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IDEA Curriculum profile Country Status of Drama in the Curriculum Web links to Links to Drama/ Contact Current Curriculum Materials Theatre in Projects Education Organisations Australia Australia: Australian Drama Drama Australia Drama Drama is taught in primary and secondary schools throughout Curriculum http://www.dram Australia Australia. In all states and territories students can take one or Documents by State: aaustralia.org.au/ Internation more drama subjects in year 12 (the final year of secondary Victoria al Officer: schooling in Australia) and this subject can count towards http://www.vcaa.vic. university entry if required. Australia is currently working edu.au/ Richard towards a national curriculum for the Arts but for now each Queensland Sallis state/territory has its own curriculum. At university, education http://education.qld. sallis1@net students can train to be specialist drama teachers. gov.au/ space.net.a New South Wales u https://www.det.ns w.edu.au/home/ Tasmania http://www.educati on.tas.gov.au/ South Australia http://www.decs.sa. gov.au/ Western Australia http://www.det.wa. edu.au/ Australian Capital Territory (Canberra) http://www.det.act. gov.au/ http://www.deet.nt. gov.au/ Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority http://www.acara.ed u.au/default.asp Canada Canada Source: 2nd World The Road Map for Canada The Aims of Arts Education in the Curriculum: The Conference on Arts Arts Education: Research on curriculum documents prepared for arts education in the Education, 2010 The Canadian Arts Report for Canada jurisdictions present the aims of arts education. The goals participants in the Education that are most often cited include: first World and http://www.unesco. the development of the student intellectually, Conference on Knowledge ca/en/interdisciplina socially, emotionally, physically, and aesthetically; Arts Education Sharing: ry/artslearning/docu the expansion of the students’ context to a broader ments/ArtsEducation have organized Research on community with wide diversity; Report_March2010_ symposia, arts the linking of arts learning to learning in other EN.pdf developed an education is subjects and the development of transferable skills; action plan, and undertaken support for student success in learning; Association of created a new by nurturing creativity, imagination, independent Canadian organization, the universities, thinking, multiple ways of learning, and critical analysis; Community Canadian Network governments, the creation of links to tradition, history, society, Colleges for Arts and educational and cultural diversity; www.accc.ca Learning, as a associations, proficiency in creative processes and the capacity to Association of result of the non‐profit communicate through the arts; Universities and Conference and in organizations, the enhancement of the development of the Colleges of Canada response to the and private students’ cultural identity www.aucc.ca Road Map for Arts companies. the appreciation of the contributions of arts and Canadian Education Education. Among Among the artists. Association the network’s topics www.cea‐ace.ca major objectives addressed Achieving the Aims: Sufficient funding, qualified teachers, Canadian are the are: available resources, adequate teaching time, research, Information Centre development of teach partnerships, the integration of arts in the curriculum, and resources to er education the establishment of the arts as a part of lifelong learning for International strengthen the in the arts feature prominently among the multiple factors Credentials arts and learning creati characterized as essential for achieving the diverse aims of www.cicic.ca for the benefit of ve processes arts education. Council of Ministers all Canadians and the Obstacles to Achievement: With the high level of demand of Education, the strengthening roles and for and the wide scope of arts education, as well as the Canada, with links of the bridges effectiveness many conflicting priorities, there is rarely enough funding, to the Web sites of between all those of arts time, expertise, and focus. The lack of any of the factors the provincial and who share a education listed in the paragraph above can be an obstacle to territorial ministries commitment to with specific achieving the aims of arts education. and departments arts and learning. groups, such Arts Fields: In almost all province and territory, arts responsible for The UNESCO Chair as at‐risk and education is divided into four strands – dance, drama, education in Arts and marginalized music, and visual arts. Within each of these, the core of the www.cmec.ca Learning, based at young people learning in each jurisdiction can be described within three Statistics Canada Queen’s arts essential elements: www.statcan.ca University in education as Creating – which involves producing, performing, Ontario, is a cultural tool hands‐on experience, the language of the arts, creativity particularly active in minority and design, artistic competence, and the capacity to in these initiatives. situations express and use the materials and techniques of art. The Road Map assess Reflection and interpretation – which encompasses was not ment of arts developing an aesthetic, visual and critical awareness, and distributed to all education the capacity to respond and analyze. provinces and projects Cultural and historical – which focuses on the 2nd World Conference tracki appreciation of art and artists and their roles in historical on Arts Education, ng of 2010 4 Report for and social contexts, the multiple forms of art and their link promising Canada to cultures, and, in many jurisdictions, a particular focus on practices in territories and so Aboriginal arts forms and the centrality of art to their arts has not a direct cultures. education impact on the In the delivery of this wide scope of programming in development of schools, partnerships can play important roles as arts One arts education councils, arts centres, public galleries and museums, and particularly policies and non‐profit and community organizations all cooperate with significant educational authorities. Among the many, many programs practices in a current offered are artists in the schools, teaching of other subjects consistent fashion. Canadian through the arts, workshops, viewings, and special research performances at arts centres, professional development for project is a teachers, Web sites, resources, special events, seven‐year comprehensive student‐based programs in communities, study on and intensive residential programs, often for at‐risk singing, students. involving Approaches to Arts Education: Integrating arts into the more than 70 curriculum often involves three distinct approaches – researchers learning in the arts through the teaching of skills and around the techniques, learning through the arts when the arts are world. used to teach other subjects and concepts, and learning Concluding about the arts through contact with artists’ works and Remarks: Arts performances. Many curriculum guides and other education in documents provide recommendations and strategies for Canada using the arts to teach in other subjects and major involves not non‐profit organizations support these efforts through only the extensive partnerships, resources, and training. Outside of ministries and schools, providers and funders work to offer arts education departments in communities and to special groups. Non‐profit of education, organizations are particularly active in this, reaching but many under‐served communities, Aboriginal artists, youth and other families, young people who are marginalized, immigrants, governmental those challenged with mental illness, poverty, addictions, , non‐profit, and those in prisons, among many diverse populations. community, Dimensions of Art Education: The pedagogy of arts and private education includes the study of artistic works, direct providers and contact with artistic works, and engaging in arts practice. funders. The Curriculum strategies and practices in classrooms amply major themes demonstrate how each of these comprises a part of arts of the Road education. Specific programs introduce artists into Map for Arts classrooms, bring students from the classroom to the Education are centres that display, perform, and celebrate the arts, and well reflected focus on hands‐on experiences of creation and display by in policy and the students. practice and Education of Teachers and Artists: In‐service training for the World the arts is offered to teachers through departments of Conferences education, universities, school boards, non‐profit and on Arts and arts‐related organizations, teachers’ associations, reference Learning and tools and resources, conferences, workshops, and on‐line the Road networks. Programs are also made available for artists who Map have are involved in school‐based and community‐based generated education. considerable Partnerships: In many jurisdictions, the departments activity in responsible for education and for culture work together to Canada. support programs for arts education in schools and Although communities. Cultural policies and programs often cite the funding and important role of arts education in a vibrant society. In resources are some municipalities, arts councils provide support to arts, rarely culture, and heritage programs. Funding for the arts, while sufficient to never adequate to meet all the demands, comes from a meet all the variety of sources. The education ministries and needs for departments provide overall funding to the school systems, school‐ and while other provincial and territorial governments community‐b departments may support specific arts programs in ased arts communities and with students. Private foundations and education, companies, arts‐related facilities and companies, the vitality, individuals, and parents also provide funding for arts creativity, education. scope, and Source: 2nd World Conference on Arts Education, 2010 Report for diversity of Canada arts education offerings are evident from the examples in this report – and these represent only a fraction of all the activity underway. Croatia Summary: Republic of Croatia - The Croatian Educational system institutions: National Curriculum Centre for Drama These institutions include kindergartens, primary and Framework for Pre- Education secondary schools, institutions for children with special needs School Education The Croatian and pupil's hostels. In July 2010 a new National Frame and General Centre for Drama Curriculum (NFC) has been adopted where drama/theatre has Compulsory and Education is a been for the first time included as a separate field under the Secondary Education leading institution title – Drama Culture and Art (DCA). http://public.mzos.h in Croatia that is r/Default.aspx?sec=2 systematically Drama groups and studios as part of the cultural centres and 510 doing work in the professional theatres: drama pedagogy The tasks of cultural centres is to be active in their local area, field. It has been so drama groups that work as a part of these centres mostly founded in 1996 as gather children any young people from a certain part of town an NGO with the or local area and are lead by professional theatre artists and goal of promoting, drama pedagogues or other leaders interested in drama/stage supporting and expression. These groups are mostly financed on the researching drama local/town level through applying for projects. education as a constitutional part Independent drama groups and NGO groups that do some of the humanistic forms of drama education work: education, enticing Independent drama studios (Drama Studio Tirena – Zagreb the development and Theatre Workshop Malik – Rijeka), as well as groups that of theory and are part of NGOs, are financed on a project basis through local practice that and governmental institutions. explores the links between drama, The education of drama pedagogues in Croatia: theatre and The education of drama pedagogues in Croatia does not exist education, as well at any of the educational institutions or universities, so drama as gathers, spreads pedagogue as a profession does not exist on the official list of and tries to make professions in Croatia. popular the DRAMA/THEATRE EDUCATION IN CROATIA TODAY information and experience from The drama/theatre educational work in Croatia is being the field of drama realised through several kinds of institutions. and education work in Croatia and Educational system institutions abroad. Today, the These institutions include kindergartens, primary and Centre has around secondary schools, institutions for children with special needs 350 members, who and pupil's hostels. In July 2010 a new National Frame are school Curriculum (NFC) has been adopted where drama/theatre has teachers, social been for the first time included as a separate field under the workers, title – Drama Culture and Art (DCA). It should be noted that psychologists, the NFC is just a general frame and not a concrete or in any therapists, way obligatory subject curriculum; its implementation is left rehabilitators, to the decisions of school masters and leaderships. The drama pedagogues description of the DCA in this document covers, firstly, the and theatre artists, actual presence of drama/theatre issues and practices in students and other school subjects (language, literature and arts), secondly, educators. The its application as a method of work in the classes (especially in Centre publishes the early grades of the elementary school), and thirdly, as a the magazine drama/theatre practice and the goal in the work of the school called Drama drama groups. On the other side, the new positioning of DCA Education, and in in the NFC opened the possibilities of shaping new subjects, 2005 it started with with drama/theatre as its main focus, but this option is not so a series of books close at hand, because it requires the well educated, on drama motivated and a bit more ambitious professional education. Six drama/theatre educators. However, at the moment Croatia is books have already lacking this kind of professionals, because there are no high been published. school or university programmes offering such specific The Centre is also professional profile. responsible for the So the basis of drama work inside the school system are realisation of the drama groups formed from interested students, and the cooperation of leader is usually one of the (language) teachers. Drama work Croatian experts throughout the year is process-based, but also product- with their foreign oriented. The final product is usually presented on the colleagues. Long occasions of school festivities, performance for parents and standing wider audiences, but the main presentations take place at the cooperation has school encounters organised by Croatian Ministry of been established Education. These are the encounters of reciters and drama with the Centre for groups from primary and secondary schools, encounters of Drama Education the artistic creativity of persons with special needs and of Bosnia & encounters of artistic work of the students who live in pupil's Herzegovina and hostels. These encounters are of a selective kind, because with the Centre for they are conducted on several levels (school, city, county, Drama and state level). The financing of these activities comes mostly Education through from the Ministry of Education and/or a specific the Arts (CEDEUM) school/institution. in Serbia through working together Drama groups and studios as part of the cultural centres and on projects, professional theatres participants The tasks of cultural centres is to be active in their local area, exchanges. Since so drama groups that work as a part of these centres mostly 1998 there has gather children any young people from a certain part of town been a cooperation or local area and are lead by professional theatre artists and with the EDERED drama pedagogues or other leaders interested in drama/stage (European Drama expression. These groups are mostly financed on the Encounters) local/town level through applying for projects. organisation, and There are about fifteen drama studios that make part of since then, a group professional theatres. Some of them have a long standing of Croatian tradition, a larger number of groups and participants (for children and young instance, the Educational Department of the Zagreb Youth people has always Theatre has around 1400 pupils in its drama, dance and taken part at the puppetry studios). They are mostly financed through local and Encounters. town sources, and a number of them don't offer their services European Drama for free, so a part of the revenue comes from that too. Encounter was held in Croatia in 2003, Independent drama groups and NGO groups that do some with over 200 forms of drama education work participants and Independent drama studios (Drama Studio Tirena – Zagreb leaders from 18 and Theatre Workshop Malik – Rijeka), as well as groups that countries. The are part of NGOs, are financed on a project basis through local Croatian Centre for and governmental institutions. For instance, the activity of Drama Education Drama Studio Tirena is associated with developing theatre-in- has been a education programs and their implementation and evaluation member of IDEA in schools. NGO's usually use some elements of drama since 1995. education in working with specific parts of the population (for example, students with learning disabilities, delinquents, Romany people, etc.) The education of drama pedagogues in Croatia The education of drama pedagogues in Croatia does not exist at any of the educational institutions or universities, so drama pedagogue as a profession does not exist on the official list of professions in Croatia. On some polytechnics and faculties there are certain courses that cover the field of drama education work. These courses give basic guidelines that provide the students with the insight into the field of drama pedagogy from the theoretical and practical point of view, which also enables them to use drama methods in their future work. A recommendation for starting a course on drama pedagogy did not take root at the Academy of Dramatic Art in Zagreb, which was for many years the only institution for education dramatic artists on an academic level, but with the opening of new academies (Split, Osijek), an interest was expressed by those schools not only for the course but also for the department of drama/ theatre pedagogy. In the situation where drama pedagogy was not recognized as a profession, the basic education of experts in the field was made through a system of additional education, mostly through workshops, that are offered to interested parties by the Croatian Centre for Drama Education, the Ministry of Education and some NGOs. Through a series of basic workshops (Basics of working in a drama group, Basic methods of drama in education, Basics of adapting works for stage and directing), as well as additional seminars (Drama education techniques, Theatre-in-education, Forum theatre, Psychodrama etc.) in the past ten years of its existence, the Croatian centre for Drama Education has educated hundreds of teachers, pedagogues, social workers, educators and students. Many of them, after fulfilling the necessary criteria, have acquired a vocation through our organisation (drama group leader, drama pedagogue, drama pedagogue-mentor). Together with the Croatian workshop leaders, a number of drama pedagogy workshops was held by experts from abroad (Finland, UK, Austria, Slovenia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Holland, USA) and our members took part in a number of international workshops abroad. The Croatian Centre for Drama Education The Croatian Centre for Drama Education is a leading institution in Croatia that is systematically doing work in the drama pedagogy field. It has been founded in 1996 as an NGO with the goal of promoting, supporting and researching drama education as a constitutional part of the humanistic education, enticing the development of theory and practice that explores the links between drama, theatre and education, as well as gathers, spreads and tries to make popular the information and experience from the field of drama and education work in Croatia and abroad. Today, the Centre has around 350 members, who are school teachers, social workers, psychologists, therapists, rehabilitators, drama pedagogues and theatre artists, students and educators. The Centre publishes the magazine called Drama Education, and in 2005 it started with a series of books on drama education. Six books have already been published. The Centre is also responsible for the realisation of the cooperation of Croatian experts with their foreign colleagues. A long time cooperation has been established with the Centre for Drama Education of Bosnia & Herzegovina and with the Centre for Drama and Education through the Arts (CEDEUM) in Serbia through working together on projects, participants exchanges etc.. Since 1998 there has been a cooperation with the EDERED (European Drama Encounters) organisation, and since then, a group of Croatian children and young people has always taken part at the Encounters. European Drama Encounter was held in Croatia in 2003, with over 200 participants and leaders from 18 countries. The Croatian Centre for Drama Education has been a member of IDEA since 1995. England Not Supplied Not supplied For further Drama in English is by law part of the subject of English informatio from the ages of 5 years to 14 years and from 14 is an n on option in many schools. In reality it is not taught in all Drama in schools. England contact: Drama is taught in an increasing number of primary Patrice schools and a decreasing number of secondary schools Baldwin and is used sometimes as a pedagogy (particularly within Chair of English). There was a proposed new primary curriculum National that had Drama in primary schools as a separate subject Drama within “Understanding the Arts” with equal arts subject patrice@d status but this did not become law before the general ramaforlea election in 2010. rning.eu The actual documents were in schools but have been discarded since the election. The change of government recently is leading to a new national curriculum and it is unlikely that Drama will become a separate subject. The emphasis is likely to be on an English Baccalaureate (that does not include arts). It seems possible that Drama will remain part of English but most English teachers are not drama trained. There are qualifications in Drama and Theatre Studies after age 14 but not all schools offer them and it seems likely that fewer schools will do so in the future as the new government is differentiating between academic and non-academic subjects and considers the former to be of prime importance and higher status. The number of student places for Drama in Universities is diminishing. Arts Council spending cuts have also had a negative impact on many small theatre companies working with schools. The drama subject and theatre associations have united to create a Drama and Theatre Manifesto to lobby for the place of Drama and Theatre in the future. Finland Drama is taught in primary mostly as part of mother tongue; Finland Drama Other Supporting For Further in secondary and upper secondary it is a voluntary subject. Curriculum Links to Finland’s Informatio http://www.minedu. Drama and Theatre n about As part of student examinations it is possible to obtain a fi/OPM/?lang=en; Organisations: Finland’s diploma in drama and theatre http://www.oph.fi/e http://www.etol.fi Drama / nglish ; Theatre in www.jyu.fi/tdk/kas Education tdk/okl/draama/ ; contact: www.teatteri.org tintti.karppi nen@welh http://www.stadia. o.com fi/opiskelu/kulpa/e sittavataide/index.s html; http://www.cou.fi/ yksikot/klam.asp Ghana Drama in Ghana sits within the English Curriculum in primary None supplied School of An on and secondary school. At tertiary level Drama is taught in Performing Arts, going Theatre Arts and/or English Departments P.O.Box LG19, project in University of Ghana is Ghana, Legon, called: Eco- Ghana. For further education - information Repossessi contact Esi ng Sutherland African Tradition Studies, School of Through Performing Arts, Theatre/Dr University of ama the Ghana, Legon, Buem Ghana and Mrs T. Study. This Dei and Sandy site is built Arkhurst. as a Bush Theatre Site to offer interested scholars space to encounter how ecology is approprait ed for the holistic developme nt the human person.It is also place to experience the specific, unique linguistic cradle where several languages cross-paths in Ghana and what it means being multi- lingual without tears. Story- telling and Dance- drama for pedagogic purposes thrive by coming in contact with indigenous ethnic groups who become your special teachers in many ways. New Zealand The Arts in the New Zealand Curriculum is the core curriculum Arts Online Drama New Email for for the essential learning area of the Arts. It identifies the skills, http://artsonline2.tki Zealand General knowledge, and understanding that students will develop as they learn in the arts through years 1 to 13, and it outlines ways in .org.nz/ecurriculum/ www.drama.org.nz Enquiries: which this learning contributes to developing the key about/arts_stateme dramednz competencies, principles and values described in The New nt.php @gmail.co Zealand Curriculum. m The Arts in the New Zealand Curriculum is structured on the four NZQA Drama disciplines of Dance, Drama, Music - Sound Arts, and the Visual http://www.nzqa.go Drama New Arts. Within each discipline, achievement objectives are vt.nz/ncea/assessme Zealand identified for four interrelated learning strands: Understanding nt/search.do?query= PO Box the Arts in Context, Developing Practical Knowledge in the Arts, Developing Ideas in the Arts, and Communicating and drama&level=01&vie 44033 Interpreting in the Arts. Developing skills, knowledge, attitudes, w=all& Pt and understanding in one discipline does not imply a similar Chevalier development in another. Separate sets of achievement Auckland objectives for each discipline recognise that each has its own body of knowledge and means of inquiry. 1246 New Learning in all four disciplines is essential for a comprehensive Zealand education in the arts. The Arts in the New Zealand Curriculum provides students with opportunities to express themselves through making and presenting art works. Students will also respond to and interpret others' art works and learn about diverse art forms from both within and beyond New Zealand. Such learning includes developing an understanding of art forms in relation to the tangata whenua, to biculturalism in New Zealand, and to the multicultural nature of our society and its traditions. Source Ministry of Education New Zealand Each discipline is structured around four interrelated strands: Understanding the Arts in Context, Developing Practical Knowledge in the Arts, Developing Ideas in the Arts, and Communicating and Interpreting in the Arts. The achievement objectives for each discipline reflect its distinct body of knowledge and practices. By building on and revisiting learning from previous levels, arts programmes in each discipline provide progressions of learning opportunities in all four strands. This spiral process ensures that students' learning is relevant, in-depth, and meaningful. Over the course of years 1-8, students will learn in all four disciplines. Over the course of years 9-10, they will learn in at least two. Students in years 11-13 may specialise in one or more of the disciplines or undertake study in multimedia and other new technologies. Qualifications (NCEA) are accredited by the National Qualifications Authority (NZQA). Source: New Zealand Ministry of Education Additional Comments: Drama in New Zealand has taken on the legacy of two visits of Dorothy Heathcote to New Zealand in the development of its Drama Curriculum. It also represents at the secondary and tertiary levels a strong theatre arts focus and a recognition of the development of a strong focus on film and television. Media Studies is taught in secondary schools but it does not sit within the Arts Curriculum area. At Tertiary level students can study Drama / Theatre to postgraduate level. A number of institutions offer PhD courses to students of Drama in Education. Primary and Secondary pre- service teachers can specialise to some degree in Drama. In 2011 there is no visible advisory service available in Drama in Education. The subject association, Drama New Zealand, is increasingly being asked to support government initiatives and to create opportunities for teachers to network. At secondary level Drama teachers are entitled to receive financial support to attend the annual Drama New Zealand conference as part of the their conditions of service. The vast majority of secondary schools offer Drama which is an increasingly popular subject. Physical conditions and Drama budgets within the state secondary schools vary enormously. The majority of New Zealand education is state provided. Primary and secondary schools are self-governing but must offer the New Zealand Curriculum. Drama new Zealand has been directly involved through its members in all aspects of curriculum and assessment development, resource creation and implementation Despite continuous lobbying there is currently no identifiable person employed in the Ministry of Education with responsibility for implementing the Arts Curriculum. Creative New Zealand – the Arts Council, takes no responsibility for the Arts in Education. Its Youth Policy is currently under review.
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