Ontario Mennonite History - Mennonite Historical Society of Ontario.pdf

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					                                            MY RELATIVES :
                                     Ultra Conservative Mennonites
 Ontario                                                     by Charlotte Martin

      OF THE
                     A farm near Linwood belonging to a member of the David Martin Mennonites. Large hip roof barns with roof
SOCIETY OF ONTARIO   'chimney' ventilators are common .

                         Mennonites, for different people, conjure          life . However, in studying the history of
                     up different images in the mind . To some,             the David Martin Mennonites, I have
                     they are simply a religious group much like            started to understand my ancestry and the
                     most other religious groups in Canada. To              effects it has had on our family and on my
  VOLUME XVI         others, they are people with a strong social           own childhood . Their history is one of
                     conscience who are involved in relief work             major church splits over seemingly minor
   NUMBER 1          in many parts of the world . To others still,          issues followed by many excommunica-
                     they are very conservative people, farmers,            tions and the cruel practice of shunning .
                     who live without modern conveniences like              It is the story of families being torn apart
   MAY 1998          electricity and indoor plumbing and cars .             and alienated from each other for seem-
                     It is this latter image that best describes            ingly trivial reasons . It is the story of my
                     my relatives and ancestors .                           maternal ancestry. The separation of my
ISSN 1192-5515           I remember often hearing, as I was
                     growing up, about the David Martin
                                                                            own family from the David Martin
                                                                            Mennonites reflects their general history
                     Mennonites, the group of ultra conserva-               which is a fascinating story of uncompro-
                     tive Mennonites in which my mother was                 mising splits and separations .
                     raised .' They are a small group of                        The David Martin group of Mennonites
                     Mennonites who broke away from the                     began in 1917 when my great-great-grand-
                     Old Order Mennonites because the latter                father Minister David B . Martin, and his
                     were becoming too worldly and who dis-                 son Deacon David W. Martin, and another
                     associated themselves from all Mennonite               one of my great-great-grandfathers
                     conferences . They live very simply in                 Minister Daniel Brubacher joined together
                     Waterloo County of Southern Ontario                    and separated from the Old Order
                     around the towns of St . Clements,                     Mennonite group to which they previously
                     Wallenstein, Hawkesville and Linwood .                 belonged . One of the motivations for those
                         The history of the David Martin                    who left was the issue of owning bicycles .
                     Mennonites is the story of a people who                    David W . Martin was a young man
                     believe that they should be in the world               who had been a deacon in the Wisler sec-
                     but not of it . They have struggled to put             tion of the Old Order Mennonite church
                     into practice what they believe the Bible              since 1913 . At the time, bicycles were not
                     to teach when it admonishes believers to               allowed within the group but some men
                     "love not . . . the things that are in the             had them anyway . When they were told to
                     world ." Although I have often heard the               put them away, they refused . David was
                     stories about my mother's childhood in the             asked to visit them and persuade them to
                     David Martin group, they never seemed to               give up bicycles, but he didn't want to do
                     have any connection or relevance to my                 this unless he could use the ban on those
Page 2

who still refused. The Bishop disagreed          united with Minister Daniel Brubacher.          Brubacher served as the new group's lead-
and thought that David wanted too much           Daniel had been a minister in the               ers, but the group was without a bishop .
authority for a young man.                       Conestogo Old Order Mennonite Church            A bishop is needed to perform all the
    The ban is a form of excommunication         since 1876, but he left it in 1909 . The        important ceremonies such as communion,
and complete shunning of any who does            reason for his withdrawal is uncertain          baptism, marriages and funerals . He can
not confess his/her sins . A sin could be        although there are some hints of a racy         only be a man who has already been a
anything from keeping company with               scandal involving his son. Since his            minister and has proven himself to be
someone outside the group to sitting in          departure, he had been holding indepen-         effective so that he can oversee numerous
the wrong pew in the meeting house to            dent meetings in his home .                     ministers and numerous churches . This
disagreeing with a particular rule/tradition .       Church leaders can only be men and          problem was solved on Ascension Day of
Users of the ban believe that when people        are chosen in the David Martin group by         1918 when Daniel Brubacher was chosen
leave their church and are excommunicat-         lot, as in other conservative Mennonite         as Bishop . The David Martin Mennonites
ed, they are lost and will not enter Heaven      groups . A day is set aside for members to      were now an autonomous group.
unless they rejoin the group. Among the          choose candidates before the Bishop . The           With their new Bishop, they were able
David Martin Mennonites, people who              bishop then reads off the names, and the        to hold their first communion that spring,
have erred are given the chance to confess       following Tuesday or Wednesday every-           on 26 May, with a total of forty-eight
in church before they are banned . The           one comes together for the ordination .         members, all of whom are listed in the
deacon calls on them individually and asks       As many books as there are candidates are       "General Records of the Orthodox
them if they confess before God that they        set aside in a private room . The deacon        Mennonite Church ." Many of the original
have sinned and want forgiveness . If the        places a piece of paper in one of the books     members did not end up staying with the
person responds positively then he/she is        and hands them all over to another deacon       David Martin Mennonites and only seven
able to sit back down and continue within        or minister . This leader then mixes up the     of David B . Martin's thirteen children
the group otherwise he/she is put out of         books and hands them on to the bishop           remained a part of the group. This includ-
the church and turned over to Satan.             who shuffles them again. By this time it is     ed my great-grandparents, Mr. and Mrs.
    Apparently, the split between the            obviously impossible to know which book         John W. Martin, and their eleven children,
Old Order Mennonites and the David               holds the paper. Each candidate takes a         the second oldest of which, twelve year
Martin Mennonites also involved an issue         book from the pulpit where they have been       old Lovina, became my grandmother. My
with a government drainage ditch in the          placed and the bishop delivers a short          great-grandfather Peter P. Martin, his wife
Three Bridges area near the Conestogo            prayer. The books are then handed, one          Lydia Brubacher (daughter of Daniel
Church . The ditch went through the              by one, to the bishop who finds the             Brubacher), and seven of their nine
property of some of the Mennonites who           one containing the paper. The candidate         children, were also original members of
were therefore supposed to help pay for it .     whose book held the paper becomes the           this group although Lydia died 7 February
The Old Order Mennonites thought they            new minister or deacon .                        1918, before the first communion was
should simply obey the government and                There are often three or four ministers     held . Their son, my grandfather Peter
pay the price, but those who went with the       as well as several deacons within one           B . Martin, was only fifteen years old
David Martin Mennonites refused and a            David Martin church . The deacon is a ser-      at the time .
law suit followed .                              vant of the church who does not do any              The following years brought many new
    It was as a result of these issues, in the   preaching but looks after finances and peo-     members to the group as new people joined
spring of 1917, that David W. Martin left        ple in need and is also involved in some of     and young people were baptized, although
the Old Order Mennonites with his father,        the ceremonies . A man becomes a leader         funerals and excommunications also
who had been a minister in the Wisler sec-       for his lifetime, whether he is good at it or   occurred. Baptisms are performed on young
tion since 1889 . These men, with a follow-      not, and he cannot decline the leadership       people, around the age of seventeen or eigh-
ing of about 45 members, wanted more             position . The leaders have never been to       teen, who have decided to make a personal
rigid discipline and shunning . They had a       Bible School or Sunday School or had any        decision to become a member of the church .
fear that the Old Orders were becoming           formal Bible teaching . Many can hardly         The young people are given a catechism
too moderate and tolerant and they wanted        read German, the language in which all          book which they are supposed to read
a more conservative leadership with an           preaching is done . Their mother tongue is      although few can because it is in German
uncompromising stand.                            a German dialect known as Pennsylvania          which they are not taught to read . For six
    The new group had no meeting house           Dutch and they learn English at school but      weeks before the baptism they attend
of their own. They held a meeting in the         they do not know high German . It is there-     services on Sunday afternoons where they
South Peel meeting house where both              fore easy to understand how their teaching      learn the eighteen or so lessons in the cate-
Davids had served regularly, but after-          is not really based on scripture but rather     chism. At the end of each lesson they must
wards they were refused further use of the       dependent on traditions .                       affirm that they agree with what they have
facilities . They started meeting in David           Minister David B. Martin, Deacon            learned. although again, few are sure what it
B . Martin's home until July when they           David W. Martin and Minister Daniel             all means. On the seventh week they meet

                  Ontario Mennonite History is published semi-annually by the Mennonite Historical Society of Ontario,
                    Conrad Grebel College. Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G6, and distributed to all members of the Society.
                       It is distributed free of charge to public libraries and school libraries in Ontario, upon request.
                                                        Editor : Brent Bauman
                   Editorial Committee : Linda Huebert Hecht, Lorraine Roth, Herbert Enns, Sam Steiner, Marlene Epp
                   Financial assistance from the Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Culture is gratefully acknowledged .
          Inquiries, articles, book notices or news items should be directed to the Editor, Mennonite Historical Society of Ontario
                    c/o Conrad Grebel College, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G6 TEL. (519) 885-0220, FAX (519) 885-0014
                                                                                                                                         Pagc 3

on a Saturday afternoon for a final lesson               usually a couple or more churches within      along with two of my great-aunts and a
and then on the Sunday morning they are                  the group, overseen by the same bishop,       great uncle who was too young to be a
baptized . The baptism ritual is by pouring .            which hold services on separate Sundays .     member . Although only seventeen years
The bishop cups his hands over the head of               Members attend services when they are         old, my grandfather Peter stayed with
the kneeling member and the deacon pours                 held at the closest meeting house, unless     the David Martins when his father left
water into his hands, which are then opened              they are going visiting . Services are held   because he was working on another
slowly, allowing the water to pour over the              at one or two of the meeting houses one       member's farm . The David Martin group
person's head.                                           Sunday, at the other meeting house(s) the     was again without a bishop and with only
    During the first years of the David                  next, and nowhere on the third Sunday         Deacon David W. Martin and Minister
Martin group, the church continued to                    which is a day of rest when people can        Enoch Horst as leaders . However, not
grow. In September 1918, Enoch Horst,                    visit and relax . There are no Sunday         all was bad that year since they also built
one of the original recorded members, was                Schools or Bible studies within the com-      a new Center Woolwich meeting house
made minister, and in October of the same                munity . In fact, people are discouraged      near St . Jacobs .
year Daniel's son Menno Brubacher                        from reading the Bible themselves ; it is         The group was not without a Bishop for
became a third minister. However, it was                 only read by the bishop or ministers in       long . In January 1921 Deacon David W.
not until 6 July 1919 that meetings were                 church . My Grandma Lovina wrote in her       Martin advanced to Minister, in February
held in their newly built meeting house                  journal, "We were always told not to listen   his brother Solomon W. Martin was made
east of the village of Wallenstein .                     to anyone outside the church or try to read   deacon and, in March Enoch Horst
    The meeting houses are all built exactly             anything about Spiritual matters on our       advanced to the position of Bishop . On
the same with the side of the building                   own for it was so easy to be misled ."        16 July 1922, my Grandfather Peter B .
facing the road, although they can vary in               However, it is very important to carry out    Martin was baptized by Enoch Horst to
size . At one end of the building there is a             all of the rules and traditions without       become a member of the church . On 25
women's cloak room where the women                       deviating at all . A small song book with     October 1922, Amos Bearinger, who had
take their babies if they cry, although                  German hymns and the German Bible are         been taken in as a member in March of
diapers are changed in the main auditori-                the only books used. There are no musical     1920, was chosen as a second minister.
um. There are separate entrances for men,                instruments and singing is done in unison     On 15 July 1923, my grandmother Lovina
boys, and women and girls which never                    only, often with the minister reading one     S . Martin also became a baptized member
varies except at funerals when the                       line of the song and the congregation         of the church .
bereaved family goes out the door nearest                then singing it .                                 It was around this time that my grand-
to the cemetery. A funeral is also the only                  The year 1920 brought heartache for       parents, Lovina and Peter B ., began seeing
time when men and women, of the imme-                    the David Martin Mennonite group with         each other. Peter was working on Lovina's
diate family only, sit together on the front,            the loss of three of their early leaders .    parents' farm at the time, and since it is
back-less benches facing the long pulpit                 Minister David B . Martin died in April .     not proper for a couple going together to
where the ministers sit . At all other times,            That fall, Bishop Daniel Brubacher and        live on the same property, Lovina left her
the men and women sit on hard, unvar-                    Minister Menno Brubacher left the David       family to work elsewhere . Since marriages
nished benches, with boards across the                   Martin Mennonites taking a group of           occur only within the group (unless a
back for support, on opposite sides of the               twenty-one members with them . Their          young person is willing to be excommuni-
room facing each other and perpendicular                 withdrawal occurred after a disagreement      cated), couples generally know each other
to the pulpit. The girls and boys also sit               concerning the shunning of outsiders . The    long before they begin dating or are mar-
opposite each other but facing their elders'             Brubachers felt shunning should be more       ried . As children they likely played togeth-
benches and the pulpit .                                 lenient and as a result found themselves      er but, when they finished school they
    Members do not generally attend                      being shunned . My great-grandfather Peter    were suddenly considered adults, no
church services every Sunday . There are                 P. Martin was among this group to leave       longer allowed to run and play.
                                                                                                           David Martin children attend public
                                                                                                       schools which they walk or take a bus to,
                                                                                                       unlike many conservative Mennonite chil-
                                                                                                       dren who attend private schools . They are
                                                                                                       generally considered to be good students
                                                                                                       although they do not join in field trips and
                                                                                                       tend to play alone . Their schooling only
                                                                                                       lasts until grade eight or age fourteen,
                                                                                                       whichever comes first . Higher education
                                                                                                       is considered worldly and therefore not
                                                                                                       permitted . Enjoying education is equated
                                                                                                       with laziness which is almost a cardinal
                                                                                                       sin . When their school days are over the
                                                                                                       girls begin to wear the clothing of women :
                                                                                                       ankle length dresses with one or two
                                                                                                       petticoats underneath, a shawl, apron and
                                                                                                       cape . Their hair is worn in a bun under
                                                                                                       a black bonnet . This is often a time of
                                                                                                       loneliness and displacement for the youth
                                                                                                       who are too old to be children but too
                                                                                                       young to fully enter the adult world of
Current meeting house east of the village of Wollenstein on Waterloo County, Road 86.                  marriage and children .
Page 4

    Fifteen is the magical age when youth           The wedding itself is in the bride's         in February 1933 leaving the group again
enter young adulthood and can become bet-       home and starts at nine o'clock in the           with only one. On 23 October 1934 my
ter acquainted with their peers through an      morning, when the guests arrive, and lasts       great-uncle Elam S. Martin, my grand-
activity known as the "time" . The "time"       until almost midnight . Before the service       mother Lovina's brother, was chosen as a
occurs on Sunday evenings with as many          the young people wait upstairs while             second minister. Elam became a member
as thirty or more young people who start        married couples remain downstairs . Two          on 9 August 1925 and five years later, on 2
the evening by getting together for supper      of the youngest married men serve cookies        November, he married Susy Bauman, who
at a member's home, often unannounced.          and wine to all the guests after which the       had recently been taken in as a member.
After the chores are completed, the older       service begins . It generally lasts from             It was around this time that my grand-
couple retires for the night and the young      three quarters of an hour to an hour.            parents began having doubts about their
people begin their activities . They sing       Dinner, usually including fowl of some           religious beliefs. Peter was working in a
German and English hymns in harmony,            kind, is prepared by several young girls         woodworking shop in Hawkesville and
play games, and visit. The games are some-      appointed for the job and served immedi-         came into contact with people who
times quiet sitting games but often become      ately following the service.                     believed that you do not have to earn
noisy with much hugging and kissing.                After dinner, the young people again go      salvation because it is a gift from God.
The "time" usually ends with a "show"           upstairs but not without some fun from the       He slowly began questioning everything
which consists of boys taking girls into a      hostlers who block the top of the stairs and     he had believed and been taught . He read
dark room and holding them on their laps        demand money for the cooks. It becomes           tracts and Bible verses he had not previ-
to converse quietly and privately while         very playful as some young men try to            ously known existed. He would often
those not involved pester them with flash-      wrestle their way through without paying,        secretly check the family Bible at home
lights . At the end of the evening, the boys    although many good suits have been torn          to assure himself that these verses were
take the girls home. It is usually not long     during this activity . In the middle of the      in fact there. In October 1937, he came to
before a young man decides who he is            afternoon cookies, wine, candies and fresh       believe in Jesus Christ as his Savior and
interested in . If the young woman is           fruit, as well as cigars for the men, are        by the following June my grandmother
equally interested, he starts visiting her       passed around . All the guests then remain      accepted these beliefs as well . Lovina and
at her home on Saturday evenings every          for supper after which more cigars, candy        Peter Martin, with their six children, began
three or four weeks. At this time they           and wine are once again enjoyed. The            attending the Gospel Hall, a Plymouth
are considered to be "going steady".             older couples generally head home shortly       Brethren church, in Hawkesville and were
    For a couple of years, during the time       after supper while the young people stay        excommunicated from the David Martin
 when my grandparents were dating, things        for a "time ." The newly married couple         church in August 1938 . Their decision
 went smoothly in the David Martin group         never goes on a honeymoon as that would         to leave was a severe one as they were
 with only a few members being excommu-          be considered too worldly .                      shunned completely and were never
 nicated, most of whom later rejoined the            When my grandparents married they            allowed to see their family again.
 group, and numerous baptisms . However,         lived in Hawkesville and my grandfather          My mother was only eight years old.
 on 4 May 1924 Bishop Enoch Horst and            worked as a day laborer. They had their              Shortly after her parents excommunica-
 Minister Amos Bearinger were excommu-           first child, my Aunt Saloma (Sally), on 24       tion, my mother remembers she and Sally
 nicated on the question of observing the        August 1928 and my mother, Leah, was             once again visited their grandparents . It
 ban . The group was again left with only        born 22 May 1930 . There are, of course,         was a Wednesday night after school . They
 one minister, David W. Martin, and one          no baby dedications or baptisms within the       attended school in Heidelburg which was
 deacon, Solomon W. Martin .                     David Martin group but babies are brought        about 10 kilometers from their grandpar-
     On 17 August 1924, David W. Martin          to church after six weeks, before which          ents' farm between Linwood and
 was made bishop by circumstance. . My           time they do not leave the house at all.         Hawkesville. Therefore, they received a
 mother tells me that "Uncle David," the             My mother Leah and her sister Sally          ride from the principal, Mr. Kenneth
 bishop at the time, was highly honored          were the first grandchildren for Mr. and         Williams, who lived in Linwood. He
 and that anything he said was taken as          Mrs . John W. Martin . My mother remem-          dropped them off at the end of the lane
 gospel truth; no one would question him.        bers being very close to them and going          and was supposed to pick them up the next
 The group remained without a minister           with her sister to visit them often. I remem-    morning. My Grandmother Lovina was
 until 9 June of the following year when         ber a story from my childhood about a            quite concerned about this visit but my
 Martin B . Frey, who had left the Old           ceramic doll's head with a pillow stuffed        Grandfather Peter thought that her parents
 Orders andjoined the group in November          into it for a body that my great-grandmoth-      couldn't possibly turn away their adored
  1918, was ordained. It was 15 December         er kept in her bottom bureau drawer. My          grandchildren. As soon as Leah and Sally
 of that same year, 1925, when my grand-         mother had a great love for dolls so, when       arrived at their grandparent's door, their
 parents Lovina S . Martin and Peter B.          my grandmother received the doll's head in       grandfather told them to leave and never
 Martin were married.                            a bag of used articles, she saved it for my      return . Luckily, plans had been made for
     When a couple decides they want             mother to play with . However, the Bible         the girls to walk over to Manassah
 to be married, they tell the bishop who          says, "Thou shalt not make unto thee any        Weber's farm if anything went wrong.
 announces it in church the three Sundays         graven image, or any likeness of any thing      Mr. Weber attended the Gospel Hall in
 before the marriage occurs . On the last        that is in heaven above, or that is in the       Hawkesville so he gave them a ride to the
  Saturday before the wedding (which              earth beneath" and for the David Martin         Wednesday night prayer meeting where
 occurs on a Tuesday or Thursday), the            Mennonites that included life-like dolls,       they met their father and returned home .
 young couple personally invites all of their     snapshots, and paintings . The doll's head      It is difficult to imagine how grandparents
  guests . Wedding presents are not a part of     did not stay around for long .                   could so heartlessly turn away small chil-
  the custom . The only cost is small change         On 12 October 1930 Deacon Franklin            dren but it must be realized that they truly
  given to the "hostlers," for looking after      Hauser was taken in as a member, giving          thought they were doing the right thing
  the guests' horses .                            the group two deacons, although he died          even though it was extremely painful for
                                                                                                                                         Pagc 5

 them. Shunning had become such a strong         he had the nerve to question his uncle the          industries" because farming does not pro-
 part of the David Martin Mennonite histo-        `great' Bishop David W . Martin and they           vide enough income for them to live on .
 ry and traditions that even grandchildren       had a falling out. This was devastating to          However, there is a bylaw which states
 could be turned away by their grandpar-         Mr. and Mrs . John W . Martin, Elam's               that agriculture must be the major source
 ents . My mother has always wondered            parents, who had already lost two daugh-            of income on farms and this is no longer
 what Mr. Williams thought the next day          ters to the outside world . Elam was                the case for many of the Mennonites . For
 when he came to pick them up!                   replaced 8 May 1956 by Abraham Frey,                this reason, there is talk of subdividing the
     Very few members of the David Martin        another son of Minister Martin B . Frey .           farms and giving one acre to each family
 Mennonites have ever left the Mennonite         Then, on 23 December of the same year,              for their home, barn and animals, and
 faith entirely although many have joined        Deacon Samuel Horst was also excommu-               industry to get around this law . This
 other Mennonite groups . Therefore, my          nicated and replaced on 12 March 1957               would really make the David Martin
 grandparents joining the Gospel Hall was        by Abraham Martin, son of the deceased              Mennonite group a self-contained com-
 something that had never been done              Solomon W. Martin .                                 munity and there is some concern about
 before . My grandmother's younger sister            These two excommunications were fol-            what would happen if more splits
 Annie also left the David Martins to join a     lowed by serious disagreements within the           occurred within the church .
 more liberal group of Mennonites and has        church and on 1 September 1957 twenty-                   The David Martin Mennonites have,
 since left the Mennonites entirely as well .    eight members withdrew from Bishop                  over the years, become much more mod-
 Aunt Annie was baptized 17 July 1938            David W. Martin to gather in the home of            ern than even the Old Orders who they
 and excommunicated in the spring of 1941        Emanuel Sherk who had become a                      originally left for being too worldly .
 for keeping company with a young man            baptized member of the David Martin                 Apparently they no longer even have
 who was not from the David Martin               Mennonites 15 July 1923 . Before these              Bishops in their churches . It is quite com-
 group . He later became her husband .           28 members left there had been approxi-             mon for them to have computers and fax
 Her story is a very interesting one .           mately 180 members in the David Martin              machines for their businesses, although the
     Aunt Annie remembers enjoying school        Group . My great-grandmother Mrs . John             equipment must be run on generators .
 and being in contact with people who did        W. Martin died in August prior to the split         Many of them also have indoor plumbing
 not belong to the same religious order as       which left her children broken into two             and phones in their homes . They are even
 her. It was through one of these children       groups, completely separate from each               known to accept OHIP and Old Age
 that she first heard about Santa Claus          other. Again shunning was more important            Pensions which remains unheard of in
 who thrilled her, but her joy was quickly       than familial ties . The remaining members          most conservative groups . However, they
destroyed when she was informed that             of the David Martin group continued to              still do not have rubber tires or bicycles
her church would have nothing to do              grow over the years and remains even                which were issues when they first split. It
with him . When she later heard about God        today, although more recent records for             seems that new conveniences which make
through the same friend she believed that        the David Martin Mennonites could not               business easier can be accepted but the old
he was real but that her church would also       be obtained .                                       traditions must still be maintained . This
have nothing to do with Him . This demon-            The David Martin Mennonites are gen-            includes shunning people like my mother
strates how little Biblical teaching the chil-   erally known to be more aggressive than             and great-aunt Annie who left the group .
dren get and the importance of their tradi-      many Mennonites and do very well in                 Although Aunt Annie does try to visit
tions over personal spiritual growth .           small businesses . They are somewhat                some of her remaining siblings once a
Everything is done according to the rules        arrogant because of the security involved           year, she knows that if she went too often
of the church . They do not learn how to         with their faith and depth of belief that           the relatives she visits might get in trouble .
make personal choices and decisions, or          their church is the only right one . In                 The twenty-eight members who left the
to have opinions because it is not allowed .     Wellesley Township, many of the David               David Martin group in 1957 joined Minister
    Of course, even after the excommuni-         Martin young men have started "cottage              Elam S . Martin and Deacon Samuel Horst
cations of my grandparents and great-aunt,
the David Martin group continued . On 29
May 1941, Samuel Horst, who became a
baptized member on 7 September 1924,
was chosen as a second deacon . The group
continued with these leaders for some time
and held their first services in the new
Center Wellesley meeting house in July
 1945 . Deacon Solomon W. Martin died in
February 1946 . In the autumn of the same
year a group from Virginia was taken in,
including Minister Paul Shank. In 1952
Minister Martin B . Frey's son Manassah,
who became a baptized member 2 August
1936, was made minister.
    For numerous years the David Martin
Mennonites lived on without any major
disruptions . Baptisms and weddings, as
well as funerals, were performed periodi-
cally . However, on 11 March 1956
catastrophe struck when minister Elam S .
Martin was excommunicated . Apparently           A small manufacturing factory near Hau kesville .
Page 6

                                                                                                             of moving back to the Hawkesville area
                                                                                                             to help Anson's father "summer sausage
                                                                                                              Noah" with his business . Nicknames, like
                                                                                                             this one, are often used to differentiate
                                                                                                             Mennonites from each other because it
                                                                                                             is common for many of them to have
                                                                                                             the same name .
                                                                                                                  After losing their original leader, the
                                                                                                             Hoover group struggled on until 1986, by
                                                                                                             which time the group had grown to approx-
                                                                                                             imately 100 members, when increasing
                                                                                                             problems arose. Numerous people were
                                                                                                             excommunicated and others were no longer
                                                                                                             present at services . By the spring of 1987
                                                                                                             approximately seventy of the previous
                                                                                                             members had rejoined with the David
                                                                                                             Martin group, including one of the deacons.
                                                                                                             Some of the members also returned to the
                                                                                                             Elam group, including the bishop and two
                                                                                                             ministers. Still others did not join the Elam
An existing small lot with a house and horse .shed located outside of Wallenstein .                          or David group and were left without
                                                                                                             church fellowship . They still live exactly
                                                                                                             the same as before but they no longer have
plus twenty married couples and 17 single                   group in 1970 with Minister Edward
                                                                                                             a church home . By April 1987, the Hoover
members, some of whom had been banned                        Martin . Many baptisms were also
from the David Martin group earlier.                                                                         group no longer existed but the reasons for
                                                            performed so that the group continued
                                                                                                             its disintegration are unclear.
Minister Peter Nolt, and a number of others                 to grow to one hundred and eleven
                                                                                                                  In 1974 when the Hoover group began,
from Pennsylvania, were also among this                     members by 1974 .
                                                                                                             the Elam Martin group was broken heart-
group. On 6 April 1958, Elam S. Martin                           At this time there was again serious
                                                                                                             ed . Again families had been torn apart as
was made Bishop by circumstance and the                     upheaval in the church when sixty mem-
first communion of the Elam Martin Group                                                                     the majority of their members left.
                                                            bers joined together on 26 February in
was held . This group was much stricter than                                                                 However, they decided to continue with
                                                            hopes of establishing "the lamp of right-
                                                                                                             services and on 14 April 1974 communion
the David Martin group believing that                       eousness and the truth of Jesus Christ once
                                                                                                             was held with only forty-three members
members who falter should not be given a                    again into the assembly of believers ."
                                                                                                             including Bishop Elam S. Martin,
chance to make a public confession in place                 Shortly thereafter, on 17 March 1974,            Ministers Edward Martin, Noah
of excommunication. They also have their                    Minister Anson Hoover and his wife were          Brubacher, Henry Bowman and Deacon
own private schools where children are                      accepted into the newly separated group          Samuel Horst. It was around this time
taught to read German but still only attend                 and thus began the Hoover Mennonites             that the group moved about one hundred
until the age of fourteen .                                 who remained registered as an Orthodox           kilometers north-west to the Gorrie area.
    All those from Pennsylvania, and some                   Mennonite Church .                                   Again the church grew as new mem-
other of unknown origin, were shortly                            The main issue for the Hoover split,        bers were taken in and baptized, although
excommunicated, including Minister Peter                    apparently, arose over disagreements about       Minister Noah Brubacher died in May
Nolt, so that the group was comprised of                    the wearing of beards by men . Bishop Elam       1977 . He was replaced 9 May 1978 by
members who had previously belonged to                      S. Martin felt all married men should wear       John Sherk, an original member of the
the David Martin Mennonites . This split                    beards but those who joined the Hoover           Elam Martin group who later, in October
was painful for all involved because fami-                  group felt it should be up to the individual .   1980, became the Bishop in office as
lies were literally ripped apart, unable to                 Many of the reasons for splits seem incom-       Elam S. Martin was becoming too old
ever speak to each other again .                            prehensible to me but it is important to         for all that was required of him. 19
    On 15 December 1959, Henry                              remember that their beliefs are based on tra-    November 1985, Ephraim Weber, who
Bowman, one of the twenty-eight, was                        dition and the decisions of their leaders, so    joined the group on 2 April 1967, was
ordained minister . Numerous baptisms and                   it is difficult to resolve arguments. Forming    ordained Minister.
weddings followed and new members                           new groups seems to be the only solution .           By 1986, when the Hoover group
were accepted . In 1962 the Elam Martin                     The Hoover group remained relatively             began to disintegrate, there were approxi-
group became registered as the Orthodox                     small and did not last very long . In 1976       mately sixty members in the Elam group.
Mennonite Church to distinguish itself                      minister Anson Hoover was banned, appar-         As mentioned previously, some of the
from the David Martin Mennonites . On                       ently for preaching the gospel too freely,       members from the Hoover group were
24 June they held their first meeting in                    that is, preaching about salvation by faith      then accepted back into the Elam group
the new 13th Line meeting house. On 12                      alone rather than with works.                    increasing the membership further. On 26
October 1965, Anson Hoover, excommu-                             Anson and Katie Martin, daughter of         April 1987, there were seventy-nine
nicated from the David Martin group in                      Emanuel Sherk and Mary Anne B. Martin,           members involved in the communion
1954, was ordained minister of the Elam                     my Grandfather Peter's sister, were also         service, including, from the Hoover
group. There were few excommunications                      included in this ban and later moved up to       group, Ministers Jesse Bauman, Menno
in the Orthodox group and many people                       Barwick, near Fort Frances where they            Brubacher and Bishop Amos Sherk, who
were taken in, including a group in 1967                    joined a conservative Mennonite group.           quickly laid aside his bishop office but
with Minister Noah Brubacher and a                          However, they are currently in the process       remained a minister.
                                                                                                                                Page 7

    The disintegration of the Hoover group    knew the person well, attend the funeral        previously, it is very uncommon for young
left only one Orthodox Mennonite Church,      which begins with a service at nine             people to leave the faith . When a couple
again under the leadership of Elam S .        o'clock in the morning in the home of the       marries, they are provided with a farm and
Martin . However, in December 1987, Elam      deceased . The coffin is placed in the cen-     the community ensures them safety . It is a
died at the age of 80 years, 7 months and 7   ter of the sitting room . The service           place where they belong and never have to
days . Even so, the membership grew and       includes a short message, two hymns sung        worry about making their own way in the
no one is known to have left the group, at    in the usual slow dirge-like manner, and        world . If they leave, for whatever reason,
least until 1991 when the Orthodox            prayer. At the same time, the girls from the    they lose everything and are shunned com-
Mennonite Church records end . At that        neighborhood prepare a lunch for any who        pletely without any basic training in how
time, there were a calculated one hundred     came by horse and buggy and therefore           to survive outside the community. Even
and twenty-two members . Further research     had to eat breakfast very early . The lunch     years after leaving the group, my grand-
revealed four hundred and fifty-four people   always consists of buns, cheese and             mother Lovina would not even try to
in the church in 1996. However, two hun-      coffee . After lunch they go to the cemetery    speak to her siblings if she passed them
dred and twenty-two of these were under       where they open the casket in the yard out-     on the street because she realized they
sixteen years of age and, since not all the   side the cemetery gate, regardless of the       would still shun her.
people aged seventeen to twenty would be      weather, and everyone files past. The               There is definitely a certain appeal to a
baptized, there were less than two hundred                                                    small, self contained group like the David
                                              coffin is then lowered into the ground and
and thirty one members . This is still an                                                     Martin or Elam Martin Mennonites with
                                              four men immediately begin shoveling dirt
impressive growth from the one hundred                                                        their simple life and security . However,
                                              into the hole while the people sing a
and twenty-two members in 1991 . The                                                          much heartbreak would also be involved
                                              hymn . When the job is finished the large
average couple who has finished their child                                                   with the splits and severe shunning .
                                              mass files back to the meeting house for
bearing years have seven to twelve children                                                   Personal growth would be almost impossi-
                                              the main funeral service which lasts for
and younger couples have one to seven .                                                       ble . I sometimes like to imagine what my
                                              about two hours . Two ministers preach
     Aunt Annie greatly enjoys visiting her                                                   life would be like if my grandparents had
                                              with kneeling for silent prayer between the
relatives who belong to the Elam Martin
                                              sermons and audible prayer at the end . To      not had the faith to leave the David Martin
group because she finds them very friend-
                                              my mother's surprise, the first minister at     Mennonites . It is truly amazing that I am
ly and accepting of her. They remained
                                              Aunt Susy's funeral preached in English          where 1 am, with all the privileges I have
much plainer than the David Martin group,
                                              for the benefit of any non-German speak-         been given such as going to University,
using only white dishes and wearing main-
                                              ing neighbors and relatives . A hymn is          considering that I come from such a
ly brown dresses ; they have only one
                                              sung following the sermons and then all          distinct and conservative group of people .
small mirror above the sink in the kitchen
                                              are invited back to the home of the
and do not seem to cut their lawns . They
                                              deceased for dinner . It is common for as       Endnotes
remain simple farmers without any mod-
ern conveniences like phones, electricity,     many as 200 people to attend the meal .
                                              At aunt Susy's funeral there were two sit-      1 . Much of the information in this article
and indoor plumbing .
                                              tings, each with about 85 people, and all           was gathered in conversations with,
     In February 1996 my mother went with
                                              the food was prepared without electricity           and writings by, former members of
Aunt Annie to her Aunt Susy's funeral .
Susy was the wife of Elam S . Martin, who     or running water .                                  the David Martin Mennonites .
 started the Elam Martin group . She had 9        It is amazing to think that I am only
children, 85 grand children, and 125 great-   one generation away from this lifestyle         Charlotte Martin is the winner of the 1997
grandchildren . My mother had not seen her     and these strangers in our midst . I can not   J . Winfield Fretz Award for Studies in
aunt since her family left the Mennonites     even imagine what it must have been like        Ontario Mennonite History. She is a stu-
 when she was only eight years old.           for my grandparents to leave their secure       dent at the University of Waterloo and
     Funerals are very traditional and big     community of strong beliefs for the            wrote this essay for a Mennonite History
 affairs. All the relatives, and anyone who    unknown outside world . As mentioned           course at Conrad Grebel College.

Burkholder, L . J . A Brief History of the    Holy Bible, King James Version . New            Martin, Lovina. Personal Journal .
Mennonites in Ontario . Markham,              York : Regency Publishing House, 1976 .         Information unknown .
Ontario : Mennonite Conference of             Martin, Annie. Autobiography .                  Martin, Margaret . Personal Conversation .
Ontario, 1935 .                               Unpublished .                                   Allenford, Ontario : 23 March 1997 .
Epp, Frank H . Mennonites in Canada,          -- . Personal Conversation . Kitchener,
1920-1940 : A People's Struggle for                                                           Martin, Peter B . Letter to Anna Martin .
                                              Ontario : 13 March 1997 .
Survival . Toronto : Macmillan of                                                             Waterloo, Ontario : 1956 .
                                              Martin, Leah . "Aunt Susie's Funeral,"
Canada, 1982 .
                                              Mar*Star , Vol . 7, No . 3 . Kitchener.         McNaughton, Elizabeth . The Old Order
Families of the Orthodox Mennonite            Summer 1996 .                                   Mennonite Community in the Early
Church of Huron County, Ontario .                                                             Twentieth Century . Waterloo : Regional
                                              -- . "Real Doll for Christmas," Mar*Star ,
Ontario : October 1996 .                                                                      Municipality of Waterloo, 1988 .
                                              Vol . 5, No . 2 . Kitchener : December 1993 .

General Records of the Orthodox               - . Personal Conversation . Allenford,          - . Personal Conversation . Kitchener,
Mennonite Church . Information unknown .      Ontario : 22 March 1997 .                       Ontario . 21 March 1997 .
Page 8

                                                       SING IT AGAIN
 A Brief Survey of Two Centuries of Mennonite Church Music in Ontario
                                                by Lawrence Martin and Mark Diller Harder

 When "Hymnal. A Worship Book" was                Amish home near Goshen, Indiana for a          ing the choice of hymns, only to include
published in 1992 it brought together             Wednesday evening when some of the             the most familiar, and with some, only the
many musical traditions . It also represent-      musicians of the church got together to        most stirring verses ; quite convenient for
ed much of the history of music in the            practice the hymns for Sunday morning .        travelers to carry, as well as to take along
Mennonite church here in Ontario over the         What is now written down in our                for use in public worship ."
past two centuries . This is a survey of the      "Hymnal : A Worship Book" is an approxi-           The hymnal is comprised of 222
influences made by the hymn books used            mation of how this hymn would be sung .        German hymn texts in Gothic Print . There
by Mennonites in the past, which in turn          The original chorale tune has been embell-     is no music included, but after each hymn
will show how many of these hymns came            ished through a long aural tradition . A       it lists the melody usually used and the
to be in our current hymnal.                      "forsaenger" sang the first word "O" on        metre number. There are 37 different
                                                  several syllables, and then we all came in     metres used, and each metre would have
                                                  on the word "Gott ." The whole verse           one or more tunes associated with it . Mark
THE AUSBUND                                       would take several minutes to sing . Mark      was helped tremendously in his research
    Our story begins with the book used in        was amazed by the powerful impact of this      by a commentary by Isaac R . Horst,
our early Mennonite tradition, and which          slow style of singing . There was a strong     "Lieder Sammlung Commentary," where
is still used in Amish Communities in             effort being made to preserve this tradition   he lists translations of key words, all the
Ontario and beyond - "The Ausbund ."              in the Amish community.                        authors and writes out all the tunes, which
"The Ausbund" is the earliest Anabaptist                                                         normally are known by aural tradition . It
hymn book . In fact, "The Ausbund" is the                                                        was fascinating going through the differ-
oldest Protestant hymnal in continuous            DIE GEMEINSCRAFTLICHE
                                                                                                 ent tunes . These are unison melodies that
publication and use today. This book,                                                            have been passed down aurally for genera-
which dates from the Reformation, makes           (1836 Benjamin Eby)
                                                                                                 tions - sometimes altering the melody
use of choral tunes and sixth century                The story of Mennonite hymnals in           until it is hardly recognizable . For exam-
Gregorian Chants . It was brought to              Ontario begins with a hymnal published in
                                                                                                 ple, metre 18 (Geneva 42), which we
Ontario by Amish settlers . Earlier it was        1836 under the direction of Benjamin Eby       know in the current hymnal as #176 -
brought to America by early Swiss and             called "Die Gemeinschaftliche
                                                                                                 "Comfort, comfort ye my people," has no
Palatinate Mennonites, and was the first          Liedersammlung ." When Mennonites first
                                                                                                  syncopation but several added notes and a
book published in America in 1742 . It was        came from Pennsylvania to Ontario they
                                                                                                 different rhythm .
used throughout the eighteenth century by         brought one of two different hymnals with
                                                                                                       In fact, there are many hymns between
Mennonites .                                      them, depending on whether they were
                                                                                                 the new "Hymnal : A Worship Book" and
    At the core of the book are 51 hymns          from the Franconia or Lancaster settle-
                                                                                                 the 1836 "Die Gemeinschaftliche
written by Anabaptists who were impris-           ment. Now in Ontario, they couldn't agree
                                                                                                  Liedersammlung ." It is surprising how
oned in the dungeons of Passau between            to use the same book . In what might be
                                                                                                  many common texts and tunes there are
 1537 and 1540 . There's a strong theme of        called a shrewd political move by
                                                                                                  between the two hymnals . There are at
martyrdom and reliance on God . Often the         Benjamin Eby, most of the hymns in his
                                                                                                  least ten different tunes that we still use.
hymn would tell a story of a particular           new hymnal came from either the 1804
                                                                                                  Fourteen texts are the same and with five
martyr. One of the hymns we have in our           Lancaster hymnal ("Unpartheyisches
                                                                                                  of those, we still use the same tune and
 1992 Hymnal is #535 - "Who now would             Gesangbuch"), or the 1803 Franconia
                                                  hymnal ("Die kleine geistliche Harfe der        text . We use the same music and text for
follow Christ in life ." It comes from one
                                                  Kinder Zion's"), thus uniting the two           hymns like : "Blessed Jesus, at your word"
of these stories, although the reference to
                                                  groups under one hymnal . Does this sound       (#13) ; "Praise to the Lord, the Almighty"
the particular person is not in this transla-
                                                  somewhat familiar? This hymnal has been         (# 37) ; "Now thank we all our God" (#86) ;
tion . It's second graphic verse reads
                                                  in continuous use since then, and is the        and "How brightly beams the morning"
"Christ's servant follow him to death and
                                                  present hymnal used by the Ontario Old          (#222) . "O little children, gather" (#489) is
give their body, life and breath on the
                                                  Order Mennonites . Up until 1981 it had         one of the few hymns not from the
cross and rack and pyre . As gold is tried
                                                  been reprinted seventeen times, always as       German Chorale tradition . This is a hymn
and purified they stand the test of fire ."
                                                  a small black covered book easy to carry        by Christopher Dock, an American
Other "Ausbund" hymns in our current
                                                  in your pocket .                                Mennonite . Both the text and the music
 hymnal include the Felix Manz hymn "I
 sing with exultation" (#438), "The word of           These are a few sentences from the          found in "Hymnal : A Worship Book" is
 God is solid ground" (#314), and "Our            Preface of the first edition : "To all          what is in the 1836 hymnal .
Father God, thy name we praise" (#32) .           Godloving souls . Herewith appears the             Some common texts in both hymnals
     On page 770 of "The Ausbund" is the          Lieder-Sammlung for the first time .            include : "O God thou faithful God"(#376) ;
 hymn "O Gott Vater wir loben dich," the          However, it is by no means the intention to     "From heav'n above to earth I come"
 original German text for "Our Father God,        bring other hymn books into contempt ; but      (#205) ; "If you but trust in God to guide
 thy name we praise ." It is called the           since there is a need for hymn books in         you" (#576) ; and "Out of the depths I cry
 "Lobgesang" - or "Song of Praise" - by           public worship, it is hoped through this        to you" (#133) . In "Hymnal : A Worship
 the Amish, and is the second hymn sung in        Lieder-Sammlung to help to some extent .        Book" hymn #22 is "Lord Jesus Christ, be
 every Amish service . A few years ago            Since this work is intended to remain           present now." This text, "Herr Jesus
 Mark had the privilege of going to an             small . special concern was exercised dur-     Christ, dich zu uns wend" is #3 in
                                                                                                                                     Page 9

                                                                                                  church leader. It is said that when he over-
                                                                                                  heard the local Elkhart concert band, the
                                                                                                  beat of the bass drums gave him inspira-
                                                                                                  tion to writing the bass notes in the chorus
                                                                                                  part of the hymn . Bass singers were
                                                                                                  encouraged to produce a drum effect as
                                                                                                  they sang .

                                                                                                   THE MENNONITE HYMNARY
                                                                                                       Ncw Mennonite immigrants from
                                                                                                   Russia brought with them a new music tra-
                                                                                                   dition . Much of their music was memo-
                                                                                                   rized, or lined out as it was sung . In 1940,
                                                                                                   "The Mennonite Hymnary," edited by
                                                                                                   Lester Hostetler and Walter Hohman, con-
                                                                                                   tinued the story of music in the General
                                                                                                   Conference Mennonite Church . This hym-
                                                                                                   nal would have been used by Waterloo-
                                                                                                   Kitchener United Mennonite and Stirling
                                                                                                   Avenue Mennonite . It is fascinating to
                                                                                                  look at how the hymnal is organized . It is
                                                                                                  divided into seven books . The first 400
                                                                                                  hymns, Book One, follow a standard for-
                                                                                                  mat ; Worship, God the Father, Jesus
 Benjamin Eby's hymnal . It's not sung,         LIEDER UND MELODIEN BUCH                          Christ, the Holy Spirit, the Christian life,
 however, to this original syncopated                                                             the Church, Missions, Home and Family,
                                                   While English was making its way into
 melody. It uses the tune Old 100th -           Mennonite congregations, a new German             and Special Services and Seasons . Book
 or the Doxology . In the 1969 "Mennonite                                                         Two are hymns for children . The rest of
                                                Mennonite book "Lieder and Melodien
 Hymnal," this text is returned to its                                                            the hymnal is uniquely divided up by
                                                Buch" was published in 1895 . It was used
 original tune .                                                                                  musical styles : Book Three are Gospel
                                                extensively in the Amish Mennonite
     In terms of the texts, it is surprising,                                                     Songs ; Book Four, a section following the
                                                Conference congregations until the 1930's .
but very few are actually Mennonite or                                                            liturgical year using Chorales ; Book Five
Anabaptist texts . There is little influence                                                      are Metrical Psalms ; Book Six are
of "The Ausbund ." There are only two           THE CHURCH & SUNDAY                               Responses, Chants, Doxologies and
American Mennonites, Christopher Dock           SCHOOL HYMNAL                                     Amens ; and Book Seven are the
and Christian Herr, who have several of             In 1902 the first official English hymn       Responsive Readings .
their hymns included . The majority of the      book in the Mennonite church was pub-                 Book Four, the Chorales, is made up of
hymnal comes from the Lutheran German           lished . "The Church and Sunday School            about 70 hymns . "Holy God, we praise thy
Chorale tradition . The most common             Hymnal" contains 412 hymns and a                  name - Grosser Gott Wir Loben Dich"
authors are Gerhard Tersteegen, Joachim         German supplement of 50 hymns . In 1911            #121 WB) perhaps best represents the
Neander, Johann Heermann and Paul               the book was published with a supple-              1940 "Mennonite Hymnary ." Many of the
Gerhardt, familiar names if you like look-      ment. It used the shaped notes notation           chorales come from the earlier German
ing at all that small print at the bottom of    from the Singing School movement .                1890 General Conference book
hymnals . It is interesting that this German    Songs such as "For God so loved us - Gott         "Gesangbuch Mit Noten ." Russian
chorale tradition is basically lost in later    iss die Liebe" (#167 WB) were sung either         Mennonites would have known these
Swiss Mennonite hymnals, and only               in English or German and reminds us of            songs as well in various Ziffern books,
returns in the 1969 hymnal with the             our two language heritage .                       where the notes are indicated by numbers
General Conference influence .                      No hymn sing in an Ontario Mennonite          or `ziffern .' The hymnal's editors wrote
                                                congregation is complete without singing          that : "In all of our hymnody there is noth-
                                                "Come, we that love the Lord" (#14 WB) .          ing finer than these Chorales . They are
                                                This entered the tradition in the "Church         noble, dignified and powerful . The har-
    The winds of change were blowing            and Sunday School Hymnal ."                       monies are rich and satisfying and espe-
through the Mennonite communities in the                                                         cially effective when sung by large groups .
mid to late nineteenth century. Local                                                            They should not be sung in a dragging
Singing Schools were introducing change         THE CHURCH HYMNAL                                manner, and certainly not too fast . The
into church music by teaching four-part a           In 1927 the era of "The Church               Chorales permit of no sentimental or 'pret-
capella singing, introducing new American       Hymnal" was ushered in . Sunday School           ty' effects of shading . Choirs will find the
and British hymns and folk tunes to             and worship services were now clearly            Chorales, as well as many other hymns in
replace the German choral tunes of earlier      separate institutions - a pattern it has taken   the book, invaluable for special numbers
hymn books, and they encouraged the use         us a hundred years to overcome . This is         to be sung as anthems . In our opinion, our
of English in worship settings . By the win-    the book many of us grew up with, and it         church music would undergo distinct
ter of 1862 five churches conducted             shaped our piety and theology . One song         improvement if much of the anthem litera-
singing schools, and then gathered at the       in "The Church Hymnal" - "Christ who             ture, now in use, were discarded and these
new Freeport United Brethren Church to          left his home in glory" (#283 WB) - was          Great Chorales and hymns substituted for
sing individually and as a mass choir.          composed by A .B . KoIb, a former Ontario        choir use ."
Page 1 0

THE MENNONITE HYMNAL                         HYMNAL : A WORSHIP BOOK                        worship services . This means that music
    In 1969 the first cooperative hymnal,         Published in 1992, "Hymnal : A            used in Singing Schools, Sunday Schools,
"The Mennonite Hymnal" was published.        Worship Book" is the Mennonite Church's        Young People's Association, Evangelistic
It brought together the Mennonite Church     current hymn book. Once again it was a         or Revival Meetings remain for another
and the General Conference Mennonite         joint venture. This time between the           time. Also, books such as our "Life
Church in ajoint venture. These two          General Conference Mennonite Church,           Songs" numbers 1 and 2, "Sheet music of
denominations actually began work on a       Mennonite Church, and Church of the            Heaven," "Songs of the Church" and the
new hymnal independently and then real-      Brethren. Many new hymns grace its             many other supplements used over the
ized they couldjoin in their work. "The      pages, such as #433 - "Go, my children,        years were not the primary focus of this
Mennonite Hymnal" brought together the       with my blessing." It is a Norwegian text      study. But what this does show is that
best of the "Church Hymnal" and the          by Juraslav Vajda set to a Welsh melody .      music was, and continues to be an impor-
"Mennonite Hymnary." It brought together     Lawrence was a Publishing Agent for this       tant part of Mennonite life and worship,
the strong tradition of Watts and Wesley     book, and one of the exciting tasks was to     and "Hymnal: A Worship Book" is an inte-
and the American folk tunes, with the        find new texts and find the right music for    gral part of that tradition .
German Chorale tradition and the Metrical     it. But this hymnal also allows a congrega-   Adapted from the presentation given by
Psalms, plus many other sources .            tion to get in touch with our rich musical     Lawrence Martin and Mark Diller Harder at
    The above mentioned "Holy God, we        tradition .                                    the full Mennonite Historical Society of
praise thy name - Grosser Gott Wir Loben          We would like to give special recogni-    Ontario meeting November l, 1997 at Breslau
Dich" in the "Mennonite Hymnary" is           tion to Lorna L. Bergey who provided          Mennonite Church .
chosen Hymn #1 in the 1969 "Mennonite         much of the research for this essay. This     Lawrence Martin is pastor at Breslau
Hymnal ." I find it interesting that the      was not meant to be a complete list of the    Mennonite Church. Mark Diller Harder is
hymn itself is a Catholic hymn based on       music used in the Mennonite church over       Music Director at Stirling Avenue Mennonite
the fourth century Te Deum. It's truly an     the past two centuries . We limited the       Church and MCEC Student and Young Adults
Ecumenical hymn.                              scope to hymn books used in Mennonite         Minister

Book Review
Diane Zimmerman Umble, Holding               Order with the history and implementation      by establishing a network of community
the Line : The Telephone in Old Order        of the telephone, focusing on Lancaster        telephones, centrally located for the use of
Mennonite and Amish Life,                    County, Pennsylvania . Included is an          several families . This compromise has
(John Hopkins University Press :             explanation regarding the significance of      allowed the Old Order Amish "to hold to
Baltimore and London, 1996) .                the telephone on 20th century Old Order        the old order of their forefathers ." By
                                             life . At issue are :                          "holding the line" on the telephone debate
Reviewed by Catherine Schlegel                                                              and resisting individual ownership of tele-
                                                1) the preservation of traditional          phones, they have succeeded in keeping
    The "telephone troubles," as experi-           patterns of communication
enced by Old Order Mennonite and Amish                                                      the telephone and thereby the "world," out
                                                   and language.                            of Amish homes.
communities, serve to remind the rest of
society that "the telephone is not merely       2) the maintenance of a rural                  The perspective of the Old Order
a neutral instrument." Widespread social           way of life.                             Mennonites, illustrated by the collection
change in areas of communication and            3) the fracturing of the collective         of the papers of Bishop Jonas Martin,
social interaction have occurred with the          nature of work.                          outlines the reason for the prohibition of
introduction of the telephone for society                                                   telephone ownership by church leaders .
                                                4) the centrality of the church                The debate concerning appropriate tele-
in general, as well as the Old Order.              community .
    The "world" has embraced the tele-                                                      phone use continues today. The rules are
phone to the extent that it has become an       5) the influence of values not in the       subject to continuing renegotiation as the
indispensable tool on contemporary cul-            spirit of non-conformity and             Old Order face the challenges to their way
ture with regard to social interaction and         separation from the world.               of life posed by the telephone and its
function. The Old Order, as communities         6) the temptation to gossip and             related technologies. Their discussions
with clearly marked distinctions from the          disrupt the social harmony               focus on what is necessary and what is
wider culture, are deliberate in their             of the community .                       appropriate with regard to telephone use .
attempt to understand the social signifi-                                                   Behind this, is the ever-present concern of
                                                7) the pursuit ofprofit and personal
cance of the telephone and its effect on                                                    the impact of today's decisions on the next
                                                   pleasure resulting from individu-
community boundary maintenance .                                                            generation, framing the discussion as a
                                                   alism and pride rather than
    The book reflects on the method and                                                     "struggle of faith ."
meaning of communication within Old                                                             The book offers an excellent perspec-
Order communities . It documents the            In response to the pro-telephone voices,    tive on these particular faith communities'
involvement, or lack of it, of the Old       the Old Order Amish have compromised           efforts to meet this "struggle of faith ."
                                                                                                                                      Page I I

Book Review
"THOSE ENTERPRISING                              sent, and it is not always clear who wrote       were rare or non-existant . When that situa-
PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS,                            some of the articles . Some are scholarly        tion ended, so did the beef rings .
Canadian-German Folklore Vol. 13"                works, like "Three Schneider Pioneering              A couple of things stand out as you read
by The Pennsylvania German Folklore              Families" and "Reichard & Hallman                this volume . One is that many of the com-
Society of Ontario, (Stewart Publishing,         Sawmills in Rosebank, 1828-1990" which           panies recorded in this book are quite well
Markham, 1995, 253 pages .)                      include research and footnotes from              known locally and elsewhere . Names such
                                                 outside sources .                                as Maple Lane Dairy, United Breeders
Reviewed by Brent Bauman                             Others are written by descendants of         Incorporated (now Gencor), Bingeman's
                                                 those original enterprising pioneers . In the    Park, Hybrid Turkeys, Kitchener Farmer's
    "The Pennsylvania German                     chapter on "Marmills in York County,             Market, Ontario Livestock Exchange and
Mennonites of Waterloo County have                1846" you can sense the pride for the fam-      Hallman Organs all owe their beginnings
developed a reputation for community             ily business coming through in the writing       and development to some enterprising
living, hard work and for well organized,        of the essay . In a piece on the "Baker          Pennsylvania Germans .
productive farms . They are almost as            Sugar Bush" there is a feel to the words             The other is that many are also family
equally well known for being quiet, soft-        that tell you they truly enjoy their work . In   businesses passed down through several
spoken, and reserved about their beliefs,        many of these types of articles humourous        generations . This is the case not only on
opinions, and accomplishments - especial-        anecdotes are shared with the reader, leav-      farms that are so often worked by father
ly when in contact with persons outside          ing one with mental images such as live-         and son and grandson, but also businesses
their immediate community ." This is how         stock feed being shot across the room by         like Byer Honey, Ratcliff Sawmill,
the essay about farmer, innovator and agri-      malfunctioning equipment . Or you learn          Brubacher Auctions, Bingeman's Park,
cultural commentator Roy M . Brubacher,          with the writer the skills needed to sell old    Cressman Meats and the many branches of
"Eighty Acres are Enough," begins . This         limburger cheese that has `past its prime .'     Bowman/Bergey Cheese . All of these had
also describes the motive behind the com-            Some sections are simply portions of         parents and children working together,
piling of this book by the Pennsylvania          diaries written a century ago which are          passing on the skills and trades from one
German Folklore Society of Ontario .             used as a window to see into the lives of        generation to the next . Edward and Robert
    Mennonites are indeed known for              past generations . It shows a life centered      Bergey both write about working for their
being hard working and industrious,              around work, family, church and commu-           parents selling cheese . Though neither one
strong believers in the `Protestant Work         nity, and how they were often entwined .         stayed in the family business, they both
Ethic .' Because of this reputation, it is not       As mentioned before not all enterprises      share how they will never forget the valu-
surprising that "Those Enterprising              started by those enterprising Pennsylvania       able lessons about the importance of hard
Pennsylvania Germans" would be written.          Germans were farms . For early settlers          work and honesty, as well as the lessons
What is surprising is it took until the          other industries were just as important to       they received in retail, marketing and cus-
Society's thirteenth volume to cover the         their survival . It follows than that some of    tomer relations .
topic, but you can't do everything at once .     these settlers would start sawmills and flour        This volume by no means could cover
    Though many of the essays dealt with         mills . For others, side businesses were         all the businesses began and developed by
farming or agriculturally based business-        started to earn extra money to make ends         Mennonites and other Pennsylvania
es, they did not limit themselves to only        meet, such as cheesemaking, maple syrup          Germans . Even some of the stories in the
Mennonite farmers of Waterloo County             production and beekeeping . Many of these        book seem too short, and deserve more
for their investigation of this topic, but       ventures grew into full scale businesses of      research and recording to tell the full story .
included a variety of enterprises . In fact      their own, replacing the farm as their liveli-   I hope this book will inspire someone to
it was not limited to only Waterloo              hood . In some circumstances businesses          do just that . For the rest of us, the book is
County , but to all three original               naturally grew out of the farm operation in      enjoyable reading, and a good overview
Mennonite settlements : Waterloo,                order to market their produce, such as "The      of a people whose impact on this province
Markham and the Twenty.                          Old Oak Country Barn" built near Vineland        should not be minimized, and whose
    The volume is a collection of short sto-     Station by Michael Culp and Dean High to         reputation seems to be well deserved.
ries, or vignettes, of our province's past. It   sell their fruits and vegetables .
is aided by a generous amount of                     This is a recurring theme in many of          The book costs $10, plus postage .
photographs dispersed though out the             the essays, that people saw a need or            Copies can be obtained from
book to help illustrate the many stories,        opportunity, and took the necessary steps        The Pennsylvania German Folklore
and identify the principle characters            to meet it. Such is the case in the section      Society ofOntario
involved . Because of this format, there         on "Beef Rings" which provided fresh             1202-1414 King Street East,
are many different authors and styles pre-       meat to people at a time when freezers           Kitchener, Ontario N2G 4TS
People and Projects
RITTENHOUSE FAMILY REUNION                     NAIRN MENNONITE CHURCH,                       "EnGendering the Past: Women and Men
will be held July 17-19, 1998 to commem-       Ailsa Craig, will celebrate their 50th        in Mennonite History," a conference spon-
orate the 310th Anniversary of the arrival     Anniversary from June 27 to 28. All are       sored by the Chair of Mennonite Studies,
of William Rittenhouse in Germantown,          invited to the various events that include    University of Winnipeg in Manitoba is
Pennsylvania in 1688. Rittenhouse              an open house, barbecue, campfire remi-       planned for Oct . 16-17, 1998 . MARLENE
became the first Mennonite minister in         niscing and a worship service .               EPP and LINDA HUEBERT HECHT
America, and builder of the first paper mill                                                 are members of the planning committee .
at Philadelphia in 1690. The theme of the                                                    Both will be presenting papers there,
event to be held at the Adam's Mark            TORONTO UNITED MENNONITE                      Marlene on "Masculinity and
Hotel, Philadelphia will be "Our               CHURCH will celebrate their 50th              Conscientious Objection," and Linda on
Pennsylvania Dutch/Deutsch Heritage ."         Anniversary from June 13 to 14.               "Shared Authority : Analysis of Female
Pastor Frederick S. Weiser, an authority on                                                  Leadership Roles in Profiles of Anabaptist
this topic will be the keynote speaker.                                                      Women." Other speakers include James
Any Rittenhouse descendants, or persons        CONFERENCE OF MENNONITES                      Urry, Royden Loewen and Katie Funk
interested in the history of the Rittenhouse   IN CANADA will be holding their annual        Wiebe.
family, are most welcome. Detailed infor-      sessions in Stratford from July 8 to 12.
mation of reunion program/plans will be        Seven different tours are being offered,
                                                                                             GLENN H. BAECHLER, compiler of
mailed to all who forward their name and       including the area's many Mennonite
                                                                                             THE HISTORY AND GENEALOGI-
address to: LARRY RITTENHOUSE                  Historical sites, including original
                                                                                             CAL STUDY OF JOSEPH G. BAECH-
93 Rousseaux St., Ancaster, ON L9G 2W6         Mennonite and Amish settlements at
                                                                                             LER ( [Waterloo : Glenn H . Baechler],
Telephone (905) 648-0564                       Kitchener, St. Jacobs, Millbank and
                                                                                             1996, 229 pp.), traces the events and con-
                                               Aylmer. There are also tours of Six Nations
                                                                                             ditions surrounding the immigration of
                                               Reserve, Conrad Grebel College and the
                                                                                             Joseph G. Baechler and his family from
GOVERNOR GENERAL'S CARING                      House of Friendship. Most tours are from
                                                                                             Lorraine, France, to Canada as well as his
CANADIAN AWARD was received on                 2 :30-8:00 p.m . Friday July 10 (supper
                                                                                             descendants to the present generation.
December 12, 1997 by MHSO member               included at an area Mennonite church) .
Gertrude Bergey, a 21 year volunteer with      Tour guides include SAM STEINER and
Mission Services of London. The award          GLENN ZEHR . For further information          A new book by LORRAINE ROTH,
honours selfless generousity and special       check CIVIC Sessions information or           THE AMISH AND THEIR
contributions by people to their communi-      contact Maurice Martin at (519) 662-1031      NEIGHBOURS : GERMAN BLOCK,
ty and country . After 37 years in teaching,   or 662-1577 .                                 WILMOT TOWNSHIP, 1822-1860 is
Gertrude responded to an invitation to                                                       being published by the MHSO in 1998.
become involved with Mission Services.
Executive Director, Fred Haggland, paid        A conference was held May 7-9, 1998 in
tribute to Gertrude's long and faithful ser-   Abbotsford, B.C. "One People, Many            MARLENE EPP was appointed as Editor
vice. "She brought her expertise as an edu-    Stories : Charting the Next Generation of     of the "Conrad Grebel Review" as of
cator into our social service field and that   Mennonite Historical Writing in the U.S .     January 1998.
has been very helpful ."                       and Canada ." It was sponsored by the
In an interview by John Herbert, London        Mennonite historical societies in Canada      LAUREEN HARDER-GISSING has
Free Press Reporter, Gertrude indicated        and the United States to celebrate the com-   been appointed as the writer of the STIR-
that soon after she became involved with       pletion of the history series, "Mennonites    LING AVE. MENNONITE CHURCH'S
Mission Services she discovered it was         in Canada" and "Mennonite Experience in       history in preparation for their 75th
started by a group of Mennonites . "Since      America" . Two people from Ontario pre-       anniversary in 1999.
my father's people were Mennonite there        sented papers, MARLENE EPP on
was a large Mennonite connection in my         "Masculinity and Conscientious
family . I guess I became hooked right         Objection," and LINDA HUEBERT                 The NITH VALLEY MENNONITE
away because of that." Excerpt from The        HECHT on "Photographs as a Source for         CHURCH is writing a history of their
London Free Press article "Her second          the Historian: The Case of MCC                congregation for their 25th anniversary
 ,career' was caring."                         Kitchener, The Canadian Office."              in 1999.

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