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MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS - Soil Science Society of Nigeria

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					1
                  The Presidency
                        NEPAD Nigeria
  GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND
        FOOD SECURITY
                                          By

               Amb. Tunji Olagunju
Special Adviser To The President on NEPAD & Head of NEPAD Nigeria

              e-mail: sa@nepadaprmnigeria.org
                    www.nepadaprmnigeria.org

                                  A paper presented
                                           at
   The 35th Annual Conference of the Soil Science Society of Nigeria (SSSN) holding at

    University Auditorium, Main Campus, Federal University of Technology, Minna
                             on Tuesday, 8th March, 2011
                                                                                         2
      OVERVIEW OF THE PRESENTATION

•   NEPAD : OBJECTIVES AND PRINCIPLES
•   NEPAD MANDATE
•   NEPAD AND THE UNITED NATIONS
•   UN - NEPAD PROGRAMMES CLUSTERS
•   NEPAD NIGERIA - FUNCTIONS
•   THE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE & FOOD SECURITY
    • SOURCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE
    • EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE - FLOODING, COASTAL
      EROSION
• NEPAD RESPONSES TO ISSUES OF CLIMATE CHANGE &
  FOOD SECURITY
• CHALLENGES
• OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGES
• CONCLUSION


                                                 3
    NEW PARTNERSHIP FOR AFRICA’S
        DEVELOPMENT (NEPAD)
 The New Partnership for Africa’s Development
  (NEPAD) is a strategic framework with a holistic
  and integrated economic development Programme
  for Africa’s renewal. NEPAD originated from a
  mandate given to five initiating Heads of State of
  Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Senegal and Africa by the
  Organization of Africa Unity (OAU) now African
  Union (AU), to come up with an integrated socio-
  economic development framework for Africa. The
  framework was subsequently adopted in July 2001
  at Lusaka, Zambia with NEPAD charged with the
  following objectives:




                                                   4
        NEPAD - OBJECTIVES

1) To eradicate poverty;

2) To place African countries, both individually
   and collectively, on a path of sustainable
   growth and development;

3) To halt the marginalization of Africa in the
   globalization process;

4) To enhance its full and beneficial integration
   into the global economy; and

5) To accelerate the empowerment of Women.

                                                    5
           NEPAD - PRINCIPLES
i.   Good governance as a basic requirement for
     peace, security and sustainable political and
     socio-economic development;
ii. African ownership and leadership, as well as
     broad and deep participation by all sectors of
     society;
iii. Anchoring the development of Africa on its
     resources and resourcefulness of its people;
iv. Partnership between and amongst African
     peoples on one hand and Africa and the rest of
     the world on the other hand;
v. Acceleration of        regional and continental
     integration;

                                                      6
           NEPAD - PRINCIPLES

vi. Building the competitiveness of African countries
    and the continent;

v. Forging a new international partnership that
   changes the unequal relationship between Africa
   and the developed world; and

v. Ensuring that all partnership with NEPAD are
   linked to the Millennium Development Goals
   (MDGs) and other agreed development goals and
   targets.


                                                    7
              NEPAD NIGERIA -
               THE MANDATE
 NEPAD Nigeria is mandated to identify and work with
  partners in the public and private sectors, including
  the Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) and
  International Organizations operating in Nigeria,
  towards       development, implementation, and
  promotion of NEPAD programmes at the country
  level.

 Specifically in the area of climate change and Food
  Security, NEPAD has been in the forefront of
  Advocacy and sensitization of country level
  governments and the public on the need to halt the
  menace and/or mitigate its effects.

                                                     8
       NEPAD AND THE UNITED
             NATIONS
 UN World Summit on Sustainable Development
  (WSSD) declared NEPAD as viable initiative for
  Africa’s Development;

 UN General Assembly adopted NEPAD as the
  framework for supporting development in Africa &
  directed all its specialized agencies to align their
  programmes in line with NEPAD;

 UN General Assembly Resolution 57/7 advised all
  African countries to establish a National NEPAD
  Office;

 NEPAD Programme areas have been grouped into
  nine clusters for effective implementation;
                                                         9
        UN - NEPAD PROGRAMME
               CLUSTERS
Cluster 1: Infrastructure Development
    Convener: Economic Commission of Africa (ECA);

Cluster 2: Governance
    Convener: United Nations Development Programme
               (UNDP);

Cluster 3: Agriculture, Food Security & Rural Dev.
    Convener: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO);

Cluster 4: Environment, Population & Urbanisation
     Convener: UN-HABITAT;

Cluster 5: Human Resources Development, Employment
                 and HIV/AIDS
      Convener: United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF);
                                                   10
        UN - NEPAD PROGRAMME
          CLUSTERS CONT’D
Cluster 6: Science and Technology

   Convener: UNESCO;

Cluster 7: Industry, Trade and Market Access

     Convener: UNIDO;

Cluster 8: Peace and Security

     Convener: Department of Political Affairs (DPA)

Cluster 9: Advocacy & Outreach

    Convener: Office of the Special Adviser on Africa
               (OSAA)
                                                        11
UN - NEPAD PROGRAMME
       CLUSTERS




                       12
      NEPAD NIGERIA - FUNCTIONS
• Disseminate to the public, information on NEPAD programmes
  and activities on climate change and Food security in
  collaborations with relevant MDAs;
• Establish and maintain a functional databank on NEPAD
  activities in NIGERIA in all the areas covered by its Programme
  Clusters and especially on Agriculture, Food Security & Rural
  Development and the Environment;

• Prepare in collaboration with the Ministries of Environment and
  Agriculture a National Plan of Action on NEPAD and ensure
  effective mainstreaming of such plan, programmes and projects
  into the Annual Budget to mitigate the effects of especially
  Climate Change and Food Security;

• Promote stakeholder participation in the preparation and
  implementation of NEPAD projects, with particular reference to
  the 3-tiers of government, NGO’s and Private Sector in line with
  the need to reduce the effects of Climate Change and improve
  the country’s potential for sustainable food production to meet
  the needs of its teeming population;
                                                               13
     NEPAD NIGERIA – FUNCTIONS

• Work closely with relevant organs of Government on
  technical assistance programmes support on
  NEPAD Programmes with particular reference to
  Climate Change & Food Security;

• Participate from time to time in international
  meetings concerning NEPAD Programmes where
  issues of Climate Change and/or Food Security are
  discussed;
• Assist Office of the SGF on country level activities
  relating to the African Peer Review Mechanism
  (APRM) and issues on the Environment and
  Agriculture Clusters ; and

• Monitor all institutions’ processes and activities at
  national level relevant to the pursuance of NEPAD
  objectives.                                         14
     GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOOD
                SECURITY
 ISSUES OF CLIMATE CHANGE:
• Global Climate Change is considered as one of the most
  serious threats to sustainable development
• It has adverse effects on human health, food security,
  economic activity, water resources, as well as physical
  infrastructure.
• It is caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations
  in the atmosphere.
• Evidences of Climate Change:
   1) Temperature Increase – Temperature of the earth’s
      surface has increased by an average of about 0.3 to
      0.6 o C since the end of the 19th Century.
   2) Sea level changes / rise – The sea level rose by average
      of 10 to 25cm during the past 100 years.
   3) Observed Environmental Systems – Risks of rainfall
      deficit are confirmed. A deficit of 20 to 30% in rainfall
      results in a water shortage or deficit of 40 to 60%.   15
         GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOOD
                SECURITY…CONT’D
 ISSUES OF CLIMATE CHANGE Cont’d:
   In Nigeria and other West African Countries, small changes in comparison to the
    normal climatic factors can lead to:
          Climate     extremes   with     disastrous   consequences   especially   with
            agriculture and animal resources
          Adverse effects on the economy
          Desertification and Deforestation
          Migration of populations resulting from poverty associated with climatic
            effects.
   All these call for urgent sensitization actions for governments and populations on:
      climatic risks and their mitigation
      Integration into development strategies paying special attention to crop
        yields, animal production, water resources, the supply of firewood and
        desertification.
      The ultimate goal is to avert imminent hunger, starvation and extreme poverty

                                                                                    16
SOURCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE




                            17
SOURCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE




                            18
       GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOOD
              SECURITY…CONT’D

• IMPACTS / IMPLICATIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
    Based on the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change
     (IPCC) projection, the humid tropical areas of Southern
     Nigeria, which are already too hot and too wet, are expected
     to be characterized by increase in both precipitation and
     temperature.

    Already, temperature increases of about 0.2OC - 0.3OC per
     decade have been observed in the various ecological zones
     of the country.

    Based on the IPCC projection, precipitation increases of
     about 2-3% for each degree of global warming may be
     expected for the humid zones of Nigeria. Thus, it is
     reasonable to expect that the precipitation would probably
     increase by approximately 5 - 20% in the very humid areas of
     the forest regions and southern savannah areas.
                                                              19
         GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOOD
                SECURITY…CONT’D
 Climate Change is also expected to have the following impacts
  on Nigeria’s water sector – increases in sea surface
  temperature and mean global sea level, changes in salinity, wave
  conditions and ocean circulation; disruption of marine
  ecosystems dynamics, with significant impacts on fish-
  dependent human societies; and increased levels of flooding,
  accelerated erosion, loss of wetlands and mangroves, and
  seawater intrusion into freshwater sources.

 Other consequences of drought in Northern Nigeria include a
  decrease of water table flows in the alluvial aquifers, resulting in
  a decrease of base flows; a decrease of the non-dissolved solid
  transportation capacity due to the severe low flows; a reduction
  of the capacity of rivers in sediment transport while air,
  mechanical and hydraulic erosion has been accentuated.



                                                                   20
  GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOOD
         SECURITY…CONT’D

 Nigeria is likely to experience an increase in
  global warming from 1.40C to 5.80C over the
  period 1990 to 2100.
 Rainfall to the North-West of Nigeria has been
  observed to be decreasing in its mean value,
  evaporation is increasing while runoff for Kainji
  reservoir is decreasing. All these have adverse
  implications on hydroelectric energy generation
  as less water is available for most part of the
  year.
 Particularly   for   Agricultural    Production,
  unabated or unmitigated effects of Climate
  Change is ominous for sustainable food
  production for a growing population.           21
EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE:
 Flooding in a Community




                             22
 EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE:
Flooding of the Ahmadu Bello Way
           Beach Drive




                                   23
  EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE:
Threat to buildings fronting a beach –
           Coastal Erosion




                                         24
EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE:
Areal view of the Fast - Eroding
      Bar Beach in Lagos




                                   25
EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE:
   Flooding from the Beach




                             26
      GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND
        FOOD SECURITY…CONT’D
ISSUES OF FOOD SECURITY:
 According to the FAO:
• Food security exists when all people, at all times, have
  physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and
  nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food
  preferences for an active and healthy life.
 At the household level:
• Food security means access by all members at all times to
  enough food for an active and healthy life.
• Food security therefore includes at a minimum:
    the ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe
     foods
    an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in
     socially acceptable ways (that is, without resorting to
     emergency food supplies, scavenging, stealing, or
     other coping strategies.                              27
   GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND
     FOOD SECURITY…CONT’D
ISSUES OF FOOD SECURITY:
A country will be said to be food secured if:
• The country can either produce or make available enough
   food supplies in quantity and quality required to meet the
   nutritional needs of its population for healthy growth;
• The populace have adequate income to purchase or buy the
   food;
• The food is available in adequate quality and quantity all the
   year round; and
• That these three conditions hold simultaneously, i.e.:
     Availability
     Affordability, and
     Stability of access.


                                                            28
   GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND
     FOOD SECURITY…CONT’D
 ISSUES OF FOOD SECURITY cont’d
 Availability: this refers to the ability of the country
  to produce or import enough food to meet the
  dietary and food preferences of its population.
 Affordability: refers to the purchasing power of its
  population and their ability to purchase the food.
 Stability of Access: refers to the ability of the
  country to sustain production and food supplies in
  quantity and quality required by the population to
  meet their dietary and food preferences all the
  year round.



                                                     29
      GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND
        FOOD SECURITY…CONT’D
 THE STYLIZED FACTS:
 Climate Change as we already defined will impact negatively on
  the issues of food security:
        Extreme precipitation will prevent food crops from
         attaining their yield levels - Production is impaired;
        In the same vein animal production will be constrained;
        Extreme temperature will adversely affect both crop and
         animal production and human health on sustainable
         basis.
        Poverty will manifest in the inability to have resources to
         access food needs of the population in tandem with their
         dietary and food preferences for active healthy life,
        Stability of access is seriously affected.
 This explains why governments in Africa must be involved in the
  mitigation efforts to minimise the effects of climate change and
  or in global efforts to halt the trends.                     30
    GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND
      FOOD SECURITY…CONT’D
 In Africa IPCC and 2007 Climate Change synthesis
  Report says by 2020, between 75 and 250 million of
  people are projected to be exposed to increased
  water stress due to climate change.

 Some country’s yields from rain-fed agriculture
  could be reduced by up to 50% Agricultural
  production, including access to Food in many
  African countries is projected to be severely
  compromised, this would further adversely affect
  food security and exacerbate malnutrition.




                                                 31
     NEPAD RESPONSES TO ISSUES OF CLIMATE
          CHANGE AND FOOD SECURITY

 In accordance with its mandate and devastating
  effect of climate change NEPAD Nigeria has
  consistently    engaged    relevant   Agencies    of
  Government to sensitize them on how to mitigate the
  effects of climate change as follows:
   1. The Federal Ministry of Agriculture & Rural
      Development – Collaborations to organize
      relevant workshops to address the issues of food
      security.
   2. The Federal Ministry of Water Resources –
      encourage the ministry to construct simple earth
      dams in remote areas in order to conserve water
      for human and animal use.
                                                   32
   NEPAD RESPONSES TO ISSUES OF CLIMATE
        CHANGE AND FOOD SECURITY

3. The Federal Ministry of Science & Technology –
   Collaborate in the development of simple technologies of
   using photovoltaic cells and other renewable energy
   sources which has no adverse effect on the environment
   and has been proven not to deplete the Ozone layer.
4. The Federal Ministry of Environment – Engage the Ministry
   of Environment and relevant stakeholders in curbing the
   menace of drought and desertification by organizing tree
   planting campaigns and development of Shelter belt to
   reduce the desert encroachment which is at about 900m
   per year.
5. The Universities, State Governments and Individuals –
   Encourage them to research into viable areas that can curb
   the menace of climate change , while states to embrace the
   issue of tree planting seriously and individuals not to take-
   up to deforestation.
                                                            33
        NEPAD RESPONSES TO ISSUES OF CLIMATE
         CHANGE AND FOOD SECURITY…CONT’D

 Development of innovative approaches towards alleviating Food
  Security;
   ― Enhancing household capacity to generate a combination of
     home produced foods.
   ― Development of a market led production strategies
   ― Development of commodity value-chains where;
      • Technology drive innovation
      • Innovation promotes competitiveness
      • Competitiveness ensures profitability and sustainability.
   — Development and evolving Public – Private – Partnership
     where;
      • The public sector creates the        enabling environment
        including mitigation of advance effects of climate change
      • Private sector invests in developing more efficient
        commodity value-chains that can increase both on and off-
        farm incomes.                                             34
                 CHALLENGES

—Inadequate logistic support to engage in relevant
 NEPAD activities.
—The wrong perception of NEPAD Programmes by
 Federal MDAs who prefer to see such as competing
 with their statutory responsibilities rather than just
 a catalyst to proffer ideas in line with the best
 practices in other parts of the world.
— Many Private Society Organizations seek for
 collaboration and financial support for their
 programmes even though NEPAD is not a funding
 agency but can provide technical inputs.
—The challenges of Funds: The Budget of NEPAD is
 highly inadequate to meet the scope of its activities.
                                                    35
    OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGES

 The implementation of NEPAD programmes has
  started to gain momentum in Nigeria. NEPAD Nigeria
  will continue to ensure the operationalization of
  NEPAD programmes at country level. Our duty is to
  promote Public-Private-Partnership in the NEPAD
  process in Nigeria. Areas that will require some more
  actions include:

   – Intensifying the NEPAD Advocacy Programme to
     ensure that NEPAD activities are communicated to
     the grassroots;

   – Ensuring establishment of NEPAD desks in all
     Federal Ministries , Departments and Agencies;

   – Increased networking with the Public and Private
     sectors, including identification of strategic
     partners in the areas of Climate Change and Food
     Security;
                                                    36
    OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGES
              …CONT’D
  – Partnership with donor agencies and the
    International Community operating in Nigeria; and
  – Closer working relationship with the Continental
    Office in South Africa and other NEPAD Country
    Offices in Africa, particularly within the ECOWAS.
    In order to adopt best practices in the areas of
    Climate Change mitigations.
 CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUES:
    Education and Training.
    Technology development and technological
     adaptation.
    Strengthening of research centres and scientists
     to undertake and sustain Hydrological data, and
     indeed data on other environmental parameters
     significant for all sectors of the economy.   37
    OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGES
              …CONT’D
• Strengthening and sustaining political will and
  leadership to ensure that the NEPAD process
  remains on course;

• Building the capacity of national and regional
  institutions such as the Climate Change Unit;

• Speeding up the integration of NEPAD action
  plans and initiatives into national development
  programmes such as the CAADP Process where
  Food Security issues are of great concern;

• Increasing the private sector participation in the
  NEPAD process particularly those in the
  Environment and Agriculture Clusters;
                                                   38
 OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGES
           ..CONT’D

– Achieving the Millennium Development Goals
  within the framework of NEPAD;

– Increasing and sustaining public awareness on
  the twin issues of Climate change and Food
  security;
– Ensuring that more stakeholders are actively
  involved in the NEPAD process at both national
  and state levels;




                                              39
        OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGES
                  ..CONT’D
• Following the adoption of NEPAD Comprehensive
  Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP),
  the Federal Government identified three priority
  projects in the National Medium–Term Investment
  Programme (NMTIP) for sustainable Agriculture
  Development.
• NEPAD Nigeria facilitated the following summits:-
      • NEPAD Fish for-All Summit
      • The Africa Fertilizer Summit
      • Food Security Summit
      • Africa Cocoa Summit
      • NEPAD TerrAfrica (SLM) Initiative
   For details of resolutions visit – www.nepad.org

                                                      40
        OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGES
                  ..CONT’D
• The AU Summit in Maputo, Mozambique in 2003 also passed a
  resolution to increase annual budget allocation to the agriculture
  sector by at least 10 per cent in member countries in order to
  boost growth in the agriculture sector.

 FOOD SECURITY ISSUES:
    The   Comprehensive    Africa Agriculture  Development
     Programme (CAADP) is the NEPAD framework for agriculture
     development in Africa and has been endorsed by African
     Governments, farmers and agribusiness as well as
     Development Partners.




                                                                41
            CONCLUSION
a) NEPAD is essentially a catalyzing, coordinating,
   mobilizing, unblocking and energizing agent,
   therefore, it will do everything possible to get
   relevant MDAs to implement programmes that will
   mitigate the effects of Climate Change & Food
   security;
b) NEPAD Nigeria, from its mandate, is committed to
   ensuring     the    domestication     of    NEPAD
   programmes at country level in partnership with
   all stakeholders in the Public and Private sectors;
c) It provides a forum for open and frank dialogue;
   and
d) NEPAD Nigeria is committed to the achievement
   of the MDGs by 2015 and drastically reducing the
   effects of Climate change and working with
   relevant MDAs to ensure Food Security in Nigeria.

                                                    42
THANK YOU




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