the water is the
solvent.
They mix to form a
solution.
The Particle Theory

Solutes and solvents may
take the form any of the
three states of matter: gas
liquid or solid.
The Particle Theory
This solution of water
(solvent) and sugar
(solute) is a
homogeneous
solution.
Water is often called
the universal solvent
because it can
dissolve many
particles.
The Particle Theory
A solution only
forms when
particles are
attracted to each
other, and the
solute dissolves in
the solvent.
The Particle Theory
A solution is said to be
a homogeneous
solution when the
mixture of two
substances look the
same throughout;
the individual
particles cannot be
seen.
The Particle Theory
When different
parts of a
mixture can be
seen, it is called
a
heterogeneous
Concrete is a mechanical mixture
or mechanical
because its individual components can
be seen.
mixture.
The Particle Theory
When one substance
will not dissolve in
another, the
substance is said to
be insoluble.

This is because the
particles are not
attracted to each
Oil and Water            other.
The Particle Theory
Oil and water result in
a mechanical or
heterogeneous
mixture.
The particles in each
substance are not
attracted to each
other and therefore
separate.
Oil and Water
The Particle Theory
The idea of particle
attraction applies
to many other
combinations of
substances.
It can explain why
grass stains are
difficult to get out
of clothing.
The Particle Theory

Grass stains are
caused by
chlorophyll in
the grass.
The Particle Theory
Particles of chlorophyll are
more attracted to each
other than water.

Chlorophyll is insoluble in
water (universal solvent),
but will dissolve in other
solvents such as rubbing
alcohol.

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