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					 KF 1063
KULIAH 14


  KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
           KANDUNGAN

Medium Penghantaran
    Wayar
    Tanpa Wayar
    Akustik
Teknologi
    PSTN, DSL dll.
    Infra merah, Gelombang Radio, Selular,
     Satelit, dll.



                 KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
PENGENALAN




   KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
              PENGENALAN
                                  Hingar
                                  Gangguan


   Pemancar Saluran Penghantaran                  Penerima




Transduser Input   Ruang bebas,             Transduser Output
Pengekod           Kabel,                   Penyahkod
Pemodulat          Gentian Optik            Penyahmodulat
Penguat                                     Penguat

                     KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
     MEDIA PENGHANTARAN
 Wayar/Terpandu (wired/guided)
    dawai terbuka (open wire)
    kabel sepaksi (coaxial cable)
    pasangan terpiuh (twisted pair)
    gentian optik (optical fibre)
 Tanpa Wayar/Tak Terpandu (wireless/unguided)
    gelombang radio (radiowave)
    infra merah
    satelit




                   KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI/PERKHIDMATAN
 Wayar
    PSTN
    X.25/Kerangka Utama (Frame Relay)
    SDH/SONET
    DSL
    Gentian Optik
 Tanpa Wayar
    infra merah/Bluetooth
    RFID/UWB
    gelombang mikro (Line of Sight, LOS)
    selular (cellular)
    satelit (satellite)
                 KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
            MEDIA WAYAR
Coaxial Cable



Twisted Pair

                                Coating
                claddding


Optical Fibre


                         buffering
     core




                  KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
DAWAI TERBUKA




    KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
           PASANGAN TERPIUH
• Kebaikan
   – Murah
   – Senang untuk memasang
• Kekurangan
   – Kadar data rendah
   – Julat dekat
• Aplikasi
   – Rangkaian telefon
      • Antara rumah dan ibu sawat tempatan
   – Antara bangunan
      • Ke PBX
   – LAN
      • 10 Mbps atau 100 Mbps




                           KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
       PASANGAN TERPIUH
• Transmission Charateristics
  – Analog
     • Amplifiers every 5 km to 6 km
  – Digital
     • Use either analog or digital signals
     • Repeater every 2 km or 3 km
  – Limited in
     • Distance
     • Bandwidth (1 MHz)
     • Data rate (100 Mbps)
  – Susceptible to interference and noise
                      KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
               PASANGAN TERPIUH
•   Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
     – Ordinary telephone wire
     – Cheapest
     – Easiest to install
     – Suffers from external Electromagnetic (EM) interference
•   Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
     – Metal braid or sheathing that reduces interference
     – More expensive
     – Harder to handle (thick, heavy)
•   UTP Categories
     – Cat 3
          • Up to 16 MHz
          • Voice grade found in most offices
          • Twist length of 7.5 cm to 10 cm
     – Cat 4
          • Up to 20 MHz
     – Cat 5
          • Up to 100 MHz
          • Commonly pre-installed in new office buildings
          • Twist length 0.6 cm to 0.85 cm
                                  KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
KABEL SEPAKSI

     *




    KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
              KABEL SEPAKSI
• Applications
  – Television distribution
     • Cable TV
  – Long distance telephone transmission
     • Can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously
     • Being replaced by fiber optic
  – Short distance computer systems links
  – LANs
• Transmission characteristic
  – Analog
     • Amplifiers every few km
     • Closer if higher frequency
     • Up to 500 MHz
  – Digital
     • Repeater every 1 km
     • Closer for higher data rates
                          KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
   KABEL SEPAKSI
Thin Ethernet – 10 Base 2




         KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
    KABEL SEPAKSI
Thick Ethernet - 10 Base 5




          KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
                GENTIAN OPTIK
• Advantages
  –   Greater capacity - data rates of hundreds of Gbps
  –   Smaller size & weight
  –   Lower attenuation
  –   Electromagnetic isolation
  –   Greater repeater spacing
       - 10s of km at least




                          KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
           GENTIAN OPTIK
Cladding

    Core


Coating




               KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
                 GENTIAN OPTIK
• System components:
  – Transmission medium - fiber optic cable
  – Light source
      • LED (cheaper, wider operating temp range, last longer)
      • Injection laser diode (ILD) (More efficient, greater data rate)
  – Detector – photodiode
• Application
  – Telephone Network Applications
  – Long-haul, metropolitan, rural, and subscriber loop circuits
• Local Area Networks
  – Optical fiber networks
  – Data rates from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps
  – Support hundreds (or even thousands) of stations


                              KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI WAYAR - PSTN




        KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI WAYAR - VoIP




        KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
    TEKNOLOGI WAYAR – Jalur Lebar
   Global understanding is “Transmission
    capacity and speed to allow interactive high-
    quality full-motion video, data and voice
    applications simultaneously via one pipe”.
   Malaysia define broadband speed as speeds
    above 128 kbps
   Fixed/cable technologies – ADSL, FTTH,
    HFC and PLC
   Currently, bandwidth provided by TMNet
    (Streamyx) is 384 kbps for households and
    512 kbps – 2 Mbps for corporate users.
    Other players include TIME, NasionCom,
    AtlasOne
Note:
ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
FTTH – Fibre To The Home
HFC – Hybrid Fibre Coaxial
PLC – Power Line Communications
                                 KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI WAYAR - xDSL




        KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
   TEKNOLOGI WAYAR – Jalur Lebar
                                         Telekom Malaysia: 5,454.8 km
                                         Maxis: 1,381.0 km
                                         Fiberail: 1.414.0 km
Padang Besar                             Celcom: 609.7 km
                      Tumpat             Digi: 113.2km
                                         Time Telekom: 2,965.0 km
                           Pasir Mas
 Penang Sg.Petani                        Others: 30,000km                               Kota
           Seberang Jaya                 Estimated Total : 70,000 km                  Kinabalu
                                         Excess capacity : 50%             Labuan

 Taiping                                                           Miri
                Tasik        Cherating
                  K.Lipis Teruntum       MALAYSIA DOMESTIC
                                            OPTICAL FIBRE        Bintulu
             Batu WMU Temerloh             SUBMARINE CABLE
            KLJ                                SYSTEM
                      B.T Razak
           Kelang KLR
                      Rasah SegamatMersing
           P.Dickson Tampin
             Melaka             Kluang                Kuching
                  Gemas
                    Muar
                               Skudai                                               Source: MCMC
                                    Johore Bharu

                 Optical Fibre Submarine Cable                    Terrestrial Optical Fibre
                 Fiberail                                         Digital Microwave


                                                   KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
        MEDIA TANPA WAYAR

• Radio Wave Propagation
  –   Direct wave
  –   Ground or Surface wave
  –   Reflected Wave
  –   Ionosferic Reflection
  –   Obstacle Refraction
  –   Earth Curvature
  –   Multipath



                     KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
MEDIA TANPA WAYAR




 Radio Waves Types
       KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
GELOMBANG RADIO




     KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
       MEDIA TANPA WAYAR


• Komunikasi Wayar dan
Tanpa Wayar
• Tanpa Wayar – radio,
kebolehgerakan (mobiliti)                       Selular

• Komunikasi Tanpa
Wayar, Mobil dan Selular                         Mobil

                                             Tanpa Wayar




                    KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
MEDIA TANPA WAYAR




        Selular




        Mobil


     Tanpa Wayar



      KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR




        KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR




        KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
   TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR

• Kebaikan
   – Kos tidak bergantung kepada rupabumi dan jarak
   – Perancangan anjal apabila kapasiti bertambah
   – Keboleharapan tinggi akibat kurang penyelenggaraan
   – Mudah dipasang dan diselenggara
   – Penggunaan medium secara dinamik melalui penyaluran
   – Kebolehgerakan (mobiliti)
   – Sesuai untuk berbilang operator
• Had
   – Kapasiti dihadkan oleh peruntukan spektrum
   – Perambatan dan berbilang laluan
   – Bekalan kuasa diperlukan



                         KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
         TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR

 Walkie Talkie/Radiofon/Radio CB/DSRR
 Sistem Keloi (Paging)
 Radio Bergerak Swasta/Sesalur
 Tanpa Kod/Tali (Cordless)
 Sistem Bersel/Selular dan Komunikasi Peribadi (PCN)
 Bluetooth, Rangkaian Ad hoc dan WPAN
 Wireless Local Loop (WiLL/RiLL)
 Wireless LAN (WLAN), WiMAX & Wireless ATM (WATM)
 Local Multipoint Distribution Services (LMDS)
 Satelit Bergerak
 dll.


                              KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
  TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                     – Walkie Talkie
 Tekan ON/OFF (Push to Talk – PTT)
 Dupleks Separuh
 Kualiti rendah & Jarak dekat
 Kurang peribadi
 Frekuensi 144-148, 420-450MHz (Tx)
              136-174, 400-512MHz (Rx)
 Digital Short Range Radio (DSRR) - in UK




                          KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
        TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                         – Alat Keloi (Paging)
•Radiokeloi ditakrifkan dalam CCIRR Recommendation 584:
     “a non-speech, one-way, personal selective calling system with alert, without
     message or with defined message such as numeric or alphanumeric”
•Simpleks dan < 1000 aksara (kualiti rendah) boleh dihantar
•Kekuatan : murah, RX kecil, kawasan luas, tidak perlu antena
•Kelemahan : maklumat diterima tidak disahkan, pengguna hantu
•Jenis keloi: Awam (kawasan luas) dan Swasta (on site)
•Paging Network Controller (PNC) menangani antaramuka pengguna dan ciri pengguna
sistem keloi melalui PSTN
•The Transmission Network (TN) merupakan infrastruktur yang membolehkan maklumat
diagihkan ke Paging Base Stations (PBS) yang terletak di kawasan geografi tertentu
•Konsep keloi lama:
     – 2Tone, 5Tone, NEC, Golay, Voice Paging
     – RDS (Radio Data System) dan berasaskan nada jujukan
•2 piawaian sistem keloi digit:
     •Post Office Code Standard Advisory Group (POCSAG)
     •European Radio Messaging System (ERMES)

                                  KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
     TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
          – Radio Bergerak Swasta (PMR)
 Menggunakan satu saluran sepunya
 Operasi dupleks
 Melayan keperluan kumpulan tertentu
 Mengawal kumpulan kenderaan : Polis, Teksi, Ambulan dll.
 Perkakasan disewa/beli
 Perlu bayar yuran lesen
 Had
     kesesakan
     bilangan saluran terhad
     kapasiti rendah
     kuasa pemancar (RBS) tinggi
     gangguan akibat tidak guna semula frekuensi
     tiada kawalan ke atas pengguna dan kurang peribadi
     Tiada pautan ke PSTN
     Kurang menyokong penghantaran suara dan data

                             KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
 – Radio Bergerak Swasta (PMR)




           KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
    TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
          – Radio Sesalur (Trunked Radio)
 Operasi dupleks
 Pengguna berkongsi beberapa saluran
 Keboledsediaan bertambah kerana pengguna hanya diperuntukkan
saluran apabila diperlukan
 Boleh kenalpasti PMR
 Saluran diperuntukkan hanya kepada pengguna sistem tersebut sahaja
 Capaian pilinan ke PSTN
 Gred perkhidmatan dan kualiti suara yang tinggi
 Penjimatan spektrum dan kos pemasangan rendah
 Peribadi
 Mesra pengguna
 Banyak kemudahan pengguna (panggilan terpilih, kumpulan bolehunbah
dan panggilan prioriti)
 Kawasan liputan operasi yang luas
Pelanggan baru mudah ditampung

                           KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
 – Radio Sesalur (Trunked Radio)




            KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
     TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                  – Tanpa Tali (Cordless)
 Tali diganti dengan pautan radio untuk menambah mobiliti pengguna
 Mengandungi (1) Base unit and (2) Portable unit
 Jarak antara unit tapak/portable – beberapa puluhan meter bergantung
kepada tempat
 Sistem tanpa tali berbeza dengan sistem selular dari segi tahap mobiliti
yang agak terhad
 Sistem selular mempunyai kawasan perkhidmatan yang luas serta
kebolehupayaan lepas tangan kepada sel berjiran dan guna semula
frekuensi
 Generasi pertama sistem (CT-0 dan CT-1) menggunakan teknologi analog
dan mempunyai kekurangan dari segi: Kualiti suara buruk, Julat/jarak
terhad, bulky, Hayat bateri pendek, Sekuriti lemah




                             KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
      TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                   – Tanpa Tali (Cordless)
•1.7 MHz (CT-0) – Model analog terawal (~AM). Gangguan lampu
kalimantang dan sistem pencucuh kereta
•46-47 MHz (330m) – Stesyen tapak analog yang besar. Walk-talkies dan
baby monitors berkongsi frekuensi yang sama (10-25 saluran). Ada model
menggunakan audio inversion (scrambling). Model unscrambled mudah
didengar oler radio scanner atau jiran yang mempunyai set telefon yang
serupa. Jalur agak sesak bergantung pada kawasan pengguna.
•902-928 MHz (1.5-2.1, km) – Mudah dicam kerana menggunakan shorter
non-telescoping antennas. Model digital spread spectrum (DSS) tidak boleh
didengar oleh radio scanner. Kurang sesak dan mempunyai sehingga 80
saluran
•2.7 GHz – Mempunyai 50-100 saluran. Lebih selamat apabila menggunakan
model analog and digital spread spectrum
•Others - 5.8 GHz (http://www.vtech.com/about/press/5.8GHz_phone.pdf)


                              KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
      TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                     – Tanpa Tali (Cordless)
CT2
   Use digital technology
   3 main applications: Domestic use (Residential), Cordless PABX , Telepoint
   promoted as Telepoint
DECT
   A standard originally developed by ETSI (1992) in Europe
   Applications includes domestic cordless, Telepoint, cordless PBXs, and RLL
   Support multiple bearer channels for speech and data transmission, handover,
   location registration, and paging
   DECT is closer to a cellular system than to a classical cordless telephone.
   However, the interface to the PSTN or ISDN network remains the same as for
   PBX or corded telephone




                                 KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
      TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
• Personal Area Network (PAN)
   – Short range file transfer
   – Low bandwidth (up to 1Mbps)
   – IrDA, Bluetooth
• Local Area Network (WLAN)
   – Wired LAN extension
   – High bandwidth (5Mbps)
• Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
   – WiMax, ZigBee
• Wide Area Network (WAN)
  – Uses a dial up (phone)
     connection
   – Extremely low bandwidth
     (14.4kbps)
   – Examples : Cellular, satellite
                              KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
        – WAN/MAN/LAN/PAN

 WAN        MAN              LAN             PAN




 3G       WiMAX
                            Wi-Fi*       UWB
WCDMA     802.16 e           802.11       and
                                                   RFID/
                                                   TAG
 GPRS                                  Bluetooth
 EDGE    Broadband




              KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
       – Bluetooth
       •  Teknologi Bluetooth diberi nama atas
       nama Raja Dannish Viking, Harald Blatand
       yang menyatukan Denmark dan Norway.
       • Bluetooth merupakan teknologi rankaian
       tanpa wayar yang menyediakan kos murah
       dan kuasa rendah.
       • Kebanyakan model telefon bimbit dan
       pembantu peribadi digital (PDA) yang baru
       dilengkapi teknologi komunikasi Bluetooth
       kelas kuasa dua yang mempunyai julat radio
       lebih kurang dari 10 meter.
       • Aplikasi Bluetooth yang umum adalah
       untuk menggantikan wayar supaya
       komunikasi antara peranti dapat dijalankan.

           KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                – Bluetooth




                                               Pengantian kabel
  Titik akses
  data/suara




                      Rangkaian Ad hoc



                 KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
     TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                          – RFID
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
   Technology used to track and identify a person
   or object by means of radio transmission
   Two main components to a basic RFID system:
       RFID Tag (transponder)
       RFID Reader (Interrogator)
       In some cases – Activator
   Two classes of RFID Tags : Passive and Active




                         KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
 TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                              – RFID
Benefits over standard Bar Code
    Do not require human intervention to be read - bar codes must be
    separated and scanned individually by reader
    Can be read through almost 2 inches of packaging
    More durable/less prone to damage (unaffected by moisture/heat)
    Much greater storage capacity (easily stores 32 MB of data)
    Programmable, capable holding information such as time stamp,
    destination, expected weight, etc.
    Maximizes warehouse space, improves tracking of goods, minimizes
    goods shrinking (i.e. theft; inventory control)
    Real-time tracking, info and delivery
    Several possible applications; no scanning = faster movement of cargo
    Long-term cost savings (labour, theft, lost goods)
    Time savings (theft and lost goods)
Limitation
    Cost
    Job Loss
    Range - physical distance from tag to reader
    Standardisation
    Interference (Metal, Frequency and system)
                             KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
     TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                                 – RFID
Current Applications
– Transportation: Toll collection, cargo management, equipment ID,
    auto-payment etc.
–    Security: Employee ID tags for office, hotels; nursing homes &
    hospitals; car keys; video stores and libraries; casino chips/keys; etc.
–   Manufacturing: Tracking goods through manufacturing process-
    Automobile, Computer Hardware, etc.
–   Animal tracking: Cattle and other livestock; endangered species;
–   Athletics: Golf ball identification and tracking; Major track and field
    events – in marathon runners’ shoes to obtain official start & finish times
    and to verify track travelled
–   Global Positioning System (GPS): Accurate location and identity of
    specific objects using satellites




                                KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
    TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                             – RFID
Newer and Future Applications
– Airport Security/Baggage: Track and identify passengers and
  airline luggage
– Medical: Restricting access; tracking patients and guests with
  authorized wristbands; tracking babies (to reduce risk of abduction);
  tracking of medicine and equipment;
– Postal Services: Tracking of mail/packages
– Supply-Chain Management: Retailers to turn supply chain
  management into RFID dependant business (Walmart, Gillette,
  Scottish Courage Brewing Ltd., etc.)
– Construction: Tools management; equipment monitoring; material
  delivery tracking; ID stress in concrete; etc.
– Government Regulated: US DoD (all its suppliers); US Congress (all
  tire manufacturers)
… etc.


                            KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
      TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
               – LAN Tanpa Wayar (WLAN)
• A Wireless LAN is a computer network that allow a user to connect
without the need for a network cable.
• A labtop or PDA equipped with a wireless LAN card lets a user move
around a building with their computer and stay connected to their network
without needing to “plug in” with a cable.
• Including IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b (the most popular), IEEE 802.11g
• Also known as “Wi-Fi “ (Wireless Fidelity) or “802.11”
• Wi-Fi access points called hotspot
• The coverage of a wireless access point can be up to 100 m indoors
• Wireless LAN are used in office building, college campuses, airport,
Shopping centre, Starbucks coffee shops and some others general area.
• It can be free or need to have an account which can subscribe and get
login ID from Tmnet, Celcom and Maxis



                              KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
   – LAN Tanpa Wayar (WLAN)




           KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
   TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
            – LAN Tanpa Wayar (WLAN)
TMNET
Jaring (MY015)

Airzëd Broadband
Arcnet
NasionCom
AtlasOne



                    KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
   – LAN Tanpa Wayar (WLAN)




           KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
    TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
       – Tanpa Wayar Jalur Lebar (WiMax)
 IEEE 802.16 also known as WiMax (Worldwide interoperability
for Microwave access)
   WiMax is not Wi-Fi.
 Wi-Fi is a local area network standard and is designed to be
used at close range to distributed internet access to a bunch of
computers in a home or an office.
 WiMax is a wireless replacement for a wired broadband
connection.
 WiMax addresses the European Telecommunications standards
Institute’s (ETSI) similar High-performance radio Metropolitan Area
Network (HioerMAN) broadband standard.



                             KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
 – Tanpa Wayar Jalur Lebar (WiMax)




             KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
  TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
       – Tanpa Wayar Jalur Lebar (WiMax)
                                                                                       3
  2
      FRACTIONAL T1 for
       SMALL BUSINESS BACKHAUL for
                        HOTSPOTS                           RESIDENTIAL & SoHo
                                                                  DSL

T1+ LEVEL SERVICE
   ENTERPRISE
                          BACKHAUL                          ALWAYS BEST CONNECTED          4
1                                                                    802.16
            Multi-Point                                     802.11
            BACKHAUL
                                                                              802.11
                                                                802.11




                                     KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
 – Tanpa Wayar Jalur Lebar (WiMax)




             KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
   TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
         – Radio Selular (Cellular Radio)
• The cellular concept – frequency reuse
• Mobility and wide coverage via seamless handoff




                      KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
         – Radio Selular (Cellular Radio)
                                           STATUS
       SYARIKAT PENGENDALI                  LESEN/             SKOP PERKHIDMATAN
                                           TEMPOH
Cellular Communications Network (M)                   Perkhidmatan Radio Selular Digit sistem
                                         Malaysia
Sdn Bhd (Telekom Malaysia Berhad)                     GSM 900 MHz Celcom GSM (019)
                                         Malaysia     Perkhidmatan Radio Selular Analog
Cellular Communication Network (M)
                                         1.4.94 -     ART900 menggunakan sistem ETAC 900
Sdn. Bhd (Telekom Malaysia Berhad)
                                         31.3.2014    MHz (010)
                                         Malaysia     Perkhidmatan Radio Selular Analog
Telekom Malaysia Berhad                  1.9.89 -     ATUR450 menggunakan sistem NMT 450
                                         31.8.2009    MHz (011)
                                         Malaysia     Perkhidmatan Radio Selular Analog/Digit
Mobikom Sdn Bhd                          1.7.93 -     Mobifon800 menggunakan sistem AMPS
                                         30.6.2013    800 MHz (018)
                                         Malaysia
Binariang Communication Sdn Bhd                       Perkhidmatan Radio Selular Digit sistem
                                         1.1.93 -
(subsidiari Binariang Sdn Bhd)                        GSM 900 MHz MAXIS (012)
                                         31.12.2012
                                         Malaysia     Rangkaian Komunikasi Peribadi
Sapura Digital Sdn Bhd (Subsidiari
                                         24.12.93 -   menggunakan sistem DCS 1800 MHz
Sapura Holdings)
                                         23.12.2013   (ADAM) – sekarang -> TIMECel (017)

MRCB Telecommunications Sdn Bhd          Malaysia     Rangkaian Komunikasi Peribadi
(subsidiari Malaysian Resources          1.6.94 -     menggunakan sistem DCS1800 MHz
Corporation Sdn. Bhd) -> Telekom         31.5.2014    (EMARTEL) -> TMTouch (013)

                                                      Rangkaian Komunikasi Peribadi
Mutiara Telecoms Sdn. Bhd.               Malaysia     menggunakan sistem DCS 1800 MHz
                                                      (Digi1800) (016)

  Lesen 3G: Maxis, Celcom, MiTV & TTDotCom
                                     KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
 TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                – Radio Selular (Cellular Radio)
                           Base Station
                                                          Network Subsystem
  Mobile Station            Subsystem                                               Other Networks




                                                                                        PSTN
                                                    MSC/               GMSC
                                  BSC               VLR
                         BTS
               ME
SIM
                                                                                        PLMN




                                                    EIR          HLR          AUC
                                                                                      Internet

           +
      SD




               Global System for Mobile Communication - GSMclarity purposes.
                                      Note: Interfaces have been omitted for


                                          KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
  TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                     – Radio Selular (Cellular Radio)
                                    Base Station
                                                                     Network Subsystem
           Mobile Station            Subsystem                                                 Other Networks




                                                              MSC/                GMSC
                                             BSC              VLR                                 PSTN
                              BTS
                   ME
SIM



                                                                                                  PLMN
                                                              EIR           HLR          AUC




                                                                                  GGSN            Internet
                                                             SGSN
               +
      SD




                                        Note: Interfaces GPRS
                   General Packet Radio Services - have been omitted for clarity purposes.
                                                   KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
       TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                     – Radio Selular (Cellular Radio)
                             Base Station
                                                              Network Subsystem
       Mobile Station         Subsystem                                                     Other Networks




                                                       MSC/                GMSC
                                      BSC              VLR                                      PSTN
                           BTS
                ME
SIM




                                                        EIR          HLR          AUC           PLMN



                           RNS
                                                                           GGSN
                                                      SGSN
                           Node        RNC                                                     Internet
                ME          B
USIM




                          UTRAN
            +
       SD




                                                Note: Interfaces have been omitted for clarity purposes.


                     3G UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN)
                                             KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
    TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                                         – Satelit
•International Satellite Organisations
      INTELSAT (International Telecommunication Satellite Organisation)
      EUTELSAT          (European Telecommunication Satellite Organisation)
      INMARSAT (International Maritime Satellite Organisation)
•Frequency band - C (3.7-4.2GHz), Ku (10.7-12.5GHz) and Ka (18-24GHz)
•Orbit
      •Geostationary Earth Orbit (36000 km) - Intelsat, Eutelsat, Measat, Arabsat
      •Medium Earth Orbit (10000 km) - IcoGlobal
      •Low Earth Orbit (700 km) - Orbcomm, Starnet/Iridium, Globalstar, Ellipso (Big LEO)
      •Highly Elliptical Orbit - Apogee > 30000 km and perigee < 3000 km - HEOS
      •Polar Orbit - NPOESS
•Applications
      – Space Research: thermal experiences,microgravity experiences, etc.
      – Earth Observation: remote sensing satellites, etc.
      – Space Operational Uses: Space Shuttles and Launches
      – Air Navigation : air surveillance and satellite positioning (GPS)
      – Telecommunications: Telephone, Radio and Television Broadcast
      – Personal Communication
      – Military
      – Broadband Transmission: High speed data transfers
      – Very Small Aparture Terminal (VSAT)
•Services - FSS, MSS, DBS etc.

                                        KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
        – Satelit




        KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
  TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                            – VSAT
 VSAT – Very Small Aperture Terminal
 Stesyen bumi (dish) satelit berukuran 0.8 – 2.4m
 kadar data maksimum 20 Mbps (biasanya 512 kbps)




                           KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
            TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                                                  – VSAT




Mesh Topology:                                         Star Topology:
The remote VSAT nodes may communicate with             All traffic from and to remote earth stations is routed via
each other via a single relay (hop) link through the   the central HUB station. Star networks are preferred
satellite. This reduced the time lag between the       when a large percentage of the traffic terminates at a
sending and receipt of traffic. Mesh topologies are    designated earth station. Key advantages: (1) The
ideally suited for applications that are time          remote earth stations are less expensive to build, since
sensitive. Mesh topology applications include: voice   they do not need to be configured to route traffic to all
transiting, video teleconferencing and high-speed      network nodes. (2) The satellite power utilization can be
data circuits                                          minimized by using a relatively large Hub antenna.

                                                KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
         – VSAT




        KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
      TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                           – Cabaran

 Perkembangan teknologi yang pesat - gabungan
Pelbagai teknologi, piawaian dalam persekitaran yang berbeza
 Wujud pemaufakatan: 3GPP/3GPP1, Operator Harmonization
Group (OHP), IEEE802.20
 Had teknologi: kapasiti, liputan (hotspot), kualiti, kesesakan
 Kos peranti dan perkhidmatan
 Sekuriti, mobiliti
 Kandungan maklumat dan perisian peranti


                            KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
         TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                                                          – Cabaran
                                      Enterprise                                               • Current mobility is based on
                  WLAN
                                                                    Home AAA Server              single wireless technologies.
                 Gateway,
                  HA, FA                                                                       • Future will allow automatic
                         Ethernet
                                                      Corporate
                                                          LAN                                    configuration for seamless
                                                                                                 roaming amongst various
                                                                            VPN
                                                                           Firewall              wireless technologies…and,
                                802.11 Access
                                    Points                                                       hence, greater coverage
                                                                                                 (ubiquitous).
                                                                IP Backbone/
                                                                   Internet
                                                                                                                GSM/UMTS
                CDMA WSP                                                                                          WSP
PDSN/FA/HA/Fi
                                                WLAN                                              GGSN/FA/HA/
   rewall
                                                Gateway
                                                                                 Public             Firewall
                                PCF              & FA                            WLAN                                        SGSN
                                                                Ethernet
                   MSC/RNC
                                                                                                                     BSC
                  BS                                                                                            BS          CGF
                         BS                                 802.11 Access                                              BS
                                                                Points




                                                                                      Multi-mode terminal
                                                                                       w/MobileIP client
                                                                                        & IPSec Client




                                                           KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
    TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                – Selular/Perkhidmatan

• WAP: discredited in first outing, but still alive and well as a
  backend mobile server standard
• SMS: proven worldwide but just emerging in US; limited to
  plain text messaging
• MMS: standard behind the exchange of pictures from camera
  phones; also for many audio and graphic formats
• iMode: proven in Japan; export still in doubt
• J2ME (Java for mobile): large developer following and handset
  deployment; confused business models
• BREW: (Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless) CDMA app
  platform: big in a few areas; clearer business and distribution
  model

                           KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
         – Cabaran/Laju data
    CDMA
                                      2400
   1xEV/DO
   W-CDMA
                                   2000
   stationary
   W-CDMA
                  384
    moving
      CDMA
                144
      1xRTT

      GPRS      114
                           Theoretical
      CDMA      64             data
                          transmission
     PDC-P      28.8          speed
                               kbps
   GSM/PDC      9.6

                                                           Source: ITU.

                      KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
       TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                – Cabaran/Peningkatan Kapasiti
TIME                                 TIME


                                               User 3
        1   2   3                              User 2
                                               User 1

                     FREQUENCY
                                               TDMA
                                                         FREQUENCY    Spatial Diversity
        FDMA
CODE

                                  TIME            FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access
            User 3
            User 2                                TDMA:Time Division Multiple Access
            User 1
                                                  CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
                                 FREQUENCY
               CDMA
       o r “Spread Spectrum”                      SDMA: Space Division Multiple Access



                                         KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah
         TEKNOLOGI TANPA WAYAR
                               – Cabaran
Mobility & Range

 High Speed
   Vehicular
       Rural
                               Possible UMTS extension for
                               high speed data access with
                                    roaming capability
    Vehicular
       Urban
                   GSM




 Fixed urban                UMTS           IEEE 802.11a/b
                                              (WLAN),
                                          Hiperlan2,MMAC
   Pedestrian
                DECT                                         BRAN
     Indoor


Personal Area   Bluetooth          PAN                              B-PAN

                         0.5          2         10          20      155          1000 Mb/s

                                                                     Total data rate per cell

                                   KF1063 Pengenalan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, ®mbi, hafizah

				
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