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					                                          Population Dynamics

                                                 Unit Test Analysis
                         Created by: Gillian Kirk, Chris Ling, Holly Wykes




   Test       Question           Coded                   Achievement Chart Category
 Question      Type             Ministry   Knowledge &    Thinking & Communication    Application
 Number                       Expectations Understanding Investigation
Part 1 #1-5    Fill-in-the-        F2.1                X
                  Blank
Part 2 #1-8     Multiple      F2.1, F3.1, F3.2         X
                 Choice
Part 3 #1-7       Short         F2.1, F3.1,                       X        X
                Answer        F3.2, F3.3, F3.4
Part 4 #1-3   Calculations       F2.2, F3.5                       X        X

Part 5 #1-4      Long         F1.1, F1.2, F3.5                    X        X              X
                Answer
                                    Population Dynamics: Unit Test

Part 1) Fill-in-the-Blank. Complete the following definitions with the terms provided. Note: no term is
    used more than once; not all terms will be used. (5 marks)
    Abiotic Factors                   Exotic Species                      Geometric Growth
    Biotic Factors                    Exponential Growth                  Habitat
    Carrying Capacity                 Fecundity                           Indigenous Species

    1.   The place in which a species lives.                      _____________________________
    2.   The potential to produce many offspring in a lifetime.   _____________________________
    3.   Non-living components of an ecosystem.                   _____________________________
    4.   A species native to a certain area.                      _____________________________
    5.   A measure of growth which is constant and continuous.    _____________________________

Part 2) Multiple Choice Questions. Circle the correct answer for each question. (8 marks)
    1. Which of the following are population dispersion patterns?
           a. Random, Geometric, Exponential
           b. Random, Clumped, Uniform
           c. Biotic, Abiotic, Fecundity
           d. Uniform, Exponential, Carrying Capacity
           e. Clumped, Uniform, Trophic

    2. How is a series of interconnected organisms represented to show energy flow?
          a. In a Food Chain
          b. In a Population Density Equation
          c. In a Population Growth Curve
          d. In a Food Web
          e. In a Trophic Level

    3. What is the difference between Abiotic and Biotic Factors in an ecosystem?
         a. Biotic Factors are living; Abiotic Factors are non-living.
         b. Biotic Factors are non-living; Abiotic Factors are living.
         c. Biotic Factors are producers; Abiotic Factors are consumers.
         d. Biotic Factors are consumers; Abiotic Factors are producers.
         e. Biotic Factors are indigenous species; Abiotic Factors are exotic species.

    4. What is the carrying capacity of a species?
         a. A growth rate which becomes more rapid in proportion to population size.
         b. A growth rate which is regular and predictable.
         c. An exotic species in a habitat.
         d. The maximum number of organisms sustained in a habitat over a given amount of time.
         e. The minimum number of organisms sustained in a habitat over a given amount of time.
5. What is the order of steps for the mark-recapture sampling?
     a. Capture, mark, release, capture, count.
     b. Count, capture, release, capture, mark.
     c. Mark, count, capture, release, capture.
     d. Capture, mark, count, release, capture.
     e. Capture, count, mark, release, count.

6. The following graph is representative of what population growth model?




        a.   Exponential growth.
        b.   Geographic growth.
        c.   Geometric growth.
        d.   Logistic growth.
        e.   Linear growth.

7. Factors that limit population growth that intensify as the population increases in size are called:
       a. Intraspecific competition.
       b. Predation.
       c. Density-dependent factors.
       d. Density-independent factors.
       e. Population density.

8. An epidemic is a disease that:
       a. Kills a specific portion of the population.
       b. Spreads slowly through a population.
       c. Occur when population density is low.
       d. Occur when human growth is slow.
       e. Occur when population density is high.
Part 3) Short Answer. Use the space provided (12 marks)
    1. What is the difference between crude and ecological density? (2 marks)




   2. What is the difference between an open population and a closed population? (2 marks)




   3. What assumptions does the mark-recapture method rely upon to be accurate? (3 marks)




   4. Why would you choose to use mark-recapture sampling over the quadrat technique? (2
      marks)




   5. Define demography. (1 mark)




   6. What factors result in zero population growth? (1 mark)




   7. What is the greenhouse effect? (1 mark)
Part 4) Calculations. Answer the following questions in the space provided. Show all your work. (16
    marks)

       Table 1. Mark-Recapture of grasshoppers in the school yard
       Number of grasshoppers marked                          280
       Number of grasshoppers caught in a second sample       130
       Number of marked grasshoppers recaptured                8


       Table 2. Mark-Recapture of Grasshoppers Near Oil Refinery
       Number of grasshoppers marked                         150
       Number of grasshoppers caught in a second sample      70
       Number of marked grasshoppers recaptured              26
   1. Use Table 1 and Table 2 to answer the following questions.
         a. From the data in the tables above calculate the population size for each area. (2 marks)




           b. From the data in the tables above calculate the population density for the schoolyard.
              The schoolyard has an area of 2.0 ha. (2 marks)




           c. From the data in the tables above calculate the population density for the oil refinery.
              The oil refinery has an area of 1.0 ha. (2 marks)
2. Calculate the population change of a group of seals. The initial population of the seals of 2000
   give birth to 950 pups and during the next 12 months 150 seals die.
       a. What is the percentage of population change after the first 12 months? (2 marks)




        b. Assume that the population is growing geometrically. What will the seal population be
           in two years? (2 marks)




        b. Assuming the same geometric growth rate, calculate the population size after 8 years. (2
           marks)




3. A population of 2500 yeast cells in a culture tube is growing exponentially. If the intrinsic growth
   rate r = 0.030 per hour calculate:
       a. The initial instantaneous growth rate of the population (2 marks)




        b. The time it will take for the population to double in size. (2 marks)
Part 5) Long answers. Using the space provided explain, argue and demonstrate your understanding of
    2 of the following 4 statements. Clearly label which of the questions you are answering. (8 marks
    each)
  1. Measuring or estimating the population size and density are valuable tools used in the
      development of strategies for reducing the effects of environmental change, whether natural or
      human influenced. In your opinion, should the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) develop a
      set of ethical guidelines for wildlife research? Include the 3 Rs in your answer (reduction,
      refinement and replacement) as well as the pros and cons for trapping and marking animals.

  2. Groups of hunter-gatherers could not increase quickly in number. A nomadic, wandering lifestyle
     placed a variety of restrictions on family size. What factors allowed the human race to flourish
     and increase its population size and density? Include seeds, animal domestication, disease,
     science and medicine and provide a specific example of each in your answer.

  3. Gross National Product (GNP) is used as an index of a country’s level of industrialization. What
     effects does a high and low GNP have on the characteristics of a country’s human population?
     Include infant mortality, life expectancy, and population doubling time and how each may affect
     fertility rate.

  4. The world’s vital supply of fresh water is threatened by pollution, overconsumption and climate
     change. In your opinion, what will reduce and potentially stop the decrease of fresh water
     supplies? In your answer outline where fresh water comes from and specific threats to the water
     supply such as livestock wastes, excessive fertilization, industrial wastes etc.
                              Population Dynamics: Unit Test – Answer Key

Part 1) Fill-in-the-Blank. Complete the following definitions with the terms provided. Note: no term is
used more than once; not all terms will be used. (5 marks)

    1.   Habitat
    2.   Fecundity
    3.   Abiotic Factors
    4.   Indigenous Species
    5.   Exponential Growth

Part 2) Multiple Choice Questions. Circle the correct answer for each question. (8 marks)

    1. Which of the following are population dispersion patterns?
          a. Random, Geometric, Exponential
          b. Random, Clumped, Uniform
          c. Biotic, Abiotic, Fecundity
          d. Uniform, Exponential, Carrying Capacity
          e. Clumped, Uniform, Trophic

    2. How is a series of interconnected organisms represented to show energy flow?
          a. In a Food Chain
          b. In a Population Density Equation
          c. In a Population Growth Curve
          d. In a Food Web
          e. In a Trophic Level

    3. What is the difference between Abiotic and Biotic Factors in an ecosystem?
         a. Biotic Factors are living; Abiotic Factors are non-living.
         b. Biotic Factors are non-living; Abiotic Factors are living.
         c. Biotic Factors are producers; Abiotic Factors are consumers.
         d. Biotic Factors are consumers; Abiotic Factors are producers.
         e. Biotic Factors are indigenous species; Abiotic Factors are exotic species.

    4. What is the carrying capacity of a species?
         a. A growth rate which becomes more rapid in proportion to population size.
         b. A growth rate which is regular and predictable.
         c. An exotic species in a habitat.
         d. The maximum number of organisms sustained in a habitat over a given amount of
               time.
         e. The minimum number of organisms sustained in a habitat over a given amount of time.
5. What is the order of steps for the mark-recapture sampling?
     a. Capture, mark, release, capture, count.
     b. Count, capture, release, capture, mark.
     c. Mark, count, capture, release, capture.
     d. Capture, mark, count, release, capture.
     e. Capture, count, mark, release, count.

6. The following graph is representative of what population growth model?




        a.   Exponential growth.
        b.   Geographic growth.
        c.   Geometric growth.
        d.   Logistic growth.
        e.   Linear growth.

7. Factors that limit population growth that intensify as the population increases in size are called:
       a. Intraspecific competition.
       b. Predation.
       c. Density-dependent factors.
       d. Density-independent factors.
       e. Population density.

8. An epidemic is a disease that:
       a. Kills a specific portion of the population.
       b. Spreads slowly through a population.
       c. Occur when population density is low.
       d. Occur when human growth is slow.
       e. Occur when population density is high.
Part 3) Short Answer. Use the space provided (12 marks)

   8. What is the difference between crude and ecological density? (2 marks)
      Crude density: population density measured in terms of number of organisms of the same
      species within the total area of the entire habitat
      Ecological density: population density measured in terms of number of individuals of the same
      species per unit area or volume actually used by the individuals

   9. What is the difference between an open population and a closed population? (2 marks)
      Open population: a population in which change in number and density is dertermined by births,
      deaths, immigration and emigration.
      Closed population: a population in which change in number and density is determined by birth
      rate and death rate only.

   10. What assumptions does the mark-recapture method rely upon to be accurate? (3 marks)
       Every organism has an equal chance to be captured, the proportion of marked to unmarked
       animals doesn’t change, the population size doesn’t change during the study.

   11. Why would you choose to use mark-recapture sampling over the quadrat technique? (2
       marks)
       Quadrat technique is best used with plants(non-mobile organisms), mark-recapture is best
       used when the entire population is not easily counted (aquatic organisms)

   12. Define demography. (1 mark)
       Demography: the study of the growth rate, age structure and other characteristics of human
       populations.

   13. What factors result in zero population growth? (1 mark)
       Zero population growth: when birth and death rates are balanced

   14. What is the greenhouse effect? (1 mark)
       Greenhouse effect: heat is trapped within the atmosphere as sunlight enters but is unable to
       leave due to carbon dioxide, water vapour and methane.
Part 4) Calculations. Answer the following questions in the space provided. Show all work. (16 marks)

        Table 1. Mark-Recapture of grasshoppers in the school yard
        Number of grasshoppers marked                          280
        Number of grasshoppers caught in a second sample       130
        Number of marked grasshoppers recaptured                8


        Table 2. Mark-Recapture of Grasshoppers Near Oil Refinery
        Number of grasshoppers marked                         150
        Number of grasshoppers caught in a second sample      70
        Number of marked grasshoppers recaptured              26
    4. Use Table 1 and Table 2 to answer the following questions.
            a. From the data in the tables above calculate the population size for each area. (2 marks)
Total # marked (M)      = # of recaptures (m)
Total population (N)         Size of second sample (n)
280 = 8
N            130
N       = 280 x 130
                  8
Schoolyard N = 4550
Total # marked (M)      = # of recaptures (m)
Total population (N)         Size of second sample (n)
150 = 26
N            70
N       = 150 x 70
                 26
Oil Refinery N = 403.8 = 404

            b. From the data in the tables above calculate the population density for the schoolyard.
               The schoolyard has an area of 2.0 ha. (2 marks)

Sample density =   Total number of individuals
                   Total sample area
Sample density =   4550
                   2.0 hectares
Sample density= 2275 grasshoppers/ hectare

          c. From the data in the tables above calculate the population density for the oil refinery.
               The oil refinery has an area of 1.0 ha. (2 marks)
   5. Sample density = Total number of individuals
                            Total sample area
Sample density =            404
                            1.0 hectares
Sample density= 404 grasshoppers/ hectare
    6. Calculate the population change of a group of seals. The initial population of the seals of 2000
       give birth to 950 pups and during the next 12 months 150 seals die.
           a. What is the percentage of population change after the first 12 months? (2 marks)

Population change=    [(births (b) + immigration (i)) – (deaths (d) +emigration (e))] x 100
                                         initial population size (n)
Population change= [(950) + 0) – (150 +0)] x 100 Population change=               800 x 100
                             2000                                                2000
Population change=     40%
            b. Assume that the population is growing geometrically. What will the seal population be
               in two years? (2 marks)

Geometric growth rate () =       N (t + 1)
                                   N (t)
Geometric growth rate () =       2000+950-150
                                       2000
Geometric growth rate () =       2800
                                  2000
Geometric growth rate () = 1.4

N (t + 1) = N (t) 
N (2) = 2800 x 1.4
N (2 years) = 3920
             c. Assuming the same geometric growth rate, calculate the size after 8 years. (2 marks)

    N (0) = 2000, = 1.4, t= 8years
    N (8) = N(0) 8
    N (8) = 2000 x 1.48
    N (8) = 29520

    7. A population of 2500 yeast cells in a culture tube is growing exponentially. If the intrinsic growth
       rate r = 0.030 per hour calculate:
           a. The initial instantaneous growth rate of the population (2 marks)

Instantaneous growth rate (dN)              =growth rate (r) x population size (N)
                  (dt)
(dN)      =0.030 hours x 2500
 (dt)
Instantaneous growth rate = 75 per hour
              b. The time it will take for the population to double in size. (2 marks)
td =     0.69
           r
r = 0.0575
td =      0.69
         0.0575
td = 12 hours
Part 5) Long answers. Using the space provided explain, argue and demonstrate your understanding of
2 of the following 4 statements. Clearly label which of the questions you are answering. (8 marks each)

    1. Measuring or estimating the population size and density are valuable tools used in the
       development of strategies for reducing the effects of environmental change, whether natural or
       human influenced. In your opinion, should the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) develop
       a set of ethical guidelines for wildlife research? Include the 3 Rs in your answer (reduction,
       refinement and replacement) as well as the pros and cons for trapping and marking animals.

   Reduction: reduce the number of animals used in studies as much as possible
   Refinement: refine technology to minimize pain and distress to the animals
   Replacement: replace live animals with computer models wherever possible
   There may be long term effects of tranquilizing animals repeatedly
   Are marking techniques humane, could the collars and tags harm the animals
   Handling animals may lead to differences in behaviour causing the research and tagging to be
    redundant

    2. Groups of hunter-gatherers could not increase quickly in number. A nomadic, wandering
       lifestyle placed a variety of restrictions on family size. What factors allowed the human race to
       flourish and increase its population size and density? Include seeds, animal domestication,
       disease, science and medicine and provide a specific example of each in your answer.

   Humans have been able to avoid the natural limits to growth.
   Cultivating and planting seeds and domesticating animals allowed humans to survive in habitats
    which did not support specific types of plants and animals. (pg 700-701)
        o Lead to declines in death rate and increased longevity.
        o Families became stationary and family size was able to increase.
        o Large population densities were sustainable.
        o Allowed for free time and advances in technology and understanding.
   Epidemic diseases had devastating consequences on human populations. (pg 702)
        o Occurred in large, dense populations with domesticated animals
        o Human resistance evolved
   Science and technology advancements (pg 703)
        o Industrial revolution led to rapid food production, sanitation and medicine increasing the
             population size. Led to declines in death rate and increased longevity.
        o Beginning of the environmental decline

    3. Gross National Product (GNP) is used as an index of a country’s level of industrialization. What
       effects does a high and low GNP have on the characteristics of a country’s human population?
       Include infant mortality, life expectancy, and population doubling time and how each may affect
       fertility rate.

                                          High GNP                         Low GNP
        Fertility rate                    low                              high
        Infant mortality                  low                              High
        Life expectancy                   high                             Low
        Doubling time                     long                             short
4. The world’s vital supply of fresh water is threatened by pollution, overconsumption and climate
   change. In your opinion, what will reduce and potentially stop the decrease of fresh water
   supplies? In your answer outline where fresh water comes from and specific threats to the
   water supply such as livestock wastes, excessive fertilization, industrial wastes etc.

   Fresh water comes from: glaciers, melting snow, ground water, water tables.
   Animal wastes such as the e.coli outbreak in walkerton put the human population at risk of
    illness
   Other threats to fresh water are agricultural pesticides, global warming, excessive fertilization,
    pavement run off, industrial wastes, mine tailings, raw sewage
   Water has a limiting effect on grain and food crop production
         o Could lead to food shortages and increased death rates
   Dirty water causes illness and death
   Decrease the reduction of fresh water: low flow toilets, make people pay more for water usage,
    better recycling systems, sprinkler systems for agriculture, tax rebates for decreased water
    usage, drip irrigation, genetic engineering of crops to require less water.

				
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