VOLUME 56 PITTSBURGH, PA — NOVEMBER, 2001 NUMBER 3
RECOVERING JAPAN’S THE ALAMO’S
WARTIME PAST — AND OURS Originally named Misión San Antonio de
September 4, 2001 Valero, the Alamo served as home to
missionaries and their Indian converts for
By STEVEN C. CLEMONS
nearly seventy years. Construction began on
WASHINGTON — Celebrations this Saturday of the 50th anniversary of the San the present site in 1724. In 1793, Spanish
Francisco Treaty of Peace, which established the postwar relationship between Japan and the officials secularized San Antonio’s five
world, will focus on Japan’s emergence as a pacifist market economy under the tutelage of its missions and distributed their lands to the
conqueror and later ally, the United States. Little attention will be paid to questions of historical remaining Indian residents. These men and
memory or of liability for Japan’s behavior during the war. The 1951 treaty, largely through the women continued to farm the fields — once
efforts of America’s principal negotiator, John Foster Dulles, sought to eliminate any possibility the mission’s but now their own — and
of war reparations. This undoubtedly cemented Japan’s alliance with the United States and participated in the growing community of
helped its economic rebirth. But Dulles’s and Japan’s strategy also fostered a deliberate forget- San Antonio.
fulness whose consequences haunt us today. In the early 1800s, the Spanish military
Dulles had been a United States counsellor at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, with stationed a cavalry unit at the former
special responsibility for reparations. He had opposed, without much success, the heavy mission. The soldiers referred to the old mis-
penalties imposed by the Allies on Germany. These payments were widely seen as responsible sion as the Alamo (the Spanish word for
for the later collapse of Germany’s economy and, if obliquely, for the rise of Nazism. After “cottonwood”) in honor of their hometown
World War II, Dulles feared that heavy reparations burdens would similarly cripple Japan, Alamo de Parras, Coahuila. The post’s
make it vulnerable to Communist domination and prevent it from rebuilding. It was crucial to commander established the first recorded
Dulles that Japan not face claims arising from its wartime conduct. The San Francisco Treaty hospital in Texas in the Long Barrack. The
has been used to this day, by Japan and America, as a shield against any such claims. Alamo was home to both Revolutionaries
Nonetheless, when he had to, Dulles allowed an exception, one that has remained largely and Royalists during Mexico’s ten-year
hidden. The signatories to the San Francisco Treaty waived “all reparations claims of the Allied struggle for independence. The military —
Powers, other claims of the Allied Powers and their nationals arising out of any actions taken by Spanish, Rebel, and then Mexican —
Japan and its nationals in the course of the prosecution of the War.” But recently declassified continued to occupy the Alamo until the
documents show that Dulles, in negotiating this clause, also negotiated a way out of it. Texas Revolution.
Dulles had persuaded most of the Allied powers to accept the treaty. One major nation San Antonio and the Alamo played a criti-
that refused to sign was Korea, because of its enmity against Japan for colonizing the Korean cal role in the Texas Revolution. In
Peninsula. India, China and the Soviet Union also declined to sign. December 1835, Ben Milam led Texian and
For a brief while it appeared that the Netherlands would do likewise. Only days before the Tejano volunteers against Mexican troops
treaty was to be signed, the Dutch government threatened to walk out of the convention because quartered in the city. After five days of
it feared that the treaty “expropriated the private claims of its individuals” to pursue war- house-to-house fighting, they forced General
related compensation from Japanese private interests. Tens of thousands of Dutch civilians in Martín Perfecto de Cós and his soldiers to
the East Indies had lost their property to Japanese companies, which had followed Japan’s surrender. The victorious volunteers then
armies to the Indies. They wanted compensation, and they had political power in Holland. occupied the Alamo — already fortified prior
European opinion mattered to Dulles, who feared that a Dutch exodus might lead the to the battle by Cós’ men — and strength-
United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand to drop out as well. On the day before and the ened its defenses. On February 23, 1836, the
morning of the signing ceremony, Dulles orchestrated a confidential exchange of letters arrival of General Antonio López de Santa
between the minister of foreign affairs of the Netherlands, Dirk Stikker, and Prime Minister Anna’s army outside San Antonio nearly
Shigeru Yoshida of Japan. Yoshida pledged that “the Government of Japan does not consider caught them by surprise. Undaunted, the
that the Government of the Netherlands by signing the Treaty has itself expropriated the Texians and Tejanos prepared to defend the
private claims of its nationals so that, as a consequence thereof, after the Treaty comes into Alamo together. The defenders held out for
force these claims would be non-existent.” 13 days against Santa Anna’s army. William
Article 26 of the treaty states that, “should Japan make a peace settlement or war B. Travis, the commander of the Alamo, sent
claims settlement with any State granting that State greater advantages than those forth couriers carrying pleas for help to com-
provided by the present Treaty, those same advantages shall be extended to the parties to munities in Texas. On the eighth day of the
the present Treaty.” This is why the letters had to be confidential: they preserved the rights siege, a band of 32 volunteers from Gonzales
of some Allied private citizens, in this case Dutch citizens, to pursue reparations. arrived, bringing the number of defenders to
Such an agreement, if publicized, could have opened the way for other claims — repara- nearly two hundred. Legend holds that with
tions was a huge and emotional issue after the war. These letters were not declassified until the possibility of additional help fading,
April 2000, by which time most potential claimants were probably dead. Colonel Travis drew a line on the ground
In 1956, the Dutch did successfully pursue a claim against Japan on behalf of private and asked any man willing to stay and fight
citizens. Japan paid $10 million as a way of “expressing sympathy and regret.” Japan had to step over — all except one did. As the
been slow about making its deal with the Netherlands, and the United States had to remind defenders saw it, the Alamo was the key to
(Continued on Page 3) (Continued on Page 3)
The Dedicated to those persons both living and dead who fought against
overwhelming odds against the enemy at the outbreak of World War II.
Official Publication of the
AMERICAN DEFENDERS OF BATAAN & CORREGIDOR, INC.
(INCLUDING ANY UNIT OF FORCE OF THE ASIATIC FLEET, PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO,
WAKE ISLAND, MARIANA ISLAND, AND DUTCH EAST INDIES)
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JOSEPH A. VATER PNC RALPH LEVENBERG, PNC
MEMBERS OF THE INVESTMENT BOARD Editor of Quan
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The “Quan”, the official publication of
the American Defenders of Bataan &
I have received a message from the
Isobel Hinshelwood of Carlton TV in 2002
Corregidor Inc. It is published and Britain, which I quote in part:
circulated 5 times per year by A.D.B.C., a
non-profit organization. It is printed and
“the documentary, Hell in the
Pacific, will be aired on December 7th
postage paid, mailed at Pittsburgh, PA
Post office. Its official address is 18
on The Learning Channel.”
I thought that you would like to put that
WILL BE AT THE
Warbler Dr., McKees Rocks, PA 15136.
The publication is mailed free to all life
notice in the November issue of The Quan.
members and widows of deceased members.
Quan members may subscribe at $8.00 per
CAN YOU HELP? OMNI HOTEL
year in the United States. The name of my relative who was a
POW: Lt. Col. Charles Thomas Brown, MAY 14 TO 19
USAMC, deceased 1982.
His unit: Philippine Scout Officer.
Camp: Bilibid Prison, Manila, Philip-
My relation to him: his step-daughter.
My address: Mrs. Kay Gunn, 6214 Pres-
PLAN TO BE THERE
ton Road, Dallas, TX 75205, (214) 526-5013.
2 — THE QUAN
RECOVERING JAPAN’S (Continued from Page 1) THE ALAMO’S (Continued from Page 1)
the Japanese that, as a declassified State Department document puts it, the United States the defense of Texas, and they were ready to
had “exerted considerable pressure on the Netherlands representatives with a view to their give their lives rather than surrender their
signing the Peace Treaty,” and “one of the arrangements was assurance that the terms of the position to General Santa Anna. Among the
Yoshida-Stikker letters would be honored.” Alamo’s garrison were Jim Bowie, renowned
A year before, the British noted two other instances in which governments had made knife fighter, and David Crockett, famed
deals with Japan for reparations: a settlement with Burma that provided reparations, ser- frontiersman and former congressman from
vices and investments amounting, over 10 years, to $250 million; and an agreement with Tennessee.
Switzerland that provided “compensation for maltreatment, personal injury and loss arising The final assault came before daybreak on
from acts illegal under the rules of war.” the morning of March 6, 1836, as columns of
The British Foreign Ministry elected not to take any action on behalf of British nation- Mexican soldiers emerged from the predawn
als — and chose not to publicize the information. The United States concurred, with one offi- darkness and headed for the Alamo’s walls.
cial commenting, “Further pressure would be likely to cause the maximum of resentment for Cannon and small arms fire from inside the
the minimum of advantage.” Nonetheless, the Stikker-Yoshida letters and the Burmese and Alamo beat back several attacks. Regroup-
Swiss agreements could all be used to make Japan, under Article 26 of the San Francisco ing, the Mexicans scaled the walls and
Treaty, offer similar terms to the treaty’s 47 signatories. rushed into the compound. Once inside, they
The price Japan might have paid, in 1951 or later, as atonement for its crimes would, pre- turned captured cannon on the Long Barrack
sumably, have been high. Perhaps Dulles’s public policy was best. But it may also be that and church, blasting open the barricaded
Japan, and even the United States, are paying a different sort of price for the amnesia and doors. The desperate struggle continued until
secrecy that both countries chose after the war. An American group of former prisoners of war, the defenders were overwhelmed. By sunrise
for example, has pledged to protest the conferences and commemorative galas. These veterans the battle had ended and Santa Anna
are pursuing financial relief for having been enslaved in wartime by Japanese corporations, entered the Alamo compound to survey the
notably Mitsui and Mitsubishi. The POWs have already lost one case in California. The judge, scene of his victory.
Vaughn Walker, decided that because of the success of the San Francisco Peace Treaty and of While the facts surrounding the siege of
Japan in becoming a strong ally and partner of the United States, the waiver of individual the Alamo continue to be debated, there is
rights to pursue private parties in Japan was justified. This has been the argument in the no doubt about what the battle has come to
dozens of suits brought in Japan and a smaller number of cases in American courts. And the symbolize. People worldwide continue to
argument has so far prevailed. remember the Alamo as a heroic struggle
Judge Walker did recognize that Japan’s reparations deals with some countries might against overwhelming odds — a place where
present the opportunity for the signatory nations of 1951 to bring their own claims, as pro- men made the ultimate sacrifice for freedom.
vided for in Article 26 of the treaty. However, “the question of enforcing Article 26,” he wrote, For this reason the Alamo remains hallowed
is “for the United States, not the plaintiffs, to decide.” ground and the Shrine of Texas Liberty.
The failure to support war claims is one of the reasons Japan is still struggling with
other nations over its history. The Germans — at least, West Germans — have engaged in ————————
five decades of public debate about Hitler and the Holocaust. And Germany and other
European countries have accepted the need, for their governments or their corporations, to SEEKING INFORMATION
pay reparations for crimes very similar to those committed by Japan and Japanese compa-
nies in the same period.
I have been referred to you by Dick Beck
The Japanese, however, have not witnessed the court cases and public debates that
to pursue my inquiry for information about
would help shape a shared understanding of history among Japanese and their neighbors.
my uncle who was a member of the 19th
Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi’s visit last month to the Yasukuni shrine — which honors
Bomb Group. Dick seems to think that you
the souls of Japan’s war dead, including the souls of war criminals — and the relentless
might be in a better position to guide me to
efforts of some Japanese textbook writers to minimize Japan’s wartime aggression against
someone who can provide me the informa-
Korea and China have further aggravated regional tension over Japan’s official history.
tion I am looking for.
Because Japan is so ill at ease with debate about it past, other nations understandably dis-
Following is the only information that the
trust a more powerful Japan.
family has about the man we are looking for.
What we know only today is that the State Department arranged a deal that arguably
What we know:
allows Americans and others to pursue personal claims against Japan or Japanese firms —
Staff Sgt. Albert H. Collett
but tried to keep the agreement quiet. The State Department even filed briefs in the
Assigned to the 19th Bomb Group (Don’t
California court against the former American prisoners of war. Of course, it was the State
know which Squadron)
Department that once advanced the claims of Dutch citizens.
Was at Clark Field on December 8, 1941
Japan clearly deserves criticism for its inability to debate its past openly. However, the
Died on May 20, 1942 (according to
United States, as evidenced by the emerging controversy about the terms of the San
government information received after the
Francisco Treaty, has also played a role in Japan’s historical amnesia. By withholding docu-
war when his body was shipped home)
ments on American foreign policy, the United States has contributed to a failure of memory
What we are looking for:
that will continue to have consequences for all of us.
Where was he reassigned after the
destruction of Clark Field?
Steven C. Clemons is executive vice president of the New America Foundation.
What prison camp was he assigned to
after the surrender?
SEEKING SURVIVORS My brother was: Ora Lee Kirkman,
Where did he die, and how?
His crew members or associates?
Mr. Vater, I hope you will print this in The Quan, to I realize that this is pretty scant informa-
Among the readers of The Quan, I hope see if there are any men who know my tion, Joe, but any advice or guidance you
there are some survivors of the Death March brother. might be able to offer would be greatly
that may have known my brother. Thank you for your time. appreciated.
My father passed on in 1974. All that he Priscilla L. Reeves Donald E. Cooksey
could ever find out was that my brother was 3940 Cielo Pl. 2606 W. 67th St.,
missing as of April 19, 1942. Fullerton, CA 92835 Davenport, IA 52806-1528
My brother never got the letter telling 714-879-9067 319-391-2874
him he had a sister. email@example.com
NOVEMBER, 2001 — 3
Capas National Shrine
MANY THANKS SAGA OF SAILOR JACK
Dear Mr. Vater, anyone would be interested in reading it, From: “RONALD MARCELLO”
I wanted to thank you so very much for please have them contact me at the firstname.lastname@example.org
publishing my inquiry about my Dad in address listed and I will be happy to send To: email@example.com
The Quan. I have received many calls them a copy. I will run off the copy on my Date: Tuesday, February 6, 2001
and one was from 1st Sgt. Leonard little inkjet printer. I will not charge for Subject: Saga of Sailor Jack
Merchant who was my Dad’s 1st Sgt. in this as I know that most of your members What an adventure story! What a
the 19th Bombardment Group and knew are retired and on a fixed income. This is marvelous ride through history! As this
him intimately. I am going to see him next the least that I can do to keep my Dad’s manuscript so vividly attests, Jack Feliz
week and share scrapbook pictures and memory alive. If someone wants to send has lived a truly remarkable life. His is
other pictures. I am so grateful to you for me a little something for the ink, that will the story of deep tragedy, of extreme joy,
this. I also got a call from Mr. Robert Heer be fine, but I emphasize that it is not of wondrous exploits, of dedicated profes-
who told me how to go about securing required. Just send me your name and sionalism, of strong family bonding, of
some items from the National Archives. address and I will mail a copy. extensive worldly travel. In short, he has
Again, I just cannot thank you enough. Lastly, I need to inform you of my lived multiple lifetimes.
I also asked if someone could give me mother, Helen Virginia Cowan’s, death. She Born in 1911, Jack has been eyewitness
the history and meaning behind the logo had a stroke and passed away recently. I to an America having just entered the 20th
that you use on your letterhead, the one just haven’t had the wherewithal to write to Century with steam engines and kerosene
that looks like a seahorse and has a color everyone yet and I apologize for not inform- lamps to a 21st Century America of com-
that is the Philippine Liberation Medal. I ing you sooner. Her death hit me very hard. puters and .coms; an America emerging as
know that this logo was used by the She was a Life Member of the ADBC. one of several world powers to an America
Philippine Department of the Army prior Again, please say to all your members as THE single dominant world power; an
to and during the war and now you are that I have been deeply moved by the America that fought the Kaiser to an
using it. I am into heraldry and am quite response to my inquiry and the tremen- America that won the Cold War.
interested in finding out about this logo. dous help. I will write or call everyone that In this easy-to-read saga, Jack’s writing
Mrs. Pruitt thought that she had seen it responded and thank them personally, but style, with lively and down-to-earth prose,
in an issue of The Quan. I would be most I wanted to let everyone know just how rivet the reader with vignettes of an
grateful if you could make me a copy and grateful I am. I am just thrilled to death to unfolding and evolving 20th Century as
send it to me. get in touch with Sgt. Merchant. This is seen through the eyes of a participant who
I have just finished editing and adding going to be a memory of a lifetime and will has rubbed elbows with the rich and
some material to my Dad’s book, “Barbed be just invaluable to me and my family. famous, kings and commoners, friends
Wire and Rice”. I am going to look for a Thank you, thank you, thank you, again. and enemies. This book is, in short, a
publisher. My Dad tried to have it pub- Sincerest regards, “must read” for all Americans.
lished before he died but did not succeed. I Robert H. Cowan Dr. Ronald E. Marcello, Director
am going to try and put it on a website at P.O. Box 2060 Oral History Program
some time along the line. However, if Granite Bay, CA 95746-2060 University of North Texas
4 — THE QUAN
Merry Christmas and Merry Christmas and
Christmas Wishes Best Wishes to All a Happy, Healthy New Year
Grace Brehm and Family John E. and Rose Bowler
Sincere Holiday Greetings to All
Agnes and Art Akullian Merry Christmas and Merry Christmas and
a Happy New Year to All a Happy New Year to All
Merry Christmas and Annette Bloskis and Family Bob and Alison Branch
to All God Bless
Mildred Arslanian and Family Peace and Joy to All Best Wishes for a Merry Christmas
192 Tank Br. of Ky. and a Happy New Year
Merry Christmas and Pat and Louise Boone P/N/C Art Beale
Happy New Year
Ceil Ayers Season’s Greetings and Merry Christmas and
All Our Love a Happy New Year to All
Greetings to All During Hersheal and Pat Boushey William A. Curtis
This Holy Season
The Carl L. Allen Family Merry Christmas and Merry Christmas and
a Happy, Healthy New Year Happy New Year to All
Merry Christmas and P/N/C Frank Bigelow Leon Campbell
a Happy New Year
Rose Aquilian and Family Happy, Healthy Holidays Greetings of the Season and
Ella Barna and Family Warm Wishes for the Year 2002
Our Wishes for a Happy and Lester J. Chase
Healthy Holiday Season Merry Christmas and
Albert and Nancy Allen Best Wishes to All Merry Christmas and
Phyllis Baltzer and Family Best Wishes to All
Merry Christmas and Jack and Libby Cross
a Happy, Healthy New Year Our Sincere Wishes for
Martina Aldred a Merry Christmas and I Wish Each of You a
a Happy New Year Blessed Christmas Season
Merry Christmas and Rose Bridges and Family and a Happy, Healthy 2002
a Happy New Year 2002 Love,
James A. and Margie E. Allen From Every Branch of Our Family Tree Lora Cummins
Go Our Best Wishes to All.
Season’s Greetings and We Hope it is a Season of Merriment Merry Christmas and
Best Wishes for a Healthy, and Good Tidings to All. Happy New Year
Prosperous New Year Gold Star Mother Brazeau’s Family Florence and P/N/C John Crago
Marlene and Francis Anges
Christmas Greetings Merry Christmas and
Merry Christmas and to All the Quan Members and Happy New Year
Happy New Year to All Especially to All Those of My Unit Mary Curley and Son
Donald E. Abbott #4 Chemical Company
Walter L. Bell Holiday Greetings to All
Our Best Wishes for a Happy Gerry Cantwell
and Healthy Holiday Season Best Wishes for a Happy and
Norma and P/N/C Joe Alexander Healthy Holiday Season Best Wishes for a Merry Christmas
Thelma Bensing and a Happy New Year
My Sincerest Wishes to All Eve Christ and Family
for a Joyous Christmas and Merry Christmas and
a Healthy, Happy New Year a Healthy New Year to All Wishing All Our Friends
Ann A. Bernatius Charles and Marie Balaza a Very Happy Holiday
Ruth Castor and Family
Merry Christmas and Joyful Holidays to All
Happy New Year to All Joe and Iduna Boudoff
Ernie Bales F F F F F F
NOVEMBER, 2001 — 5
Merry Christmas and Merry Christmas and Our Very Best Wishes to A.D.B.C.
a Happy, Healthy New Year Happy New Year Members and Their Families
Lou Cusano (16th Bomb. Sqn. — Evelyn and Earl Ellsworth for a Joyous Christmas “2001” and
27th Bomb GP.) a Happy New Year “2002”
Best Wishes for a Merry Christmas Barbara and Arie Geurtz
To All P.O.W.s and Families and a Happy New Year
a Merry Christmas and Joe Filko Best Wishes for a Blessed Christmas
a New Year Full of God’s Blessing and a Happy New Year
Lillian Carr To all My Dear Friends Sue Gagnet
a Joyous Holiday Season
Merry Christmas and Good Health to All May the True Spirit of Christmas
a Happy New Year Harold Feiner Bring You Peace and Happiness
Tom and Rose Calderone Helen Gease
God Bless to All
Merry Christmas and on Christ’s Birth Merry Christmas and Happy, Healthy
a Happy New Year “God Bless” Peg and P/N/C Jim Flaitz New Year to “You All”
Ruby Chatham from Sunny South
We Wish All the Quan Buddies Tired Mary Grayson
Season’s Greetings to All the Happiest of Christmas and
of the 803rd Engrs. a Healthy New Year Season’s Greetings to All
Clarence and Juanita Campbell Esther and Larry Freeman the Philippine Notebook People
A Merry Christmas to All Our Friends Christmas Greetings and
and a Very Happy New Year New Year Wishes to All the Season’s Greetings to All
Charles and Ann Dragich Surviving 19th Air Base Squadron Men Especially my 192 Tank Bubbies
In Memory of My Husband Joseph Shirley and Frank Goldstein
Season’s Greetings Risa Fragale and Family
Anabel C. Dunigan Merry Christmas and a Very Happy,
Season’s Greetings to the Men of Prosperous New Year to All
We Wish You the 228th Signal Operations Co. (Sep) Bob and Gretchen Gwaltney
a Holy Christmas Season and The Entire A.D.B.C. Staff and
a Healthy, Happy 2002 A.D.B.C. Members To All the A.D.B.C. Troops
Much Love to Richard E. Francies Happy Holidays
All Our Friends in A.D.B.C. Dolly Goodrow
Lee and Eleanor Davis Christmas Greetings to All Veterans
Deacon Joe and Best Wishes for a Merry Christmas
Greetings and Warm Thoughts Sallie Durrett Farmer and a Healthy New Year
for Christmas and the New Year Enos Gould
Chet and Frances Dellar Enjoy the Christmas Season
Keep Healthy Greetings and Best Wishes for
Merry Christmas and Have a Drink on Us A Healthy and Happy New Year
a Happy New Year to All Members Dale and Peg Frantz Martha Grill
A Very Merry Christmas and Season’s Greetings to All
Merry Christmas and a Most Healthful New Year Phil and Jeanette Goodman
a Joyous New Year P/N/C Roy Gentry
Therese and P/N/C John Emerick Happy Holidays to All POWs and
Wishing Each and Everyone Families Wishing All Happiness
Happy Holidays to All a Very Merry Christmas and and Prosperity
Mrs. Betty Earhart and Family a Prosperous New Year! Bea and Melvin Hamlin
Mr. and Mrs. D.A. Guevarra POW #81 Yodagama
Mountains of Joy and Blessings for
the Holidays and Big, Blue Skies for
the Coming New Year
Glenda Elliott and Family
6 — THE QUAN
May Your Heart Overflow with Joy Season’s Greetings to All May All Enjoy the Holiday Season
and Love this Christmas Season Henrietta and and a Happy, Healthy New Year
Dorothy Hassler P/N/C Edward Jackfert Merle and Frances Lype
Our Prayers for a Peaceful Merry Christmas and Very Merry Christmas and
and Blessed Christmas Season a Happy, Healthy New Year a Happy, Prosperous New Year
Twila Hatcher and Family Ruth and Warren Jorgenson Walter Lamm and Family
Best Wishes for a Merry Christmas Best Wishes for Wishing You Joy and Every Blessing
and a Happy New Year a Blessed Holiday Season at Christmas and Always
Mary Hank Bea Johnson Louise and Dottie Lackman
(Widow of Sgt. Edward M. Johnson)
Holiday Greetings Merry Christmas and
to All Our Members Merry Christmas and May the New Year Bring
Neal Harrington Happy New Year to All Good Health and Peace to All
Mary Jaggers and Family Charlotte Long and Family
Happy Holidays to All
of Our Friends of A.D.B.C. Holiday Greetings Merry Christmas and Happy New Year
Nick and Ann Hionedes Best Wishes to All to James Flaitz, Clifford Keller,
Morgan E. Jenkins Andy Miller, Glen Pilkington,
Merry Christmas and Art Reynolds, Anton Urban
Happy New Year to All Merry Christmas and Clarence K. and Irene Larson
Tom Hatten Happy New Year
Harry and Cecillia Johnson “Wishing You
Have a Happy and Healthy Health, Peace and Joy”
Holiday Season “Merry Christmas and Kathie and P/N/C Ralph Levenberg
Walter and Helen Helkowski Happy New Year
P/N/C John Koot Blessed Christmas and
Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year
May God Bless You All Holiday Greetings to All Fellow POWs Jo Lyons
Billee Holliman and Their Families Wherever They Are
Jim and Marge Kerns We Wish You All
Merry Christmas —Peace Throughout a Happy Holiday Season —
the World in the New Year Season’s Greetings to All Christmas and Happy 2002
Catherine Hauser Ed Kluemper Kermit Lay and Family
Season’s Greetings to All May Your Christmas be Filled Merry Christmas and All of
and God Bless With the Joy of Personally Knowing God’s Blessings for the New Year
Jim and Barbara Hammond Christ Jesus as Your Savior Sis and Jerry Lambo
Jim and Franziska Kell
Merry Christmas and Best Wishes to All for
Happy New Year Holiday Greetings to All a Merry Christmas and
Ray Harper Holly and Chuck Kaelin a Healthy New Year
Delbert and Doris Lynn
Season’s Greetings to All Merry Christmas and
“God Bless” Happy New Year to All Season’s Greetings and
Elsie Houser Gerald and Anna Kelly Best Wishes for a Healthy,
Prosperous New Year
May All Enjoy the Holiday Season Merry Christmas to All and Paul and Edna Langford
and Enjoy the Fruits of the New Year a Happier New Year
Jim and Alta Huff Betty and Louis Kolger Merry Christmas and God Bless
All of My Friends at A.D.B.C.
Merry Christmas and A Merry Christmas and Eddy Laursen — X Mukdenite #250
Happy New Year to All a Happy New Year
Georgia Jordan Darlene and Bryon Kearby ppppppppppp
NOVEMBER, 2001 — 7
Our Wishes to All for Wishing All My Dear Friends Happy Holidays
a Happy Holiday Season and a Merry Christmas and We Cherish the Bond We Share
a Healthy New Year a Happy New Year with Our Military Friends
Millie Liskowsky and Family Love, P.O.W. Joseph and
Rose Marangiello Ruth Nespojohn
Merry Christmas and
a Happy New Year to “Mele Kalikimaka Hanoli Happy Christmas and
All A.D.B.C. Members Makahiki Hou” Happy New Year to All
Hilda Miller John and Caroline Moyer Capt. Mary J. Oberst — ANC
Season’s Greetings to We Wish All XP.O.W.s We Wish All Our Friends
Kentuckiana Chapter Members a Merry Christmas and a Merry Christmas and
and all A.D.B.C. Members Happy New Year a Happy, Healthy New Year
Louise and Joe Mihok Bill and Eileen Milne John and Mary Oleksa
Season’s Greetings to All “Christmas Blessings and Season’s Greetings and Good Health
Maude and Paul Moore — 440 Ord. a Happy New Year” to All of Our Friends in A.D.B.C.
Donnie H. Russell Mathis Dorothy Oestreich
Merry Christmas and
a Healthy New Year Season’s Greetings and Our Best Wishes for a Merry Christmas
Wilbur and Alice Marrs Best Wishes to All and a Healthy New Year
Irene Minier George and Edith Omps
We Pray Your Holidays Will and Family
be Filled With Everything Good Season’s Greetings
and Joyful. Our Love Kay McDavitt Merry Christmas and
Ben and Geri Meek Happy, Healthy New Year to All
Merry Christmas and P/N/C Joseph Poster
Best Wishes to All for Happy New Year to All
a Merry Christmas and Eva Minnick Very Best — Holy and Happy
a Happy New Year Holiday Season
Doris and Wayne Miller Merry Christmas and Dorothy Patrizio
a Happy New Year
Merry Christmas and Mr. and Mrs. John Macynski A Blessed Christmas to All
a Happy New Year to All Audrey and Fr. Bob Phillips
Vi Macarovich Our Good Wishes to All
for a Happy Holiday Season Season’s Greetings
Season’s Greetings to All and a Healthy New Year and Best Wishes to All
Bea Menozzi The John McCorts Family Jean Pruitt and Family
Merry Christmas to All and Merry Christmas and Love, Good Health and
“Enjoy Each Day of the New Year” a Happy New Year to All Season’s Greetings
Shirley Matheny and Family Alden McEwen Doris and Ray Perez
Our Best Wishes for Season’s Greetings and Good Health Good Health and Happiness
a Merry Christmas and to All Members of A.D.B.C. in the Year 2002
a Happy New Year Lucy and Omar McGuire Ted and Marvella Provost
Peg and Bernie Miller
Merry Christmas and Merry Christmas and
Our Best Wishes for a Happy New Year a Happy New Year to All
a Merry Christmas and Eva Neil Dorothy Perry and Family
a Healthy New Year
Norma Mascavage and Family A Blessed Christmas and Happy, Merry Christmas and
Prosperous, Healthy New Year to Our a Happy, Healthy New Year
Season’s Greetings to All Fellow “Defenders and Their Families” Margaret Petak
P/N/C Andy Miller Carl and Fay Nordin
8 — THE QUAN
We Wish Our A.D.B.C. Members From Our House to Yours — Best Wishes for the Holidays and for
a Blessed Christmas and Merry Christmas and Health and Happiness Through the Year
Gratitude for the New Year 2002 a Happy, Healthy New Year Jan and Fred Vinton
Bill and Mary Pat Parks Marie and Steve Raymond
A Blessed Christmas and
Merry Christmas and Merry Christmas and a Peaceful, Healthy New Year to All
a Happy New Year to All a Healthy New Year Helen and P/N/C Joe Vater
Mr. and Mrs. Leo J. Padilla Kay Sandor and Family
Merry Christmas and
A Blessed Christmas and Our Prayer for All a Happy New Year to All
a Happy New Year to All a Blessed Christmas and Richard Willstatter
Eleanor and Ed Pessolano Peace for the New Year
Sr. of John S. Matuleiricz — 803rd Helen and P/N/C Al Senna Season’s Greetings and
Best Wishes for a Healthy New Year
Merry Christmas and Merry Christmas and Alice and Commander Joe Ward
a Happy New Year to All a Happy New Year to All
Paul V. Rouse — Co. A-803rd Eng. Shirley B. Solomon A Blessed Christmas and
Peaceful, Healthy New Year to All
Season’s Greeting and “Happy Holidays to Everyone” Irene Wonneman and Family
Best Wishes for a Josie and Gil Soifer
Healthy, Prosperous New Year Peace and Joy to All,
Virginia and P/N/C John Rowland To All Our Ex-P.O.W. Friends Fondly,
Merry Christmas and Helen and P/N/C Hank Wilayto
Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year
a Happy New Year to All Socovvo and Agapito Silva Happy Holidays to
Bob and Bettie Rosendahl All Our Friends in A.D.B.C.
Wishing All of You a Elsie and Ralph Wheeler
Merry Christmas to All Joyous Holiday Season and
and Happy New Year a Healthy, Happy New Year Merry Christmas and
Peter and Betty Retterath Jean and Bill Sniezko Happy New Year to All
Best Wishes and Merry Christmas and
God Bless Everyone a Healthy, Happy New Year Merry Christmas and
Nicki and Paul Reuter Helen and Dewey L. Spruiell Happy New Year to All
Wesley and Irene Wells
Merry Christmas and Merry Christmas to All
Happy New Year to 803rd Harold Spooner Blessed Christmas and
Meda Rutz Peaceful, Healthy New Year to All
May the Christmas Abide in The Dwight Woodall Family
Happy and Healthy Each of You for a Happy New Year
Holiday Season Fern and Regis Theriac Merry Christmas and
Camille Romanzo Happy 2002 to All
Happy Holidays from Genevieve and Milton Young
Best Wishes for the Signal Corps
a Happy Holiday Season Ed “Tommie” and Dorothy Thomas Holiday Greetings and
Bertha Ray Mabuhay Best Wishes to All
Stella and John Yale —
Wishing All the Members of A.D.B.C. Happy Holiday Season to Co. C. 31st Inf.
a Merry Christmas All My Friends
and a Happy New Year Jayne Troy Season’s Greetings to All
Joyce and P/N/C Melvin Routt Leslie Zimmerman
Holiday Greetings to
All Our Friends and Merry Christmas and
k l h the Canadian Hong Kong P.O.W. Happy New Year to All
j Pat Urban Sandy and Zip Zipeta
NOVEMBER, 2001 — 9
9821 Colonnade Blvd.
San Antonio, Texas 78239
ATTN: RESERVATIONS DEPARTMENT
(210) 691-8888 (800) 843-6664
OUR ENTIRE STAFF EXTENDS A WARM WELCOME TO YOU.
PLEASE DON’T FORGET — MAKE CHECK OR MONEY ORDER PAYABLE TO OMNI SAN ANTONIO
Please Print or Type
NAME ____________________________________________ COMPANY A.D.B.C. _______________________________
CITY / STATE / ZIP ___________________________________________________________________________________
SHARING ROOM WITH _______________________________________________________________________________
TELEPHONE NO. A / C ( _______ ) ____________________ BUSINESS ( _______ ) ______________________________
RESERVATIONS MUST BE GUARANTEED WITH A FIRST NIGHT’S DEPOSIT. PLEASE INCLUDE FIRST NIGHT’S DEPOSIT IN THIS ENVELOPE TO
GUARANTEE YOUR RESERVATION, OR YOU MAY USE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING CARDS:
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Card # __________________________________________ Name __________________________________________ Exp. Date ___________________________
Arrival Date _______________________________
Departure Date _____________________________
__________________ Smoking Room
RATE: $83.00 + Tax Arrival Time _______________________________
__________________ Non-smoking Room Our check-in time is 3:00 p.m. Should your room not be
Single, Double, Triple available when you arrive, you may store your luggage
with our hellcaptain. Our check-out time is 12 noon.
May 13, 2002 thru May 19, 2002 __________________ Accessible Room
Group / Meeting
Rates Good 3 Days Prior __________________ Other
or 3 Days After A.D.B.C.
Reservations must be received by 4 / 15 / 2002.
Please keep in mind that all special requests
are subject to room availability. A LIMITED NUMBER OF ROOMS HAVE BEEN SET
ASIDE AT THE SPECIAL DISCOUNT.
All rates are exclusive of tax. Every effort will be made to accommodate you in the room and bed type of your choice; however, reservations are taken on a first
come, first serve basis. PLEASE DO NOT SEND CURRENCY. Cancellation Policy: Reservations must be cancelled no later than 6 p.m. on date of arrival to avoid
a No Show charge of one nights room and tax.
PRE-CONVENTION REGISTRATION PLEASE HELP
We have had good past results with the pre-registration application, beats standing in Just after America went to war with
long lines. We are going to change the card a little. The 1st line will be your 1st name Japan, a young man joined the Japanese.
(Bill/William for instance). On the P.O.W. Camps line use only your favorite. The rest of the I do not know what branch of service. He
blank fill out as stated. The registration will be $25.00 per person which includes the ban- lived either in the United States or a terri-
quet and registration as has been in the past. The banquet ticket should be exchanged for tory of the United States.
table reservations. DO NOT send money. Pay when you come to the convention. Since he spoke both English and
Japanese, he became an interpreter. He
REGISTRATION CARD — PLEASE PRINT was also an officer. He helped interrogate
American and other Allied soldiers.
FIRST NAME _____________________________________ GUEST ___________________________ When the interrogations became too
brutal, it got to him. He helped American
FULL NAME _____________________________________PHONE ( ________ ) ________________
and other Allied soldiers hide and then
ADDRESS _________________________________________________________________________ escape. How many soldiers, I do not know.
He was caught and killed by the Japanese.
CITY____________________________________________STATE ___________ZIP ______________ Who was this man? Where does his
family live now? It is important for me to
UNIT IN P.I. _______________________________________________________________________ find out.
P.O.W. CAMP _____________________________________________________________________
P.O. Box 1633, Nokomis, FL 34274
10 — THE QUAN
NOVEMBER, 2001 — 11
LETTER TO THE EDITOR THE CHAPLAIN’S PHILIPPINES
Washington Post CORNER WWII — TODAY
American POWs Deserve “America Again Deals with Evil; Steve Watson, in the Philippines
Their Day in Court in God We Trust” FORT CORREGIDOR LIGHTHOUSE
It is preposterous and hypercritical for President Bush said it correctly, “Today Spain, after a 400 year rule over the
Walter F. Mondale, Thomas S. Foley and the nation has seen evil.” As America Philippines, has opened an Exhibit at
Michael H. Armacost to co-author an editorial reeled from the attacks of September 11, Corregidor. ADBC members who were
using their title as former ambassadors to 2001, we sought answers for questions stationed at Fort Corregidor during WWII
comment on the 1951 San Francisco Peace that we had never asked before. We may recall the old Spanish Lighthouse.
Treaty (“Pacific Deal,” September 25, Page ex-POWs of the Japanese know quite a lot This historical beacon for the seafarers to
A23). about evil, but our experiences occurred Mankla Bay, has been repaired and
They know their criticism of the pending outside of America; now we have seen evil rehabilitated as the focus of the exhibit.
congressional bills, HR1198 and S1272, to within our own shores. And it hurts! The lighthouse which was originally
clarify the provisions in the Treaty to be totally America doesn’t like evil! As we have built by Spain, contains an exhibition
unfounded because they are aware that the laid down our lives to fight against evil, so located at the Lighthouse Square at the
internal memoranda from their predecessor, have we seen our next generation of men Topside portion of the historical northwest
Ambassadors in Tokyo to the State Dept. in and women rise to fight against it. corner of the island. The exhibition
Washington between 1955 and 1957 have As our firemen and policemen put them- reflects Spain’s technological and scientific
clearly acknowledged that Japan’s subsequent selves in harms way to rescue innocent works legacy in the Philippines.
treaties with other nations makes the provi- civilians from the falling towers, so do our Chief Warrant Officer Watson, retired,
sions of Article 26 operative for our citizens as Armed Forces now go on the attack to is the former President of the Biloxi
well, i.e., the right to file compensation claims. ferret out the terrorists on their home Lighthouse Society in Mississippi. He is
In fact, Japan has signed 11 of them, and turf, wherever that may be. currently organizing the Philippine
they did provide for nationals of those Our young men and women are a reflec- Lighthouse Society, covering the multi-
countries to bring claims against Japan and tion of ourselves; they have learned from tude of Spanish and U.S. built lighthouses
consequently receive compensations. The right our examples, how to stand up against evil in the 3100 islands of the Philippine
for Americans to sue has been acknowledged and sin when it is forced upon us. Our archipelago. The Spanish Lighthouse at
internally by the State Dept. for more than 45 own flesh and blood are on the line again. Corregidor will head the historical
years. No one would need Japan’s permission The principles of honor and good living beacons of the sea in this southeast Asian
“to sue or recover from Japan or Japanese have been passed along to them; in today’s country. Any ADBC member who recalls
companies” as the three former ambassadors soldiers, sailors and airmen we see any old lighthouse in the Philippines may
falsely implied. Why would Japan ever do that ourselves. America has nurtured new contact CWO at his address below.
if it could get away without paying anything? generations to place great value on loyalty Corregidor Island may be reached over
Lack of knowledge or bad memory does not and service to God and to country. a two hour water run from Manila by
explain why the ex-ambassadors have written As our children and grandchildren fight commercial boat tour. There are other
such a deceptive article, at least not for Mr. to preserve freedom, we can bask in pride native means of reaching Corregidor from
Foley. As recent as September 7, he was that America’s future is in good hands. We the various coastal villages of Bataan. An
confronted with a copy of the State Dept. can be proud that we have done our part, outrigger pump boat takes a half hour
1955-1957 memoranda in San Francisco in front not only in fighting evil, but in instilling accompanied by Filipino flavor, for just a
of over 100 people, including a former Japanese in our children the loyalty toward The few pesos.
ambassador and the international media. He United States of America. CWO Steve Watson, USCG Ret./
couldn’t be that forgetful or he wouldn’t be a Let us pray to God that He guard and USCGA, resides in the Philippines,
highly paid consultant to a Japanese conglomer- protect our nation in this hour of trial. Let and renders volunteer community
ate, Mitsubishi Corporation — which happens to us give thanks for those who now lay service to members of ADBC, promot-
be a co-defendant in multiple slave labor down their lives in order that we may be ing the best interests of the U.S. Coast
lawsuits pending in courts. Mr. Foley did forget “one nation, under God, indivisible, with Guard Auxiliary. He may be reached
to mention this other title, didn’t he? liberty and justice for all.” Amen! at his overseas military address: PSC
Incidentally, the former diplomats have In His service, 517, Box RCB, FPO AP 96517-1000.
made some other questionable remarks in their Fr. Bob Phillips+ SSC
editorial. For example, they have stated, “every National Chaplain ————————
administration since that of President Truman
believed the treaty meant what it said: All
———————— PLEASE HELP
claims are settled.” First, the Treaty did not As a former POW, I am seeking anyone
say that. Secondly, the dispute did not come up PLEASE DONATE who worked with me in the coal mines in
until claims were filed in courts in 1998. Not long ago the body of a great friend Japan. I would like to know the town,
They’ve claimed “courts have uniformly of mine passed on because it could not get camp, and the number of the camp.
rejected suits by POWs” while there was only a kidney. I remember the name of Howell and his
one judge, Vaughn R. Walker of San Francisco, She had watched other bodies die friend Jesse. I think they were from
has made such a ruling last year. But, Judge because they also could not receive a Oklahoma. Also there was a POW who
Peter D. Lichtman of Los Angeles has ruled on kidney. worked in the timber yard at the coal
September 14, 2001 that Americans are When you put a body in the ground the mines called Opie.
entitled to pursue claims in accordance to a bugs eat it, and the rest rots, so your spirit I believe there was a POW who lost a
California law on constitutional ground (re: LA is not there anymore. leg at the coal mines. I think his name
Superior Court BC217805). I beg you do not be selfish. When the was Johnson and he may have been from
Ignatius Y. Ding time comes, please donate your organs so Montana.
Spokesperson, Alliance for Preserving that others may live. Thanks,
the Truth of Sino-Japanese War Thank you, Peter P. Lors
Cupertino, California Dennis Hughes 113 2nd Ave., S.W.
Daytime Ph: (408) 447-1517 Nokomis, Florida Fort Walton Beach, FL 32548-5312
12 — THE QUAN
NEW INSTITUTE ESTABLISHED AT these materials for many years for the use
of researchers, teachers, students, and
SEEKING SUPPORT FOR
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY members of the general public who have an AMENDMENT TO BILL
interest in the social history of the period.” September 28, 2001
To donate memorabilia to the Institute
I am a Navy Veteran of World War II. I Senator Ernest Hollings
or to obtain more information about the
served aboard the heavy cruiser USS New 125 Russell Senate Office Bldg.
Institute, please contact:
Orleans CA-32 in the Pacific. However, it Washington, DC 20510
Dr. William Oldson
is not of myself that I wish to write about
The Department of History Dear Senator Hollings,
but is, instead, to make you and your
The Florida State University As an American veteran who was
members aware of a relatively new
Tallahassee, FL 32306-2200 enslaved by a private Japanese company
Institute established at the Department of
(850) 644-9033 while prisoner of war during WWII, I am
History, Florida State University.
Fax (850) 644-6402 writing to ask your help to ensure the
This Institute is known as “The
e-mail — firstname.lastname@example.org Smith/Harkin POW Amendment to the
Institute on World War II and the Human
Or on the Web at Commerce, Justice, State Appropriations
Experience.” Its stated purpose is “To
http://www.fsu.edu/~ww2/ Bill (HR 2500) is retained in that bill as it
Preserve a Legacy of Historical
Sincerely, goes through the conference process.
Perspective.” Tom Brokaw, after the publi-
Carl T. Hartzell This amendment, which prohibits the
cation of his book “The Greatest
Generation,” received over 5,000 letters, ———————— Department of Justice and the Department
photographs, and memoirs, from veterans of State from using any of their appro -
and others about World War II. Mr. BOOK REVIEW priated funds to oppose the claims of the
Brokaw has selected the Institute to be Silent Tears POWs now pending in the California courts,
the repository of these mementos and has Lest We Forget will allow our former POWs to continue to
already shipped most of this material to pursue justice. Since this amendment
Stanley R. Tokarz passed the House of Representatives in July
In spite of this huge donation of material Seven survivors of the WWII battle for by a vote of 395-33 and was preserved in
from Mr. Brokaw, the Institute still feels Bataan in the Philippines help the author the Senate bill by a vote of 58 to 34 more
there are more stories, more pictures, and retrace the footprints of his brother who recently, I hope you and others will ensure
more artifacts, in the possession of, or in never revealed any of the ordeals he went it is enacted into law.
the memory of, those who served in a through. The period covers November I am dismayed that our own State
military capacity during World War II, or 1941 through September 1945. This story Department is siding with the Japanese
perhaps a friend of a military person who includes the start of the war with the government in this matter. The claims of
might have retained letters or other Japanese, the battle for Bataan, the the veterans are not against the Japanese
memorabilia of the World War II era. Also Bataan Death March, the POW camps in government and they are not asking for a
there are those that worked in supporting the Philippines, the Hell Ships to Japan, handout from the American taxpayer.
entities such as shipyards, aircraft life as a slave working the coal mines of They are only asking for the right to a day
construction, ammunition plants, etc., Japan, the liberation by U.S. Forces and in court. Win, lose or draw, at least the
that might have stories to tell. finally the trip back home to their loved story of these brave veterans will finally
So now can I ask you for a personal ones. be told.
favor? I am just a small piece of a large The warrior code of Bushido said, “Do Our own government abandoned the
puzzle. I am a volunteer trying to make not survive to suffer the dishonor of cap- veterans, like me, who answered the call
the Institute’s presence known to as many ture.” Surrender made captives subhuman to arms in WWII. At a time when our
persons as I can. Would you do me the and this the Japanese believed. Read how nation is once again at war, I cannot
favor of informing your membership about sadistic the Japanese were during the understand why our government would
the Institute? Death March and in the prison camps. want to continue to send this message of
When I volunteered to assist in publiciz- One of three of the American prisoners abandonment to our own fighting men and
ing the activities of the Institute, I died in captivity and for the Asians it was women who are now answering our call to
received a letter from Bill Oldson, Director far worse. These were young men in their arms just as we did almost 60 years ago.
of the Institute, that I would like to quote, twenties and some even younger. Through Will they have to face the same kind of
in part: no fault of their own they were expendable treatment when they return to their
“The Institute concentrates on the lives as there was no hope of rescue. The Death normal lives??? What will you be telling
and experiences of average men and March alone claimed the lives of 16,950 our young soldiers who are now being
women during the war, especially those Americans and Filipinos. There was mur- deployed overseas about the way our
who served in the armed forces and der, disease, beheading and starvation. government treats its veterans if this
defense industries. The Institute is a These survivors of the Bataan Death amendment, so widely supported in both
repository for archives of information March, torpedoed hellships and slave houses, does not become law???
about the period 1941-1945 which so mines tell hair-raising stories, illustrated Again, thank you for your support of our
profoundly influenced this country’s later by stark sketches that will haunt you veterans. I would like to set up an appoint-
history. It is not a museum, although we forever. War is not a John Wayne movie. It ment to personally meet with you in your
have limited exhibits for visitors and the is Hell on Earth as this book will illustrate. state congressional office as soon as possible
media. It is our hope that personal Included in this book is a roster of all to discuss this important legislation. I can
histories in the form of diaries, letters, the American POWs who were in Camp be reached at # (864) 225-1093.
and memoirs will present the experiences Fukuoka #17 located adjacent to May God Bless America.
of the ordinary serviceman or woman, the Nagasaki, Japan. Sincerely,
defense worker, various volunteers, and This is a limited supply edition and is not Ralph Knox
conditions on the Home Front. available in bookstores. Copies are $25.00 2420 Marchbanks Avenue, Apt. 18-D
“We would be delighted to receive each, postage and shipping included. Send Anderson, SC 29621
personal letters, diaries, photographs, checks to:
memoirs, military records, etc. from the Stanley R. Tokarz
World War II era. Our archival environ- 383 Worcester Street
ment gives us the capability to preserve West Boylston, MA 01583
NOVEMBER, 2001 — 13
JAMES E. BITNER He retired to Nashua, N.H., and she was separated at Liberation but would
returned to Weymouth last year. rediscover him decades later after raising
James E. Bitner died at his home on
He received the Purple Heart, Good her family, but also suffered beriberi.
September 8, 2001 from acute melogenous
Conduct Medal, American Defense Medal, Returning CONUS, Dotty missed the
Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal, World camaraderie; family and friends seemed
He was a member of the 1st Air
War II Victory Medal, National Defense as strangers. She was depressed and
Warning Co. He went to the Philippine
Medal and Prisoner of War Medal. He also guilty, feeling her contributions had been
Islands in July 1941. James survived the
received the Philippine Defense Medal, negligible compared to those in combat.
Bataan Death March. He was sent out on
Philippine Independence Ribbon and She worked War Bond drives and was
the Tayabs detail, then back to Bilibid,
Philippine Republic Presidential Unit assigned, at her request to the U.S. Naval
then to Cabanatuan. In November he
Citation. He was presented the Bronze Hospital in Panama. She was discharged
moved to Japan to the Matushima Prison
Star in 1986. honorably from the USN as a LCDR with
Camp where he remained until the
Born in Rockland, he graduated from a Bronze Star and POW Medal.
Rockland High School in 1930 when he Dorothy Still Danner married Golburn
After the war, he returned to Eastern
was 16 years old. Robert “Peck” Danner in 1947 and moved
PA and went to college and got a law
He joined the Civilian Conservation to North Hollywood, where “Peck” was
degree. In 1950 he moved to Long Beach,
Corps when he was 16, using his older employed as a sound technician with
CA and worked for a west coast insurance
brother’s name because he was too young to Warner Brothers Studios, Disney Studios
company until he retired in 1981. In
enlist. For three terms he traveled across and later, CBS News. Following the birth
November 1988 he moved to Bishop, CA.
the country, working on roads and parks to of Margery Lorraine Danner and Dan
He is survived by his wife of 53 years,
earn money for his family in Rockland. David Danner, Dorothy endured the loss
Romaine Sprenkle Bitner.
Mr. Cullinan was a member of the of her husband to a heart attack while
———————— American Legion, Disabled American pregnant with a son, Martin Danner, who
Veterans and a member of the Top 3. was born two months later.
RALPH L. CULLINAN Husband of the late Mildred C. (White) Dorothy alone supported her 3 children
WEYMOUTH — Ralph L. “Rudy” Cullinan, he is survived by two sons, as a nurse and hospital supervisor. She
Cullinan, 87, of Weymouth, a World War Michael E. Cullinan of Whitman and lived for a time in Baton Rouge, LA near
II veteran who was a Japanese prisoner of Timothy J. Cullinan of East Weymouth; a her daughter and 3 grandkids, and then
war for three years, died at South Shore daughter, Jane Killinger of Kingston; a moved to Boise, ID to be near Martin, his
Hospital after a short illness. brother, John Cullinan of Long Island, N.Y.; wife and 3 grandkids. In September 1995,
He served in the 27th bomb group, a sister, Mary Bennett of Virginia; nine she published the funny, moving and
arriving at Clark Field in the Philippines grandchildren; and four great-grandsons. fascinating “What A Way To Spend A
days before the bombing of Pearl Harbor A funeral mass was celebrated at Holy War”, [U.S. Naval Institute Press], about
on December 7 and Clark Field on Family Church in Rockland. Burial was in her wartime experiences.
December 8. Holy Family Cemetery in Rockland. Dorothy was honored by President
His unit defended the Bataan Peninsula Reagan at the White House at a civilian
against more than 200,000 Japanese ———————— sponsored reunion in March 1992 in
troops for 98 days until their capture on Washington with other remaining women
April 9, 1942. The unit was forced to STILLED WATERS RAN POWs. She returned to Virginia for a
march for three days to Camp O’Donnell,
90 miles away. Thousands of soldiers died DEEP: NAVAL INSPIRATION reunion with her beloved USN Nurse
Corps in May 1996 and in 2000, was twice
on the way to the camp and the march DOROTHY STILL DANNER featured in an American Legion Auxiliary
later became known as the Death March magazine.
By ALICE A. BOOHER
of Bataan. A memorial service was held on June 21,
Mr. Cullinan worked on the Tabias A remarkable woman died on June 16, 2001 at her final residence, the Boise State
Road detail and became seriously ill and 2001: Dorothy Still Danner. Born November Veterans Home. Mass was celebrated in
was transferred to Bilibid Prison, a hospi- 29, 1914 in Saginaw, MI, “Dotty” was raised her honor at St. John’s Cathedral in Boise
tal run by U.S. Navy prisoners of war. in Long Beach, CA and joined the USN NC on June 23, 2001.
Cullinan was left to die, but dragged in December 1937 after graduating as a reg- Interment with full military honors was
himself out of the death ward. A Naval istered nurse from Los Angeles County in Arlington National Cemetery, August
doctor helped care for him until he General Hospital School of Nursing. She 31, 2001, 1500 hours, followed by a recep-
weighed 80 pounds and was able to stand. served two years in Navy hospitals before tion at the Women in Military Service to
From there he went to Cabanatuan, being transferred in February 1940 to the America (WIMSA) site, where on special
Clark Field and back to Bilibid and sailed Philippines. The Japanese occupied Manila, exhibit, “Guests of the Emperor”, was
on one of the last “death ships” to Japan and by the time Corregidor fell in 1942, artwork by internationally recognized R.
in the fall of 1944. He was a slave laborer Japanese POWs included 11 Navy nurses Thomas McLaughlin, M.D., former Navy
in a copper mine until the war ended and who were subsequently transferred to Los surgeon with focus on the 11 USN POW
his camp was liberated in August 1945. Banos, outside the city. Los Banos was ini- nurses and Dotty in particular.
While a prisoner, the Japanese made tially abundant with food and relatively We sorely miss Dotty, her snappy
Cullinan and other soldiers deliver radio pleasant, but quickly became a nightmare professional salute, perfect handwriting,
messages to family. He sent a message to thanks in part to a sadistic supply officer witty retort, sweet smile, hearty laugh
his mother, Betsy, and girlfriend, Mildred who was later tried and executed as a war and gentle kindnesses.
White, promising he would come home to criminal.
marry her. The nurses, including Dotty, later said
Ham radio operators tracked Betsy that the fact that they were permitted to
Cullinan in Rockland to relay the message. continue their healing work, limited only by
He returned the following year and their own illnesses, made the difference in
married Mildred White three weeks later. their survival. They were rescued by the
He served in the Air Force for 21 years 11th Airborne Division on February 23,
and retired as a sergeant major. He later 1945, the day that they thought they were
worked for Eastern Air Lines as a produc- to be executed. In captivity, Dotty experi-
tion control manager. enced the friendship of someone from whom
14 — THE QUAN
ROBERT N. DENNIS both of Greencastle. Mr. Hatcher was also a Veterans of Foreign Wars, Fort Ord Army
member of the American Defenders of Group life member 149th Armor Regi -
Robert N. Dennis was born May 13,
Bataan and Corregidor, Inc. ment, Tank Company 40th and 47th Club.
1921 and died July 29, 2001. Born in
During the Depression, he served in the Salinas Elks Lodge 614, Cub and Boy
Middletown, OH, he lived in Cincinnati
Civilian Conservation Corps. He and many Scouts master, Silver Kings and Queens,
before coming to Cape Coral 20 years ago.
other men built homes in Norvelt, where Trailer Club, Greenfield Planning
He was a former POW of WWII, was on
Eleanor Roosevelt attended the opening Commission and SIRS.
the Bataan Death March, spent 31⁄2 years
dedication service. He served as a volunteer Survivors: Wife, Mary C. Hicks of
as a Japanese prisoner, served with 2nd
in the Norvelt Fire Department, where he Greenfield; son, Thomas C. Hicks; daugh-
OBS Sqd. and 27 BG POW Camp,
enlisted in the U.S. Army Air Corps and ters, Janna M. King, Pam J. Pinkerton;
Cabanatuan, Bilibid, Fukuoka and was in
was stationed in the Philippines during sons-in-law Patrick King and William
service for 22 years.
World War II. He was captured and a POW Pinkerton; sister, Melva Recek; four
He is survived by wife Delores of 15
for 3 1⁄2 years and was a survivor of the grandchildren and numerous nieces and
years; two daughters, Debbie Worley and
Bataan Death March. nephews.
Debbie Sanofsky and stepdaughter
He and his wife, Twila (Lambing) Visitation and Services: Struve and
Charlene Meyers; 11 grandchildren and
Hatcher, were married March 13, 1947, in Laporte Funeral Chapel, 41 W. San Luis
the Swedish Lutheran Church in Greens- St., Salinas. Services were at the funeral
Veterans memorial will be at a later
burg. In addition to his wife, he is survived chapel.
by a daughter, Renee L. Poper; a brother, Burial: Garden of Memories Cemetery,
———————— Franklin Hatcher; a sister, Ann Queer; five 768 Abbott St., Salinas.
granddaughters; three grandsons; three
STANLEY EVANICHKO great-grandsons; and a number of nieces
Stanley Evanichko, 85, of Latrobe, died and nephews. He was preceded in death by ERNEST J. IRVIN
Wednesday, September 5, 2001, in Latrobe a son, Bradley Vinson Hatcher, in 1984; two
STUART — Cmdr. Ernest J. Irvin, USN
Area Hospital. Born November 15, 1915, in brothers, Elmo and Donald Hatcher; and a
Ret., died Monday, January 29, 2001, in
Whitney, he was a son of the late Paul and sister, Betty Hatcher.
Martin Memorial Medical Center.
Ann Balik Evanichko. He was a member of Funeral service was held from the
He was a native of Ged, La.
St. Rose Church, Latrobe. Prior to his Harold M. Zimmerman and Son Funeral
He enlisted in the Navy in 1937 and
retirement, he had been employed by Home, 45 S. Carlisle St., Greencastle, with
completed basic training in Norfolk, Va.
Standard Steel Co., Latrobe. the Rev. Harold Hollister and the Rev.
He completed his high school education
He was a World War II veteran, having Guy Camp III co-officiating. Burial with
in the Navy and trained to be a hospital
served as a staff sergeant in the U.S. Army military honors was held in the Parklawns
corpsman and medical field technician in
Air Corps. He was a POW in Japan, and Memorial Gardens in Chambersburg.
San Diego. As an enlisted man, he held
had participated in the Bataan Death ———————— every enlisted rate. He was commissioned
March. He was the recipient of the Good
ensign in 1952.
Conduct Medal, three Battle Stars and a THOMAS JEFFERSON HICKS During World War II, he served with
Presidential Citation. He was a member of
Thomas Jefferson Hicks, 83, of Green- the Marines in the Philippine Islands, was
the Cooperstown Veterans and Sportsman
field, CA died Thursday, July 19, 2001, at taken prisoner by the Japanese in May
Association and American Defenders of
Pacific Coast Care Center following a brief 1942 and was interned on Bataan,
Bataan and Corregidor, Inc. He was an avid
illness. Corregidor and in Japan for 43 months.
outdoorsman, gardener, Pittsburgh Steelers
He was born in Elkins, W. Va., and had After the war, he pursued numerous
and Pirates fan. He was loved dearly by his
lived in Greenfield since 1945. He was a Navy educational programs, received a
family and will be greatly missed.
retired manager for Hicks Lumber Co. in bachelor of science degree from the Statler
Surviving are his wife of 55 years,
Greenfield. He loved dancing. He traveled School of Hotel & Restaurant, Cornell
Margaret T. Priviech Evanichko; a son,
extensively in the United States with a University, following which he served as
Stanley Evanichko, Jr. and wife, Nancy;
goal of visiting all 50 states. He was a food service officer in Navy hospitals in
two daughters, Linda Miller and husband,
great outdoorsman and loved fishing, California, Japan and South Carolina. His
Gary and Maria Chavkin and husband,
hunting and hiking in Arroyo Seco. He was last assignment was on the staff of the
Brian; two brothers, Frank and Joseph
a proud and honorable husband, father, Surgeon General of the Navy, Bureau of
Evanichko; three sisters, Josephine Banner,
grandfather and devoted family man. He Medicine and Surgery. He served for more
Ann Hunkele and Helen Hafer; seven
was called by friends a prince of a man. than 39 years, retiring in 1975.
grandchildren; four great-grandchildren;
Military service: He served in the He was awarded the Silver Star, the
and a number of nieces and nephews.
Army in World War II. He was a survivor Bronze Star, Joint Services Commenda-
A Funeral Mass was celebrated in St.
of the Bataan Death March, 149th tion Medal and the Navy Commendation
Rose Church with the Rev. William P.
Armored Regiment. Medal along with numerous theater
Donahue as celebrant.
He received the Bronze Star with Oak medals and engagement stars.
———————— Leaf Cluster, the Purple Heart, the Survivors include his wife of 53 years,
Prisoner of War Medal, Good Conduct Gladys H. Irvin.
VINSON HATCHER Medal, Presidential Unit Emblem with Those who wish may contribute to the
Vinson Hatcher, 86, of Greencastle, died two Oak Leaf Clusters, American Defense Corregidor School Project, Philippines, c/o
Thursday, September 27, 2001 at 10:40 Service Medal with three Bronze Stars, Debby Duncan-Crossart, 1360 Tower
p.m. in the VA Medical Center in World War II Victory Medal, Combat Drive, Vista, CA 92083.
Martinsburg, W. Va. He was born October Infantry Medal, Philippine Defense
11, 1914, in Louisa, Ky., a son of the late Ribbon, Philippine Liberation Ribbon,
James and Brooke (Vinson) Hatcher. He Philippine Independence Ribbon, Philip-
was employed by Mack Trucks, pine Presidential Unit Citation Medal,
Hagerstown, Md., for 17 years, retiring in General de Pilar Medal, California
1978. Mr. Hatcher was a member of the National Guard Medal.
State Line United Methodist Church, the Memberships: American Legion Active
Frank L. Carbaugh American Legion Post Service Officer, American Legion Drill
373 and Harry D. Zeigler VFW Post 6319, Team, Disabled American Veterans,
NOVEMBER, 2001 — 15
MARVIN MARK Scotty is missed greatly by his family PHILIP D. TOLAND
and friends. We all know he is finally at
Memorial services for Marvin A. Mark, Philip D. Toland, life member 5012,
Jr., 80, of Branson, were held on Thurs- ———————— passed away November 17, 2000 in
day, August 2, at Greenlawn Funeral Leominster, MA. He served during WWII
Home. A second service and burial were ROBERT V. McCLELLAN with the 31st Inf. Reg., Anti-Tank Co. in the
the next week in Riverside National Robert V. McClellan, of Bothell, Wa., Pacific and was captured on Bataan. After
Cemetery, Riverside, CA. age 81, died August 28. He was a retired surviving the Bataan Death March, he was
He died July 29, 2001 at his home. U.S. Army World War II veteran, a Cpl. held in Las Pinas, Cabanatuan, Oyama,
Mr. Mark was born at Sanger, CA, the from the 19th Air Base Sq., survivor of the Bilibid and O’Donnell. An active member of
son of Marvin and Fannie Mark, Sr. He Bataan Death March and spent 31⁄2 years AXPOW and the Dept. of Massachusetts
was a retired finance officer for Security as a POW. He was also the recipient of the and Mass. Chapter #1, Phil most recently
Pacific Finance in Riverside, where he Bronze Star Medal. served as Chapter Adjutant.
lived for many years before moving to He is survived by wife Helen, 2 sons, 3 Survivors include his wife Yvette, and
Branson in 1998. He served with the daughters, 9 grandchildren, 2 great grand- many, many friends in Massachusetts and
United States Army during WWII and children, 1 brother and 1 sister. the rest of the country.
was a POW. He was a member of the Interment was at Tahoma National ————————
American Legion Post #79 in Riverside Cemetery in Kent, Wa.
and was of the Protestant faith. ———————— MADELINE M. ULLOM
Surviving are his wife, Virginia Mark,
of the home; three children, Dan Austin, of
LLOYD ROBINSON By KIMBERLY MATAS
In memory of Lloyd Leo “Bud” Arizona Daily Star
Alaska state, Judy Lugo, of North
Carolina state, and Kathleen Austin, of Robinson. He was born July 25, 1913 in Madeline M. Ullom, a decorated Army
Maine state; three grandchildren and five Clearfield, Ringgold County, Iowa. He nurse who was a prisoner of war in World
great-grandchildren. passed away August 12, 2001 in Edinburg, War II, died at age 90 at the Southern
Memorials may be made to any POW Hidalge County, Texas. Arizona Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
association or the donor’s favorite charity. He is survived by wife Loretta M. Ullom, born in 1911, had been a Tucson
Robinson, Edinburg, Texas; sister Pauline resident since 1964. She graduated with
Cunningham, Tucson, Arizona; and a honors from the nurses’ training program
ROBERT McARDLE brother Floyd Robinson, Tucson, Arizona. at Thomas Jefferson Medical College in
Mr. Robinson was a U.S. Army veteran Philadelphia and became an Army nurse
I am writing to you to inform you that
of World War II and a Japanese Prisoner in 1938.
my husband, Robert F. (Scotty) McArdle,
of War for 31⁄2 years. He was the recipient Transferred to the Philippines in 1940,
passed away August 26, 2001 at the
of many medals during his time in the Ullom and her fellow Army and Navy
Grand Rapids Veterans Nursing Home in
military. nurses were referred to as “The Angels of
Michigan. I am enclosing part of the
He was a life member of the D.A.V., Ex Bataan and Corregidor,” according to the
eulogy our Pastor read at his service.
POWs, Defenders of Corregidor, American Arizona Veterans Hall of Fame.
Would you please see this notice is printed
Legion, the NRA, and a resident of Citrus She was among nearly 100 military
in The Quan?
Mobile Park in Edinburg for the past 13 nurses who were captured in 1942 when
At age 85, Robert F. (Scotty) McArdle of
years. the Philippines fell to Japan after the
Dearborn, Michigan passed away August
Mr. Robinson was cremated and an bombing of Pearl Harbor. The women
26, 2001. In 1939 he volunteered for service
interment service was held at a later date spent 33 months living in squalid condi-
in the United States Marine Corps. Scotty
in Iowa. tions and treating the wounded until they
entered active duty in October of 1939 and
———————— were liberated by American forces on
was stationed in Shanghai, China. After the
attack on Pearl Harbor, he was transferred HERBERT H. SMITH February 3, 1945.
to the Philippines for a brief period before Herbert H. “Smitty” Smith, 84, longtime During their imprisonment, Ullom and
the island fell into the hands of the resident of Albuquerque, died on Friday, the other nurses had to bow correctly
Japanese. Scotty then attempted to swim August 30, 2001. He is survived by his every time they passed a Japanese captor.
between the Philippines and the Island of wife of 55 years, Edith S. Smith of At the prison camp in Manila, they
Corregidor. He was rescued by coast watch- Albuquerque; sons, Richard A. Smith and tended the wounded. As supplies dwin-
ers about halfway through the swim and wife, Carolyn and Herb H. Smith, Jr. and dled, the prisoners’ rations were cut in
safely arrived in Corregidor. This island fell wife, Charlotte; grandchildren, Rachelle half, then in half again. Malnutrition,
into enemy hands on May 6, 1942 and A. Smith, Regan A. Smith and Loren A. starvation and illness were rampant.
Scotty was captured by the Japanese Army Smith; brothers, Melvin Smith and wife, “Every time the United States took back
and was submitted to severe torture in no Marge and Jim Smith and wife, Dori; and an island, our rations were cut,” Ullom
less than four prisoner of war camps. Two of a sister, Josie Lancaster and husband, recounted in a 1998 Arizona Daily Star
these camps were on the island of Japan Bob. He was preceded in death by his interview. “The last ration we received in
and within sight of both nuclear explosions, parents, William and Erba; three sisters, camp was two bags of moldy rice for over
which brought about the end of WWII. La Verta, Margie and Wanda. 4,000 people.”
Following the war, Scotty was admitted to Mr. Smith served his country in the Despite the dire conditions, fellow prison-
Veteran Administration Hospitals in U.S. Army during WWII and was a ers remember that Ullom often had a smile
Okinawa, San Diego and Chicago before he Prisoner of War in the Philippines. on her face, said a friend, Lucius D. Legg.
was released from active duty in May 1946. Services were held Wednesday, Legg began corresponding with Ullom
While serving his country, Robert September 5, 2001 at French Mortuary, in 1998 after the retired Army nurse was
(Scotty) was awarded the Purple Heart, Wyoming Chapel, 7121 Wyoming Blvd. featured in author Diane Fessler’s book
the China Marine Medal, the Prisoner of NE Interment followed at Santa Fe “No Time for Fear.” The two became
War Medal, the Philippine Defense Medal, National Cemetery. friends, and Legg would visit Ullom at the
and the Philippine Liberation Medal. veterans hospital.
His wife Dorothy; two daughters, In recent letters, two fellow prisoners
Marcia and Diane; a son Robert F., II; six now living in Texas remember Ullom
grandchildren; five great-grandchildren trying to cheer up her “buddies,” Legg
and one brother William, survive Scotty. said.
16 — THE QUAN
Ullom was awarded two Bronze Stars, Mr. Weitzner was placed on another JOHN R. WERTENBERGER
three Presidential Unit Citations, the ship and continued his voyage. He was
MANSFIELD — John R. Wertenberger,
POW medal and other citations for her finally liberated to the Russians in
79, of 1606 Oxford St., died early Monday
performance in the face of the enemy. She Manchuria. He weighed 67 pounds.
morning, September 24, 2001, at Riverside
also was past honorary national president During his time as a POW, Mr.
Hospital after a long illness.
of the American Defenders of Bataan and Weitzner survived dysentery, beriberi,
Mr. Wertenberger was born September
Corregidor. She retired as a lieutenant and other diseases. His health was affect-
8, 1922 in Wooster, Ohio, living in the
colonel. ed for life. But his daughter said he was a
Mansfield area since 1958. He retired
After the war, Ullom earned bachelor’s happy man. “He was the biggest hero I
from General Motors after 31 years and
and master’s degrees in nursing education ever had,” she said.
was a member of GM Salaried Retirees
and an honorary doctorate in humane Mr. Weitzner was born in New York
letters from her alma mater. City. He attended Virginia Military
Mr. Wertenberger was a veteran of
Last May she was one of the first 50 Institute and graduated from Fitchburg
WWII, serving in the U.S. Army. He was a
veterans inducted into the Arizona State College in 1977.
prisoner of the Japanese for 31⁄2 years and
Veterans Hall of Fame in Phoenix. A Mason and Shriner, after his military
part of the American Defenders of Bataan
“She had a very cheerful demeanor, service he worked at the blood bank at
and Corregidor. He was a life member of
very outgoing,” said Legg. “She wasn’t a Leominster Hospital.
Disabled American Veterans and a mem-
talkative lady, but she had a warmth that He leaves his wife, Phyllis (Shaw); a son,
ber of Amvets #26, North Central Ohio
people just seemed to sense. Anybody who James A.; two daughters, Nancy Blood and
Chapter #8 American Ex-Prisoners of
came in contact with her would soon pick Susan E., and two grandchildren.
War, and VFW Post #8586 of Perrysville.
up on this quality.” ————————
He is survived by his wife of 55 years,
Ullom, who never married and lived for
the last 18 years in the Winterhaven
MIKE S. WEPSIEC Lorna J. Larrick Wertenberger; two sons
Mike S. Wepsiec passed away. He was an and daughters-in-law, Larry and Diana
neighborhood, was buried with military
Army Veteran of WWII, loving father of Wertenberger and Dan and Sharon
honors in Nebraska, where she was born.
James (Susan), Richard, Robert Wepsiec, Wertenberger; daughter and son-in-law,
Debora (Edward) Rolek and Thomas Tami and Michael Hunt; seven grand -
DANIEL WEITZNER Wepsiec, dearest grandfather of 12, great children and their spouses; nine great-
grandfather of ten, fond brother of Julie, grandchildren; brother and sister-in-law,
By TOM LONG
Anna and the late Mary, Helen and Francis and Doris Wertenberger; sister,
Edward, uncle of many nieces and nephews. Marjorie Holladay; and numerous nieces
Daniel N. Weitzner of Leominster, a Funeral arrangements were handled by and nephews. He was preceded in death
retired chief warrant officer who served in Foran Funeral Home, 7300 W. Archer by his parents, John and Josephine Smith
three wars and survived the Bataan Ave., (55th St., just west of Harlem). Mass Wertenberger; and grandson, Michael
Death March, died in Health Alliance was held at St. Symphorosa Church. Armstrong.
Leominster Hospital. He was 82. Interment was at Abraham Lincoln
Mr. Weitzner served in the Army for 26 National Cemetery, Elwood, Illinois.
years until his retirement in 1967. He Mike was the last surviving POW of the
served during World War II and the Bataan Death March in WWII, member of
Korean and Vietnam wars. the Des Plaines Valley V.F.W. Post #6863
He was serving in the Medical Corps in Ritual Team and Member of American
the Philippines during World War II, Legion Post #735, Member of the
when he and about 75,000 exhausted Southwest Muskee Fishing Club. Mike
troops were forced to surrender to the served with the 192nd Tank.
Japanese. In the 65-mile march to prison
camps that followed, many prisoners died
of disease and mistreatment in what
became known as the Bataan Death TENTATIVE SCHEDULE
March. 2002 National Convention
Mr. Weitzner remained a prisoner of May 14 through May 19, 2002
war for 31⁄2 years. Omni San Antonio Hotel
His daughter Susan said he was not Tuesday 7:00 PM Reception Cash Bar
reluctant to talk about his wartime experi- 5/14/2002
ences. She said he was fed as little as a Wednesday 8:00 AM Church Services
cup of rice and a half-cup of water each 5/15/2002 9:00 AM-3:00 PM Registration
day. 10:00 AM Executive Board Meeting
She said he told her the secret of 8:00 PM-11:00 PM Reception Host Bar
survival was to volunteer to work in the Thursday 8:00 AM Church Service
rice fields and “get as far away from the 5/16/2002 9:00 AM-3:00 PM Registration
prison guards as possible.” 9:30 AM Membership Meeting
He said that the majority of the guards 2:00 PM-4:30 PM VA Seminar
5:00 PM Kawasaki Dinner
treated the prisoners miserably, but that
8:00 PM-11:00 PM Reception Host Bar
some guards saved their own dinners to
Friday 8:00 AM Church Services
give to the prisoners. 5/17/2002 9:00 AM-3:00 PM Registration
The march and the prison camp would 12:00 Noon Widows Luncheon
not be the end of Mr. Weitzner’s ordeal. 7:00 PM-8:00 PM Hotel Desert Reception
According to his daughter, near the end of 8:00 PM-11:00 PM Quan Party & Dancing
the war, he and 1,600 prisoners were Saturday 8:00 AM Church Services
placed on a ship to be transported to 5/18/2002 11:00 AM Memorial Services
Japan. The unmarked ship was sunk by 7:00 PM Banquet Dinner
an American bomber in Formosa. Only Sunday Return Home — Farewells
300 prisoners survived. 5/19/2002
NOVEMBER, 2001 — 17
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF a general supply shortage began to weaken
all of us.
SENATE TO ADMINISTRATION:
THE BATTLE OF BATAAN On April 3, the Japanese opened their DON’T OPPOSE POW LAWSUITS
April 9 is now remembered as Bataan attack with a devastating air and artillery By JIM ABRAMS
Day. But what is the significance of this bombardment breaking through. Three Associated Press Writer
day to most people who do not remember regiments of the Philippine Division (PS)
counterattacked on April 7 to contain the WASHINGTON (AP) — The Senate
the past? It is on April 9, 1942, that I and
Japanese advance. The attack of the 45th voted to bar the administration from
the rest of the U.S. Armed Forces fighting
Infantry was held off and Japanese forces opposing lawsuits filed by former
the Japanese invaders were ordered to
maneuvered around the 57th Infantry. American POWs against Japanese cor -
surrender and lay down our arms. We
Though the American defense was disin- porations that enslaved them during
paid the price of humiliation after battling
tegrating, Scout units counterattacked World War II.
the invaders for four full months and
again and again to cover the withdrawal. “Our own State Department has come
inflicting heavy casualties on them.
By April 9, the 57th Infantry was ordered down on the side of the Japanese com -
It is now recorded in the U.S. military
to move to Corregidor but order to surren- panies, not our POWs,” Sen. Tom Harkin,
history. The Japanese war plans of con-
der arrived before the move was complete. D-Iowa, said in sponsoring the amend-
quering and taking control of the Pacific
What was expected by the Japanese to ment to a spending bill that passed the
Rim after the attack of Pearl Harbor on
be a quick victory turned into a tough Senate 58-34 recently.
December 7, 1941, was disrupted by the
fight which lasted four full months on The vote came two days after Secretary
gallant defense of the U.S. forces on
Bataan. It took another month for the of State Colin Powell, in San Francisco to
Japanese to capture the 1,200 Scouts on mark the 50th anniversary of the treaty
By early January 1942, the Japanese
Corregidor Island known as “The Rock” on that officially ended the Pacific War,
had defeated the British, Canadians, and
May 6, 1942. stressed that under the terms of that
the Dutch forces in Singapore, Malaysia,
Each of the Philippine Scout units treaty, the allied powers could not sue
and the Wake Islands. They expected to
earned three Presidential Unit Citations. Japan for reparations.
have full control in the Philippines by the
Typical of the valor of the Scouts is the “The treaty dealt with this matter 50
end of January.
record of the 57th Infantry, whose years ago … It’s a position we have to
The Japanese knew that the majority of
members were awarded twenty one defend,” Powell told reporters at the
the units fighting on Bataan were
distinguished service crosses and sixty anniversary event.
equipped with outdated weapons and no
eight Silver Stars during their combat But lawmakers differed with that read-
combat experience. Only the U.S. Regular
service in Bataan. ing of the document, pointing to a 1951
Army (Philippine Scouts), the 31st
In the battle of Bataan, three Philippine letter that was only recently made public
Infantry Regiment, and a Battalion of
Scouts were awarded the Medal of Honor, in which the Japanese foreign minister
U.S. Marines, were combat ready. Other
by the names of First Lieutenant Alexander told his Dutch counterpart that lawsuits
U.S. units like the Tank Battalion were
Nininger, 57th Infantry; Captain Willibald against Japanese citizens and corpora-
without tanks, the Air Force without
C. Bianchi, 45th Infantry and Sergeant Jose tions were allowed under the treaty.
planes, and the Navy without ships. They
Calugas, Sr., 88th Field Artillery. “Should our government be stopping a
were issued rifles and combat gears. The
It is documented by historians that the private citizen from seeking his or her day
Philippine Commonwealth Army had less
Japanese war planners made their big in court for a grievance?” said Sen. Bob
than six months of training and was
mistake by pouring their troops in the Smith, R-N.H., sponsor of the amendment
poorly equipped. These units composed
Philippines instead of continuing their with Harkin. “I don’t think so. I think it’s
our line of defense.
eastward advance in the Pacific. They wrong and I’m frankly ashamed that it’s
The order was to hold our positions at
could have invaded Australia and the happening.”
all cost. By January 7, 1942, the main
Hawaiian Islands. They could even attack The amendment to a $41 billion spend-
battle position was established on Bataan.
and bomb the California Coast. But they ing bill for the departments of State,
The Philippine Division (PS) and 26th
wanted to save their faces to their Justice and Commerce in the fiscal year
Cavalry (PS) were held in reserve. As the
Emperor. starting next month would bar the State
best trained units available, they were
By March 1942, we were already on and Justice departments from using funds
most capable of carrying out counter -
short ration of two meals a day. We were to interfere with lawsuits filed by former
attacks. The 57th Infantry (PS) defended
running out of ammunitions and medical POWs against Japanese companies.
the vital coastal sector on the eastern
supplies. Thousands were already suffer- The House, in its version of the
flank of the defense line.
ing from malaria and hundreds more were spending bill, in July accepted a similar
Heavy Japanese attacks between
in field hospitals without proper treat- amendment by a 395-33 vote.
January 10, 1942 and January 22, 1942,
ment. They could have just left a few hun- Sen. Daniel Inouye, D-Hawaii, a highly
succeeded despite fierce counterattacks by
dred of their soldiers to keep us in check decorated World War II veteran who was
the 57th Infantry and the Philippine
and wait for us to starve and die of sick- seriously wounded fighting for the all
Division (PS). A new line of defense was
ness. Japanese-American 442nd Regiment in
established to the south on January 25.
By giving the U.S. time to prepare and Europe, said it was not a question of
Again, each of the Scout regiments was
mobilize the Armed Forces, we paid a full “Japanese corporations against American
assigned a reserve/counterattack mission.
price for our action in Bataan. After we heroes,” but of protecting Justice’s consti-
The Japanese attacked again on January
surrendered, according to the Japanese, tutional authority as related to treaties.
26, supported by landings on the west coast
we lost all our rights. They did not abide He said he voted against barring funding
of Bataan. Counterattacks by the Scouts
with the rules of war as defined in the because it would “sow doubt about
restored the defense line and eradicated
Geneva Convention. So the torture and America’s word among other allies.”
the Japanese beachheads. The Japanese
suspended their offensive operations on more starvation began as soon as we
February 8 to build up their forces for a became POWs. I am just glad that I
decisive attack. They were reinforced by survived and lived to tell this story to the
seasoned troops that fought in their American public as an 82 year old “Bataan
Singapore and Malaysia campaign. Our Death March” survivor.
morale was high during this break and Larry L. Pangan
temporary victory, but short of rations and Fairfield
18 — THE QUAN
THE FINAL INSULT President Truman had been told that as
many as 600,000 Americans could die in
Those “heroes” and “heroines” of the the first 30 days of a land assault. The I would like to know if anyone is still
’60s never saw a cause worth fighting for loved ones of those who would return living who at the time of the surrender of
or a war worth winning. They have now home alive and not in a box with a Bataan may have been in Hospital #2. I
delivered the final insult. telegram from the President as their only was there at the time of the surrender and
As the anniversary of the end of World comfort are grateful the bomb was myself and a number of others were kept
War II approaches, they are reaching back dropped. at that location until Corregidor fell. We
a generation and demeaning their parents’ On ABC, however, Jennings chided were then taken to Manila and Bilibid
sacrifice, patriotism and decisiveness, veterans groups who pressured the Prison by Japanese truck. We endured
saying there was no need and no excuse Smithsonian Institution into dispensing about 30 days of artillery exchange
for dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima with its revisionist view of the Enola Gay between the Japanese and Corregidor.
and Nagasaki. exhibit, calling them censors and sug - Anyone who was there or remembers any
Even The Washington Post was offended gesting that Americans were fighting for of it, please write or call me collect, or put
by a purely propagandistic program nar- freedom of speech. They were, in fact, it in The Quan.
rated by Peter Jennings on ABC. Reviewer fighting for truth, not the kind of propa- Thank you so much.
Ken Ringle called it “an ingenue’s stroll ganda that the original Smithsonian William Arnold
down the narrow tunnels of academic display conveyed; the kind that, as Webb 1739 Maurine St.
revisionism with only occasional intima- notes, “provided more narrative space to Billings, Montana 59105
tions that larger truths may lie outside.” anti-Asian racism in the United States Phone 406-252-1366
Ringle critiqued the portrayal of than to the attack on Pearl Harbor … and
President Truman — popular these days 49 photos of suffering Japanese and three
among the revisionists — as “an intellec- of Americans.”
tual and moral dwarf, propelled by Do you suppose its reversed in Japan?
ambitious militarists and politicians to a Are the Japanese telling their people how
nuclear slaughter of the innocents.” horrible they were and portraying their
The real intellectual and moral dwarfs fellow Asians and the Americans as
are those who can’t see beyond their own victims of Japanese aggression? Not a
comfort and for whom sacrifice was sitting chance. This is a view held exclusively by
still long enough to listen to a lecture from some Americans who see no evil, will fight
their parents about why they should love
for no good and whose cowardice ought to
qualify them to do nothing more than keep
INTRODUCTION OF VUMS
There is nothing on television and too their mouths shut when they are con - To Whom It May Concern,
little in the history books about a decade fronted by some of the greatest heroes who The Veterans of Underage Military
of Japanese aggression in Asia and the ever lived — the veterans of World War II Service [VUMS] is a fledgling veterans
numerous atrocities committed by – and a courageous President who knew organization incorporated in 1991.
Japanese soldiers before the United States what it meant to lead. Our 1000 plus members, from all
entered the war to stop them. Nothing Cal Thomas branches of service, entered the military
about death marches or beheadings of L.A. Times while younger than the legal minimum
prisoners and many other violations of the age for enlistment. We estimate that 3-5%
———————— of WWII and Korea veterans were
Geneva Convention’s mandate on the
underage when they enlisted.
treatment of POWs. And then there was
Pearl Harbor, which became a rallying cry
REQUEST FOR INFORMATION We are initiating a concentrated
for those then alive and those yet to come, I am searching for a book, CONDUCT ‘membership recruiting effort’ to reach all
not to forget. How soon they actually did UNDER FIRE: Three American Doctors of America’s underage veterans who have
forget. and their Fate as POWs in the Pacific not yet heard of VUMS. Most are now in
Thankfully, Parade Magazine recently (Viking Penguin). I am interested in hear- their golden years and time is fleeting.
published a story by former Navy ing from anyone who had any contact with Your help in this worthy endeavor will be
Secretary James Webb, who interviewed the following four Navy doctors: Lt. greatly appreciated.
retired Air Force Gen. Chuck Sweeney. Ferdinand V. Berley, Lt. (j.g.) George Please make note of our groups exis-
Sweeney was the only pilot on both atomic Ferguson, Lt. (j.g.) John Bookman, and Lt. tence at your next organizational event.
bomb runs over Japan. (j.g.) Murray Glusman. We hope that you will also include the fol-
He dismisses the revisionist contention I am also interested in any accounts, lowing message in your next publication.
that the bombs weren’t necessary (pointing diaries, letters, pertaining to the Fourth
VETERANS of UNDERAGE
out that numerous firebomb attacks — Marines in Shanghai; those stationed near
MILITARY SERVICE, INC. [VUMS]
which killed nearly as many as the nuclear the Mariveles Section base on Bataan or at
“If you served in the military at least
bombs would later do — had failed to Battery “C”; as well as information pertain-
one  day while younger than the
persuade the Japanese to surrender). He ing to former POWs of Bilibid, Cabanatuan
minimum legal age, please contact us
then expresses his contempt for critics who Camp #2, Kobe Prisoner of War Hospital,
for information and membership.”
weren’t there and who wouldn’t fight when Itchioka Stadium, Maruyama, Osaka Red
their turn came because of self-professed Cross Hospital; and finally, any information Write for information. Thank you for
purity. relating to the Hell Ship, Arisan Maru. your consideration.
Sweeney said he has had to endure Please contact John A. Glusman, 453 Major Robert Thorpe, USAF [Ret.]
numerous interviews by “young reporters Hillside Place, South Orange, NJ 07079, 6616 E. Buss Road
who don’t even know the dates World War 212-206-5372 (days), 973-761-1558 (nights Clinton, WI 53525
II was fought.” He refers to the “cultural and weekends); email: email@example.com Ph. 608-676-4935
ignorance” of many when it comes to the Yours sincerely, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
important issues of American history. John A. Glusman www.oldvums.com
The people who risked dying, had a land
invasion of Japan been ordered, were
pleased that the bomb was dropped.
NOVEMBER, 2001 — 19
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20 — THE QUAN