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					                    Assignor                       Assignee
US Patent           Name of                        or
No.          Year   Inventor                       Company
   200,521   1878   Thomas A. Edison(1847-1931)
   341,214   1886   Chichester A. Bell and Sumner Tainer
   534,543   1895   Emile Berliner(1851-1929)      The United States Gramophone Company
   655,557   1900   Eldridge R. Johnson(1867-1945)
   683,615   1901   Miller and Aylsworth           National Phonograph Company in New Jersey
 RE012096    1902   Thomas H. Macdonald            American Graphophone Company in District of Columbia
   736,773   1903   Petit                          The International Phonograph & Indestructible Record Company in UK.
   736,948   1903   Victor H Emerson               American Graphophone Company
   739,318   1903   Eldridge R. Johnson            Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey
   749,092   1904   Petit
   763,903   1904   Joseph W. Jones                American Graphophone Company
   782,375   1905   Aylsworth                      New Jersey Patent Company
   783,420   1905   Capps and Emerson              American Graphophone Company
   879,363   1908   G. K. Cheney                   Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey
   893,292   1908   Wlost in Germany               Gebruder Junghans & Thomas Haller (clock maker)
   936,976   1909   Edgar Maurice Berliner (Son of Emile Berliner)
   996,625   1911   Thomas A. Edison               New Jersey Patent Company
 1,041,983   1912   Thomas A. Edison               Thomas A. Edison, Incorporated
 1,062,579   1913   Aylsworth                      Thomas A. Edison, Incorporated
 1,080,924   1913   Owen                           Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey
 1,110,428   1914   Thomas A. Edison               New Jersey Patent Company
 1,146,388   1915   Aylsworth                      New Jersey Patent Company
 1,212,692   1917   Ruckgaber
 1,234,450   1917   Thomas A. Edison               New Jersey Patent Company
 1,246,651   1917   Petit
 1,251,565   1918   Emil Pathe in France
 1,251,851   1918   Wickes                         Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey
 1,286,259   1918   Thomas A. Edison               New Jersey Patent Company
 1,290,712   1919   Frank L. Capps                 Pathe Freres Phonograph Company in New York
 1,291,398   1919   Frank L. Capps                 American Graphophone Company
 1,353,522   1920   V.H. Emerson
 1,358,135   1920   Frank L. Capps                 Pathe Freres Phonograph Company in New York
 1,368,745   1921   Owen and Hewitt                Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey
 1,372,992   1921   Beadle                         Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Company
 1,396,412   1921   Eldred                         The Commercial Research Company
 1,481,743   1924   T.C. Roberts                   Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Company
 1,516,595   1924   Frely in France                Societe des Establissements GAUMONT in Paris, France
 1,535,538   1925   Maxfield and Harrison          Western Electric Company, Incorporated.
 1,555,150   1925   Oswald                         Underwood Type-writer Company
 1,576,642   1926   Bishop                         The Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company in Delaware
 1,606,744   1926   Bodine and Lucarelle           Dictaphone Corporation
 1,637,082   1927   Maxfield                       Western Electric Company, Incorporated.
 1,649,847   1927   Nightingall in Australia
 1,661,539   1928   Maxfield                       Western Electric
 1,663,884   1928   Harrison                       Western Electric
 1,669,170   1928   Nicolson                       Wired Radio, Inc.
 1,677,806   1928   J. Weinberger                  Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in Delaware
1,708,334   1929   Spencer                      Crocker-Wheeler Electric Manufacturing Company
1,711,551   1929   Sykes in UK
1,713,039   1929   Espenschied                  American Telephone and Telegraph Company
1,713,195   1929   H. J. Round in England       Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company, England
1,719,339   1929   Reddie and Mittel in UK      Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey
1,733,608   1929   Knox                         Bell Telephone Laboratories
1,756,966   1930   Alden                        The Alden Manufacturing Company
1,767,610   1930   O'Learly
1,782,781   1930   High                         Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company
1,783,044   1930   Kellogg                      General Electric Company (GE)
1,787,579   1931   Hutter                       Webster Electric Company, of Rachine
1,792,554   1931   Adolph A. Thomas
1,792,859   1931   Mitchell                     Columbia Phonograph Company
1,799,799   1931   W. C. Jones                  Bell Telephone Laboratories
1,816,447   1931   Richard E. Sumner            The Calco Chemical Company
1,816,906   1931   W. C. Jones                  Bell Telephone Laboratories
1,817,094   1931   S. T. Moore                  Thomas A. Edison, Incorporated
1,817,787   1931                                R
                   R. Vermeulen and Arend Thomas adio Corporation of America (RCA) in Delaware
1,823,533   1931   Frederick Diehl              Diehl Manufacturing Company in New Jersey
1,835,073   1931   Stanly McClatchie
1,858,016   1932   W.D. La Rue                  RCA
1,866,403   1932   Elmer                        Bell Telephone Laboratories
1,868,304   1932   Cargill in New Zealand
1,915,357   1933   Fernberg in UK               Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey
1,916,703   1933   White & Payne in UK          Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey
1,918,972   1933   King                         Bell Telephone Laboratories
1,927,158   1933                                Edison)
                   Theodore M. Edison (Son of TAThomas A. Edison, Incorporated
1,928,169   1933   Clark in UK                  Columbia Graphophone Company in UK
1,932,889   1933   Groff                        Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp.
1,933,400   1933   Victor
1,947,164   1934   Morrison                     Bell Telephone Laboratories
1,960,007   1934   Harrison                     Bell Telephone Laboratories
1,963,673   1934   Patino
1,981,793   1934   Keller                       Bell Telephone Laboratories
1,985,005   1935   Wiebusch                     Bell Telephone Laboratories
2,018,471   1935   Russel                       Bell Telephone Laboratories
2,018,496   1935   Keller                       Bell Telephone Laboratories
2,024,271   1935   Blumlein and Holman in UK    Columbia Graphophone Company in UK
2,025,388   1935   Henning                      Bell Telephone Laboratories
2,027,168   1936   Harrison                     Bell Telephone Laboratories
2,032,194   1936   Wiebusch                     Bell Telephone Laboratories
2,034,872   1936   Keller                       Bell Telephone Laboratories
2,037,165   1936   Harrison, Keller and Pollard Bell Telephone Laboratories
2,055,187   1936   Vieth                        Bell Telephone Laboratories
2,093,540   1937   Blumlein(1903-1942)          EMI=Electric and Musical Industries in UK
2,114,471   1938   Keller and Rafuse            Bell Telephone Laboratories
2,133,596   1938   Lincoln Thompson
2,139,916   1938   Seeley
2,141,584   1938   Wittander in Sweden
2,148,796   1939   Barbieri                     Amperite Company
2,161,489   1939   Vieth, Wiebusch and Yenzer      Bell Telephone Laboratories
2,173,051   1939   De Madalaer and Woolf           Film Recording Corporation in New York
2,174,156   1939   Guedon                          RCA
2,174,720   1939   Edwards                         Aluminum Company of America
2,187,512   1940   Frank L. Capps
2,238,863   1941   Norton                          Dictaphone Corporation
2,240,918   1941   Vermeulen etc                   RCA
2,242,983   1941   M.L.Thompson                    Philco Radio and Television Corporation
2,247,640   1941   Nielsen                         Cinaudagraph Corporation
2,247,651   1941   Carson                          RCA
2,247,924   1941   Saliba                          Presto Recording Corporation
2,251,204   1941   Reid                            The Crosley Corporation in Ohio
2,269,267   1942   Hunter                          RCA
2,284,744   1942   Kellogg                         RCA
2,286,178   1942   Kornei                          The Brush Development Company
2,286,494   1942   Lynn and Hathaway               RCA
2,290,057   1942   Theodore Lindenberg (1911-1994)
2,310,049   1942   Albersheim                      Western Electric
2,320,416   1943   Dally                           Webster Electric
2,320,429   1943   Hasbrouck                       RCA
2,326,280   1943   Bauer (1913-1979)               Shure Brothers
2,326,564   1943   Rigby and Leedy
2,328,952   1943   Burt                            RCA
2,330,801   1943   Abbot                           Physicists Research
2,347,347   1944   Yenzer                          Bell Telephone Laboratories
2,350,490   1944   Herbert S. Berliner in Canada (eldest son of Emile Berliner)
2,351,948   1944   P.S. Gay                        The Wilcox-Gay Corporation
2,367,846   1945   Albert W. De Sart               United Acoustigraph Corporation
2,369,676   1945   Hunt and Pierce
2,373,181   1945   Fleming
2,379,782   1945   Bobb                            Philco Radio and Television Corporation
2,383,994   1945   G. Smith                        National Company, Inc., in Massachusetts
2,384,253   1945   Jearum in England
2,386,089   1945   Bobb                            Philco Radio and Television Corporation
2,391,784   1945   Johnston                        The Gray Manufacturing Company
2,400,953   1946   H E Roys (1902-1988)            RCA
2,406,597   1947   Faus                            General Electric Company (GE)
2,416,082   1947   Balmer                          The Sound Scriber Corporation
2,422,817   1947   D. J. Baker
2,423,208   1947   Sinnett                         RCA
2,426,061   1947   Snepvangers(1900-1967)          RCA
2,434,033   1948   Cain                            Wilcox-Gay Corporation
2,454,425   1948   Bauer                           Shure Brothers, Incorporated
2,464,032   1949   Franz                           Dictaphone Corporation
2,469,933   1949   H.F. Schwartz                   Decca Limited in UK
2,473,650   1949   Kalmus                          Zenith Radio Corporation
2,478,712   1949   Rockwell                        Crosley Broadcasting Corp. in Ohio
2,480,907   1949   Dally                           Electrovox Company in New Jersey
2,483,196   1949   Gordon                          Bendix Aviation Corporation
2,485,432   1949   Cornwell
2,491,794   1949   Bachman (1908-1996)           GE
2,492,186   1949   Royston                       American Type Founders
2,501,233   1950   O'Brien                       Decca Limited in UK
2,507,708   1950   Greener                       Pennsylvania Electronics Inc.
2,510,342   1950   Kilgour                       Avco Manufacturing Inc.
2,511,663   1950   Bachman                       GE
2,513,269   1950   Bauer                         Shure
2,516,338   1950   H.F. Olson (1901-1982)        RCA
2,516,565   1950   Guy                           GE
2,518,861   1950   Burtch                        The Brush Development Company
2,526,188   1950   Andres                        Permo, Incorporated in Chicago
2,528,826   1950   Hanson and Saars              USA as represented by The Secretary of Navy
2,530,284   1950   Isabel Capps and Emory Cook   Frank L. Capps & CO. Inc. in New York
2,531,242   1950   Yenzer                        Bell Telephone Laboratories
2,534,725   1950   Stewart M. Miller
2,543,127   1951   Pickering                     Pickering Associates, Inc.
2,547,227   1951   O'Neal                        Philco Corporation
2,551,506   1951   Rockwell                      Crosley Broadcasting Corp. in Ohio
2,554,209   1951   Miner etc                     GE
2,554,696   1951   Bruderlin
2,564,054   1951   Dreisbach                     The Magnavox Company
2,570,040   1951   Rovert Thorens and Thevanaz   Herman Thorens S.A. in Sainte-Croix, Switzerland
2,573,723   1951   McClain
2,584,922   1952   Reid                          Avco Manufacturing Corporation
2,591,996   1952   Arentzen                      Fonofilm Industri A/S (Ortofon)
2,593,633   1952   Umpleby                       The Decca Record Company, Limited, London
2,595,795   1952   Kovach                        Rond Records, Inc.
2,596,494   1952   Lynch                         The Brush Development Company
2,606,254   1952   A. R. Sugden in UK
2,611,038   1952   George K. Graham              RCA
2,617,894   1952   Arentzen                      Fonofilm Industri A/S (Ortofon)
2,619,440   1952   Lord                          EMI
2,627,416   1953   Schoemehl etc                 RCA
2,629,605   1953   Krisch
2,631,859   1953   Ellsworth
2,639,156   1953   Ward                          GE
2,647,753   1953   Goldmark (1906-1977)          Columbia Broadcasting System
2,650,953   1953   Gunter                        Shure
2,658,763   1953   H E Roys                      RCA
2,668,196   1954   Bauer                         Shure
2,676,806   1954   Bachman                       Columbia Broadcasting System
2,681,388   1954   Goldmark                      Columbia Broadcasting System
2,689,275   1954   H.C. Hansen in Denmark
2,703,343   1955   Snepvangers                   Columbia Broadcasting System
2,704,461   1955   Jahncke                       Herman Thorens S.A. in Sainte-Croix, Switzerland
2,716,551   1955   Bachman                       Columbia Broadcasting System
2,734,748   1956   Parvin                        RCA
2,738,385   1956   Bachman                       Columbia Broadcasting System
2,742,530   1956   Mayer                         The Astatic Corporation
2,743,478   1956   Harlow and Smith              RCA
2,744,212   1956   Baum
2,749,131   1956   Kelly in UK                    Cosmocord Limited in UK
2,752,428   1956   Bauer                          Shure
2,754,372   1956   Weathers                       Weathers
2,759,732   1956   O'Neal                         Philco Corporation
2,772,888   1956   Doncaster                      Columbia Broadcasting System
 D179570    1957   Heintze                        Rek-O-Kut
2,780,680   1957   Jensen                         Webster Electric
2,792,456   1957   Theodore Lindenberg
2,819,088   1958   Boisselier, Ellyn and Felix    Sears, Roebuck & Co.
2,819,089   1958   Williams etc                   Dictaphone Corporation
2,840,644   1958   Klingener                      Sonotone Corporation
2,847,514   1958   Evans                          RCA
2,848,559   1958   Palo                           The Astatic Corporation in Ohio
2,854,529   1958                                  Ferranti Limited in UK
                   David T.N. Williamson in Scotland
2,858,374   1958   Goldmark                       Columbia Broadcasting System
2,858,375   1958   Olson and Preston              RCA
2,864,897   1958   Kaar                           Hoffman Electronics Corporation
2,875,282   1959   Reiback
2,879,413   1959   Smith-Johannsen                Sonotone Corporation
2,883,478   1959   McConnell                      Electro-Sonic Laboratories
2,917,590   1959   Stanton (1915-2001)
2,934,610   1960   Norman Dieter                  Sonotone Corporation
2,939,464   1960   Guest                          BSR(Birmingham Sound Reproducers Ltd)
2,939,716   1960   Bauer etc                      Shure
2,947,821   1960   Heibel                         Erie Resistor Corporation
2,948,783   1960   Scully
2,951,915   1960   Pearson                        Sonotone Corporation
2,960,759   1960   Bondley                        GE
2,962,561   1960   Redlich, Klemp and Neumann TELDEC, Telefunken-Decca Schallplatten GmbH
2,963,556   1960   Redlich                        TELDEC
2,965,378   1960   Assie                          Les Industries Musicales et Electrique Pathe Marconi, Paris
2,967,214   1961   Vanderlyn                      EMI=Electric and Musical Industries in UK
2,974,961   1961   Goldmark                       Columbia Broadcasting System
2,976,551   1961   Watts                          Cecil E Watts
2,983,514   1961   Thevenaz                       Thorens S.A.
2,983,516   1961   Bauer etc                      Shure
2,983,796   1961   Marshall                       The Garrard Engineering & Manufacturing Company Limited, Swindon, UK
2,984,711   1961   Raymond William Bayliff in UK
2,993,234   1961   Miura etc                      Tokyo Shibaura Elec (=Toshiba)
2,993,698   1961   Stanton
2,998,622   1961   Renoux in France               S.A.I.P(SOCIETE D'APPLICATIONS INDUSTRIELLES PLASTIQUES)
3,000,005   1961   Moyer                          RCA
3,002,056   1961   Batch and Freise               Telefunken GmbH
3,005,060   1961   Weathers
3,013,125   1961   Goldmark, Bauer and Hollywood  Columbia Broadcasting System
3,014,992   1961   Redlich, Neumann and Angenendt Telefunken GmbH
3,014,993   1961   Narma                          Fairchild Recording Equipment
3,020,361   1962   Minter
3,023,459   1962   Emory G. Cook
3,028,161   1962   Siebert                       General Dynamics
3,040,136   1962   Grado
3,048,667   1962   Jensen                        Jensen Industry
3,051,494   1962   John Walton in UK             Cosmocord Limited in UK
3,051,798   1962   Knudsen                       Fonofilm Industri A/S (Ortofon)
3,053,943   1962   Bachman                       Columbia Broadcasting System
3,055,988   1962   Bauer                         Shure
3,060,280   1962   Wood                          Electro-Voice
3,060,281   1962   Snepvangers                   Fairchild Recording Equipment
3,062,925   1962   Pritchard                     GE
3,067,295   1962   Stanton                       Pickering & Company, Inc.
3,075,052   1963   Terry                         EMI=Electric and Musical Industries Limited in UK
3,077,521   1963   Ahrens etc                    Shure
3,077,522   1963   Gunter etc                    Shure
3,084,228   1963   Shiga                         Nippon Columbia (Denon)
3,088,742   1963   Alexandrovich                 Fairchild Recording Equipment
3,103,364   1963   Macks etc                     Tribo-netics Laboratory in Ohio
3,111,635   1963   Skov and Narma                Fairchild Recording Equipment
3,118,977   1964   H.F. Olson                    RCA
3,129,008   1964   Suzuki etc                    JVC
3,133,161   1964   Georg Neumann (1898-1976)
3,142,729   1964   Davis                         Litton Systems
3,146,319   1964   Stanton                       Pickering & Company, Inc.
3,151,221   1964   Pyke                          EMI=Electric and Musical Industries
3,167,317   1965   Percy Wilson (1893-1977)
3,184,242   1965                                 Capps & Co., Inc.
                   Richard Marcucci and Isabel Capps
3,184,555   1965   Marshall                      Garrard
3,186,029   1965   William Joseph                Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc. [MGM]
3,186,932   1965   Gelfand and Scott             Audio Matrix, Inc.
3,189,353   1965   Grado
3,194,896   1965   Redlich                       TELDEC
3,201,432   1965   Hammond                       V-M Corporation
3,201,527   1965   Ahrens in Kiel, Germany       Electroacustic Gesellschaft (ELAC)
3,207,857   1965   Poutot                        US Philips
3,215,439   1965   Theodore Lindenberg           The Astatic Corporation in Ohio
3,215,440   1965   Wood in Puerto Rico           Euphonics Corporation, Puerto Rico
3,215,785   1965   Cvetko and Palo               The Astatic Corporation in Ohio
3,216,730   1965   Ogura family
3,218,399   1965   M. de Vries in Amsterdam      Ronette Piezoelectrische Industrie, Amsterdam
3,219,351   1965   Shaper etc                    Dyna-Empire(EMPIRE)
3,229,038   1966   Richter                       RCA
3,229,048   1966   Fox                           RCA
3,229,321   1966   C.E. Watts                    (Cecil E Watts Limited)
3,230,318   1966   Engel etc                     Telefunken
3,231,283   1966   Stanton
3,235,672   1966   Beguin                        American Optical Company
3,236,955   1966   Klemp and Redlich             Telefunken GmbH
3,243,188   1966   Caddy etc                     Garrard
3,243,524   1966   Laux                          RCA
3,254,897   1966   Holmes
3,261,925   1966   Albert B. Smith         A. Bernard Smith Laboratories, Inc. in Ohio
3,264,003   1966   Thevenaz                Thorens S.A.
3,292,935   1966   M.J. Cooper in UK       Decca Limited in UK
3,292,936   1966   Grado
3,294,405   1966   Pritchard               Audio Dynamics Corp (ADC)
3,297,831   1967   Stanton
3,298,059   1967   Sakamoto                JVC
3,299,219   1967   Madsen                  Bang & Orfusen (B&O)
3,301,565   1967   Bachman                 Columbia Broadcasting System
3,315,967   1967   Laufer                  Dual Gebruder Steidinger
3,318,603   1967   Mortimer                Garrard
3,328,037   1967   Lehmann/Harnisch        Dual
3,329,997   1967   Rand etc                EMI=Electric and Musical Industries
3,351,830   1967   Wilner                  Endevco Corporation
3,356,795   1967   Shaper                  Dyna-Empire(EMPIRE)
3,360,616   1967   Shiga etc               Denon
3,366,382   1968   Haddy                   Decca Limited in UK
3,383,474   1968   Kriebel etc             Electroacustic Gesellschaft (ELAC)
3,383,752   1968   Hukao etc               Toshiba
3,388,912   1968   Shimoda etc             Sony
3,390,888   1968   Klemp and Redlich       TELDEC
3,393,915   1968   Osborne etc             The Wurlitzer Company
3,399,900   1968   Tsukamoto
3,402,935   1968   Kitazawa                Nippon Columbia (Denon)
3,403,233   1968   D.H. Cooper
3,420,967   1969   Goldmark                Columbia Broadcasting System
3,440,461   1961   Batchelor etc           EMI
3,441,688   1969   Shaper                  Empire
3,444,335   1969   John Walton in UK
3,457,374   1969   Klemp and Redlich       TELDEC
3,469,040   1969   Shaper                  Empire Scientific Corp(EMPIRE)
3,479,038   1969   Eisner
3,482,061   1969   Grado
3,484,566   1969   Kuriyagawa etc          Toshiba
3,486,757   1969   Loescher                Lenco A G
3,490,771   1970   BB Bauer                Columbia Broadcasting System
3,494,623   1970   Nesle                   Firma Perpetuum Ebner, Fabrik fur Fein-mechanik und Elektrotechnik Steidinge
3,497,636   1970   Bayless
3,503,615   1970   Matsuda                 Denon
3,524,950   1970   Konagaya                Tokyo Shibaura Elec (=Toshiba)
3,526,690   1970   Bachman                 CBS
3,526,728   1970   Iga                     Matsushita=Technics
3,528,127   1970   Damm etc                Carl Lindstrom Gesellschaft in Germany
3,528,665   1970   Klemp and Redlich       TELDEC
3,531,601   1970   Muttick                 Sonotone Corporation
3,534,425   1970   C.E. Watts (deceased)   Cecil E Watts
3,534,968   1970   Puleston                Bruce Diamond Corporation
3,538,266   1970   Cho                     Micro Seiki
3,542,972   1970   Karl Braun
3,546,399   1970   Stanton and Kuehn       Pickering & Company, Inc.
3,572,724   1971   Rabinow                       Max L. Libman
3,572,725   1971   Murphy                        Pickering & Company, Inc.
3,576,955   1971   Obata                         Matsushita=Technics
3,610,840   1971   Michael Evans Miller          RCA
3,627,931   1971   Matsuda                       Denon
3,632,886   1972   Peter Scheiber
3,635,622   1972   Wechsler                      Capitol Records, Inc.
3,641,284   1972   Westerkamp and Dubois         Huber & Co. in Swiss
3,645,541   1972   Robertson-Aikman; Alastair John ("Stokes," Steyning, Sussex, EN)
3,646,279   1972   Stanton                       Pickering & Company, Inc.
3,654,660   1972   Taylor etc
3,665,123   1972   K Ikeda                       Mitachi Onkyo Seisakusho (brand name "GLANZ")
3,666,896   1972   Laue                          Dual Gebruder Steidinger
3,673,354   1972   Oda etc                       Matsushita=Technics
3,679,843   1972   Cho                           Micro Seiki
3,682,485   1972   Guha                          V-M Corporation
3,683,128   1972   Grado
3,683,248   1972   Kobayashi etc                 Matsushita=Technics
3,686,471   1972   N. Takahashi                  Victor Company of Japan (JVC)
3,686,939   1972   Fuchs etc                     Shure
3,697,087   1972   Y. Takahashi                  Pioneer
3,700,829   1972   Anneberg etc                  Fonofilm Industri A/S (Ortofon)
3,720,796   1973   Honma                         Audio Technica
3,722,893   1973   Shimoda                       Toho Machine CO., Ltd.
3,729,596   1973   Toth in Germany               Hermut Wilms in Lubeck, Germany
3,731,009   1973   Watanabe etc                  Toshiba
3,731,938   1973   Wren                          Plessey Handel und Investments AG. Swiss
3,745,263   1973   Kawakami
3,760,125   1973   Laue                          Dual Gebruder Steidinger
3,761,647   1973   Nemoto and Honma              Audio Technica
3,763,335   1973   Morita                        Matsushita=Technics
3,770,901   1973   B.B. Bauer                    Columbia Broadcasting System
3,771,797   1973   Karl Braun
3,774,918   1973   Norio Shibata                 Victor Company of Japan (JVC)
3,779,563   1973   Irisawa
3,786,193   1974   Tsurushima                    Sony
3,787,622   1974   Itoh etc                      Sansui
3,813,101   1974   Ernst Benz in Switzerland
3,829,615   1974   Hiramatsu                     Mitsubishi Denki(Electric)
3,830,459   1974   Strausfeld                    EMI Electrola in Germany
3,836,155   1974   Joannou
3,846,592   1974   Stanton
3,850,436   1974   Rabe                          Polyband Gesellschaft in Munich
3,871,664   1975   Hughes                        Diamagnetics, Inc.
3,904,837   1975   Sugimoto etc                  Hitachi
3,918,722   1975   Nakajima etc                  Sony
3,918,723   1975   Nakajima etc                  Sony
3,923,309   1975   Nakajima etc                  Sony
3,927,887   1975   Oda and Otani                 Matsushita=Technics
3,932,087   1976   Nilsson and Lindell in Sweden Toolex Alpha Aktiebolag (Sweden) [now ALPHA SWEDEN]
3,936,619   1976   Sugimoto etc                    Matsushita=Technics
3,941,547   1976   Hunyar and Green                United Artists Music and Records Group, Inc.
3,944,754   1976   Ishigaki                        Victor Company of Japan (JVC)
3,945,647   1976   Rangabe
3,948,529   1976   Wittenberg                      Pickering & Company, Inc.
3,951,841   1976   Maier                           Discwasher Inc
3,952,171   1976   Dieter                          Micro-Acoustics Corporation
3,954,273   1976   Shaper etc                      Empire
3,956,598   1976   Kawakami etc                    Sony
3,958,292   1976   Powell                          Milty Products Limited
3,960,790   1976   Khanna etc                      RCA
3,961,797   1976   Tsukagoshi                      Pioneer
3,963,246   1976   Trochimowski in Canada
3,963,880   1976   I Ikeda                         FR
3,964,752   1976   Andre Marie Bernard Charlin(1903-1983)
3,966,330   1976   Ridler etc                      Strathearn Audio Limited
3,973,777   1976   Guha                            Avnet, Inc.
3,975,025   1976   Obata etc                       Matsushita=Technics
3,983,335   1976   Nemoto                          Audio Technica
3,988,024   1976   Watanabe etc                    Toshiba
3,989,903   1976   D.H. Cooper etc                 Nippon Columbia (Denon)
3,991,284   1976   Karl Braun
3,993,315   1976   S. Hansen and Sorensen          B&O
3,997,174   1976   Kawashima                       Sony
3,997,817   1976   Secker, University Collage of North Wales
4,001,519   1977   Rangabe
4,009,885   1977   Pritchard                       Sonic Research Corp.
4,011,417   1977   Kageyama etc                    Mitachi Onkyo Seisakusho (brand name "GLANZ")
4,023,130   1977   Ridler etc                      Strathearn Audio Limited
4,031,335   1977   Smit                            US Philips
4,033,591   1977   Ichikawa                        Ichikawa Hoseki Kabushiki Kaisha
4,033,592   1977   Tokuta etc                      Victor Company of Japan (JVC)
4,037,060   1977   Uchida etc                      Japan Piezo Co., Ltd (Azden)
4,038,009   1977   Toull                           EMI Limited in UK
4,039,194   1977   Nakagawa                        Matsushita=Technics
4,039,195   1977   Iyeta                           Nippon Gakki (Yamaha)
4,046,386   1977   Gosling etc                     Strathearn Audio Limited
4,047,721   1977   Hermann                         Dual
4,053,721   1977   Nishikawa                       Pioneer
4,054,291   1977   Maeda                           Sony
4,065,188   1977   Ridler etc                      Strathearn Audio Limited
4,070,028   1978   Percy Wilson                    Metrosound Audio Products Ltd
4,072,823   1978   Minamizono (=Namizono?)         Mitachi Onkyo Seisakusho (brand name "GLANZ")
4,075,418   1978   Nemoto etc                      Audio Technica
4,079,942   1978   Kunen                           Jazlowiecki; Edward A.
4,079,943   1978   Morita and Yasuda               Matsushita=Technics
4,085,940   1978   Hoshimi                         Sony
4,090,039   1978   Mori etc                        Sony
4,093,833   1978   Tsukamoto
4,093,897   1978   Fujita etc                      Hitachi
4,101,133   1978   Aoki etc                      Denon
4,102,536   1978   Clunis                        Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company
4,103,116   1978   Mishima                       Nippon Gakki (Yamaha)
4,103,117   1978   Morinaga                      Trio
4,105,212   1978   Ogura                         Ogura Jewel Industry
4,105,213   1978   Owaki etc                     Victor Company of Japan (JVC)
4,106,776   1978   Gillespie
4,109,114   1978   Baer etc                      Marvin Glass & Associates
4,113,265   1978   Iyeta                         Nippon Gakki (Yamaha)
4,113,266   1978   Alexandrovich                 Pickering & Company, Inc.
4,114,060   1978   Mclean and Holt               Strathearn Audio Limited
4,117,412   1978   Holman, II; Tomlinson M.      Advent Corporation
4,121,837   1978   Tominari etc                  Onlife Research (Dynavector)
4,124,216   1978   Sorensen                      B&O
4,124,782   1978   Schon                         AKG
4,124,783   1978   Nemoto                        Audio Technica
4,128,909   1978   Kawabe etc                    Nagaoka
4,132,935   1979   Gaus etc                      Braun Aktiengesellschaft
4,135,086   1979   Baba                          Nippon Gakki (Yamaha)
4,138,121   1979   Nakajima etc                  Sony
4,138,122   1979   H. Nakatsuka                  Ortofon
4,140,321   1979   Albert                        Pickering & Company, Inc.
4,140,886   1979   Itoh                          Matsushita=Technics
4,143,248   1979   Broeksema                     US Philips
4,149,036   1979   Okamoto etc                   Nippon Columbia (Denon)
4,151,998   1979   Kurtin etc                    Discwasher Inc
4,157,460   1979   Bottali etc                   CBS
4,161,631   1979   Matsuda                       Denon
4,167,026   1979   Sambe etc                     Aiwa
4,170,361   1979   Zwicky etc                    Willi Studer (REVOX)
4,177,360   1979   Fujimoto etc                  Sansui
 D251558    1979   Cary L. Christle and M. Ikeda Infinity Systems, Inc
 D252330    1979   Leech in Scotland             BSR Limited
4,182,517   1980   Adam N. Rosenberg, Dept of Optical Research, Stanford Univ.
4,183,537   1980   H. Nakatsuka                  Namiki
4,185,835   1980   Robertson-Aikman; Alastair John ("Stokes," Steyning, Sussex, EN)
4,194,744   1980   Groh, Karlov and Happ         Shure
4,199,375   1980   Muller
4,205,856   1980   K. Hayashi                    Stax Industries
4,209,669   1980   Hayashi                       Denon
4,209,670   1980   Ono etc                       Victor Company of Japan (JVC)
4,211,422   1980   Rangabe                       Zerostat Components Ltd
4,212,471   1980   Nishiwaki etc                 Victor Company of Japan (JVC)
4,218,591   1980   Iwasawa
4,220,926   1980   Buckner in UK                 Plessey Handel und Investments AG. Swiss
4,221,937   1980   I Ikeda                       FR
4,225,928   1980   Henderson
4,230,323   1980   Tsuji etc                     Sharp=OPTONICA
4,232,072   1980   Pardee                        Ball Corporation
4,232,202   1980   Mori etc                      Sony
4,232,869   1980   Wakabayashi etc                Matsushita=Technics
4,233,476   1980   I Ikeda
4,237,347   1980   Burundukov
4,237,349   1980   B.S. Hansen and Gudmandsen Ortofon
4,238,646   1980   Aizawa etc                     Nippon Gakki (Yamaha)
 D261882    1981   Obata etc                      Matsushita=Technics
4,249,747   1981   Bauer (deceased)
4,251,080   1981   Sumachev; Jury N. (Leningrad, SU)
4,256,312   1981   M Ikeda                        R & D Office Makoto Ltd
4,257,615   1981   Morch(Moerch)
4,261,580   1981   Tsukagoshi etc                 Pioneer
4,263,483   1981   Obata                          Matsushita=Technics
4,264,078   1981   Hattori                        Koshin Denki
4,270,758   1981   Kehl                           Shure
4,271,382   1981   Maeda and Matsuoka             Matsushita=Technics
4,275,888   1981   Anderson etc                   Shure
4,276,635   1981   Obata etc                      Matsushita=Technics
4,277,070   1981   Dinsdale etc from UK           Cranfield Institute of Technology
4,279,691   1981   Aoki etc                       Matsushita=Technics
4,281,225   1981   Ito etc                        Nippon Gakki (Yamaha)
4,289,316   1981   Laeng in Switzerland
4,293,823   1981   Hochberg and Borland           Logitek Electronic Systems, Inc.
4,295,277   1981   Dennessen etc                  Dennessen Electronics
4,305,147   1981   Onishi                         Pioneer
4,312,061   1982   Hayashi                        Denon
4,317,191   1982   Tatara                         Sony
4,323,997   1982   Kuribayashi etc                Pioneer
4,325,016   1982   Takeuchi                       Nippon Gakki (Yamaha)
4,325,132   1982   Kuehn                          Audio Dynamics Corp (ADC)
4,326,283   1982   Toulan and Rensky              Quality Audio Components
4,326,285   1982   Dieter etc                     Micro-Acoustics Ltd
4,328,573   1982   Kurtin etc                     NAD International in Germany
4,330,884   1982   Obata etc                      Matsushita=Technics
4,332,050   1982   Okuda                          Kyushu Hitachi Maxell, Ltd.
4,337,533   1982   Ando etc                       Aiwa
4,345,322   1982   Aizawa etc                     Nippon Gakki (Yamaha)
4,346,467   1982   Souther
4,351,045   1982   Townshend
4,352,176   1982   Itoh                           Matsushita=Technics
4,352,178   1982   Kitamura etc                   Kitamura
4,359,768   1982   Abbagnaro and Gust             CBS
4,363,705   1982   Hunyar and Hand                Capitol Records, Inc.
4,364,120   1982   Honma                          Audio Technica
4,365,325   1982   Van Den Hul
4,367,544   1983   Fidi                           AKG
4,367,546   1983   Shibata                        Victor Company of Japan (JVC)
4,368,527   1983   Goldstein
4,368,528   1983   Sakano etc                     Sony
4,370,371   1983   Nakahira                       Hohyu Rubber
4,376,304   1983   Uchida etc                     Azden
4,383,310   1983   Itoh                           Matsushita=Technics
4,385,375   1983   Okura                          Pioneer
4,395,920   1983   Kurtin etc                     Audio Dynamics Corp (ADC)
4,397,012   1983   Burundukov in USSR
4,397,013   1983   Shiomi etc                     Kyocera/Nagaoka
4,403,880   1983   Sandors etc                    California Sounds Ltd
4,409,526   1983   Yamauchi etc                   Sony
4,416,003   1983   Suzuki                         Sharp=OPTONICA
4,416,006   1983   Kitamura etc                   (no assignment, but the inventors are mainly engineers of JVC)
4,423,499   1983   Peschel                        AKG
4,434,483   1983   Vinogradov in USSR
4,434,484   1984   Iwata                          Audio Technica
4,437,179   1984   Nishikawa etc                  Pioneer
4,441,177   1984   Groh etc                       Shure
4,441,178   1984   Kobayashi etc                  Nakamichi
4,449,214   1984   Rangabe
4,453,243   1984   Tanaka etc                     Sony
4,455,641   1984   Sliski                         Dennesen Electrostatics, Inc.
4,462,097   1984   Janda etc                      TESLA, koncernovy podnik
4,468,627   1984   Fushiki                        Nippon Gakki (Yamaha)
4,470,020   1984   Mohr
4,473,897   1984   Seeler                         Shure
4,475,185   1984   Fujio etc                      Sansui Electric
4,479,281   1984   Mikutowski
4,484,320   1984   Redlich                        TELDEC
4,488,284   1984   Aoki etc                       Denon
4,490,816   1984   Kehl                           Shure
 D279,775   1985   Nemoto                         Audio Technica
4,494,227   1985   van Vroonhoven                 US Philips
4,509,159   1985   Alexandrovich                  Pickering & Company, Inc.
4,512,008   1985   Yokoyama                       Nippon Gakki (Yamaha)
4,521,877   1985   Shimamoto                      Namiki Precision Jewel
4,528,653   1985   Asano                          Sony
4,536,865   1985   Kenmotu etc                    Pioneer
4,538,255   1985   Kern                           Georg Neumann GmbH
4,547,819   1985   Meitner etc                    Amber Electro Design, Inc. (Montreal, CA)
4,547,874   1985   Mori etc                       Sony
4,558,443   1985   Koyama and Nakamura            Tekudaiya Kabushiki Kaisha in Japan
4,570,253   1986   Firebaugh
4,580,257   1986   Kikuchi etc                    Pioneer
4,580,258   1986   Dinsdale etc in UK             Cranfield Institute of Technology/Elite Townshed, Ltd.
4,628,500   1986   Thigpen etc                    Eminent Technology
4,644,517   1987   Tominari                       Dynavector
4,675,859   1987   Croopnick and Fletcher         Sumiko
4,681,527   1987   Amory etc                      Pathe-Marconi EMI SA in France
4,686,664   1987   Robert J. Graham
4,729,146   1988   Barr
4,792,938   1988   Firebaugh
4,802,081   1989   Otzipka etc                    US Philips
4,855,989   1989   Gyger, Jr.; Fritz (CH-3645 Gwatt, CH)
 4,870,631   1989   Stoddard etc                  Finial Technology, Inc.
 4,884,262   1989   Larsen/Gudmandsen/Winfeld     Ortofon
 5,003,522   1991   Ray M Dolby
 5,781,525   1998   Neulinger
 6,070,721   2000   Levitan
 6,185,179   2001   Mohrin
 6,469,974   2002   Kaneko                        Vestax
 6,661,767   2003   Warden                        Numark Industries, LLC
 6,818,815   2004   Cohen                         Stanton Magnetics
 6,829,207   2004   Singer                        Convolve, Inc.
 7,042,811   2006   Penn and Phelps               Syracuse University
 7,086,071   2006   Schroeder
 7,106,685   2006   Calaio
 7,345,975   2008   Fadeyev and Haber             The Regents of the University of California
 7,382,713   2008   Robert J. Graham
D599,790     2009   Doehmann                      Continuum Audio Labs Pty Ltd, Australia
 7,630,288   2009   Riggle
 7,944,803   2011   Perkins

Who first obtained clear idea about differentiating method?
Newton (1642-1727) in England?
Leibnitz (1646-1716) in Germany?
or Takakazu Seki (1642?-1708) in Japan? Not yet exactly, but near to it by proposing a determinant and find Bernoulli number befo
They did not know each other
But the essence of idea was similar and they got ideas in same era.
Differentiating method is a fact like sunshine - and who is able to see can see.
There might be the mature time for natural/human progress.
Once a great inventor Jacob Rabinow said as follows:
             "People are so carried away with their own brilliance that it is hard for them to believe that the world is filled w
             One gains tremendous respect for the human race when one sits in the Patent Office Search Room for a day
             and looks through the tremendous variety of ideas on any subject one can possibly conceive."
                    Assumed
                    Realised
                    Models                               Main point of claims
                                                         Phonograph or Speaking machine (as it stands on drawing, but patent front page titled "I
                                                         Recording and Reproducing Speech and other Sounds. Disk with spiral groove type "pho
 tates Gramophone Company                                Gramophone (Disk). His older patent 372786(1887) for Gramophone (horizontal recordin
                                                         Sound Recording and Reproducing Machine. Also 601198 for Gramophone and Actuating
nograph Company in New Jersey                            Method of duplicating phonographic records
aphophone Company in District of Columbia                Sound-Record [making of cylinders from matrix mold]. His patent 682992(1901) is reissue
onal Phonograph & Indestructible Record Company in UK.   Method of forming metal matrices and duplicating Sound-Record Cylinders [by Electrodep
                                                         Stylus or Needle for Sound-reproducers. Long life needle made of hard small diameter rod
ng Machine Company in New Jersey                         Sound-Record [Label pressed to record together with pressing the disc in heated condition]
                                                         Double-Faced Sound-Record. In 1904 Odeon produced double-sided records. Some early O
                                                         Sound-Recording Apparatus. Cutting tool for lateral-cut groove of uniform depth consists o
                                                         Composition of making duplicate phonograph-records (cylinders). Mixture of metallic soap
                                                         Production of Quasi-Original Sound Records (duplication of matrix for lateral-cut disks). A
ng Machine Company in New Jersey                         Die-Plate for Stamping up Sound Records. Cheny invented 655195(1900): Gramophone So
nghans & Thomas Haller (clock maker)                     Feeding Mechanism for Talking Machine [Linear Tracking Arm fed by worm gear so that w
                                                         Multi-track (for example triple-track spiral) sound grooves with lead-in markings [The simi
                                                         Phonograph-Reproducer (Ball Bearing Needle)
                                                         Phonograph-Stylus of crystallized boron.
                                                         Talking Machine (Vacuum suction turntable for thin flat flexible disc record)
ng Machine Company in New Jersey                         Stylus for sound-reproducing machine. Elliptical tungsten stylus
                   Edison Diamond disc                   Process of forming phonograph styli (Diamond Stylus Tip). Hard record material such as P
                   Edison Diamond disc                   Process for making sound records (record made of fusible Phenol resin etc)
                                                         Speed-Regulator for Phonographs (Electric Motor regulating with eddy current disks)
                                                         Celluloid Record-Blank. Also 1248468. Mainly cylinder type though in patent 1234451 Ed
                                                         Record for Talking Machine. Lateral cut record with new groove configurations (the walls
                                                         Talking Machine. Improving means for supporting sound box. In 1894 Charles and Émile P
ng Machine Company in New Jersey                         Molding-Press. Also 941291: Apparatus for making sound-records for talking machines (M
                                                         Means for recording sound. Multi-sound sources received through horns are electrically mi
Phonograph Company in New York                           Electric-Motor Phonograph
                                                         Talking Machine. Universal joint between tone-arm and tone-tube. Also co-inventor of 129
                                                         Laminated (multi-layered) discs.
 Phonograph Company in New York                          Phonograph-Reproducer. Sound Box usable for both vertical & lateral records: projecting a
ng Machine Company in New Jersey                         Method of making record tablets. Various groove configurations seeking for standardizatio
 aphophone Manufacturing Company                         Apparatus for pressing up Sound-Records and the like.
 cial Research Company                                   Process of making styli and products thereof (Tungsten stylus).
 aphophone Manufacturing Company                         Method and Apparatus for pressing disc sound records without the aid of heating and coolin
Establissements GAUMONT in Paris, France                 Electrical Reproducer for Phonograph. Previous patent 1384295(1921) originally filed
 ctric Company, Incorporated.                            Vibratory System (Electric Recording System; application not limited to phonograph
Type-writer Company                                      Phonograph: Belt-driven turntable
 ck-Balke-Collender Company in Delaware                  Molding Die. [Brunswick Records: in the 1930s, Brunswick sold the control of the record c
                                                         Acoustical Device (cylinder record cutting & reproducing). Dictaphone started as producer
 ctric Company, Incorporated.                            Sound Recording Method (extended play time, no mention of specific 33.33rpm. He in
                                                         Means for recording sounds. Heated cutting stylus for cutting harder material than soft wax
                                                         Phonograph System (Recording chain including transmitter=microphone capable of picking
                                                         Device for the transmission of vibratory energy (Basic technology for electric recordin
                                                         Damped Phonograph Apparatus (Piezo-electric element and vibration-damping material)
ration of America (RCA) in Delaware                      Electric Phonograph Circuit (Phonographs in connection with radio receiving circuits) Also
 eeler Electric Manufacturing Company           Slow Speed Synchronous Motor (Direct Drive Motor for 78rpm)
                                                Reproducing and Recording of Sound [Electric Phonograph] Also 1743251 Means for reco
 lephone and Telegraph Company                  Phonograph Recording and Reproducing (Application filed Nov. 15, 1919). The methods o
ireless Telegraph Company, England              Gramophone-Record-Cutting Device and the like. 1974895 (Reproducer) was assigned to R
ng Machine Company in New Jersey                Talking Machine-Record. Apparatus for transferring sound from cylinder record to disc rec
                                                Phonograph Needle (small and light weight stylus tip made by electroplating method: thin c
Manufacturing Company                           Electromagnetic Pick-up
                                                MC Cartridge
 e Electric & Manufacturing Company             Reproducing Device (Simple Mechanism: diaphragm in sound box is changed to electric tr
                                                Reproducer (Balanced Armature Type). Also 1614133 In 1925 E.dward W. Kellog and C
ctric Company, of Rachine                       Translating Device (Balanced Armature Type) Also 1846871(arm) & 1934857 (pick-up)
                                                Electromagnetic Instrument (esp. pick-up for vertical-cut of the finely grooved type ) Also 1
                                                Sound Recording Apparatus. Also 1944258 about Sound Reproducing Instrument
                                                Sound Reproducer (for playing soft wax records). Jones invented 1746730, 1812634, 1918
                                                Shellac Composition (Shellac31.5% Induline base 1.5% Filler67%)
                                                Electromagnetic Device. "a four-pole magnetic structure and coil are sealed in an oil filled
                                                Production of Phonograph Styli (lapping machine for making diamond stylus of small
 ration of America (RCA) in Delaware            Magnet System for converting electrical into mechanical energy or inversely [pole pieces c
 acturing Company in New Jersey                 Phonograph Turntable (center-driven by induction motor with worm gear and governor: pla
                                                Magnetic Pickup. Also 1830800, 1830801 & 1835072 etc. He is more famous for his book
                                                Plural-Member stylus or the like. Stock material (tungsten rod) is inserted and fused togethe
                                                Phonograph Recorder and Reproducer Arm (consideration on lateral/vertical inertia and an
                                                Mounting of Electric Pick-ups for Gramophones [Forerunner of Linear Tracking Arm]
ng Machine Company in New Jersey                Means and Method for pressing talking machine record [mold].
ng Machine Company in New Jersey                Electromagnetic Acoustic Device. Owing to the Crash of 1929, Victor Talking Machine Co
                                                Phonograph Reproducer (MC type)
                                                Electrical Sound Reproducing Apparatus. Pick-up applicable without any adjustment for ei
 aphophone Company in UK                        Electric Sound Recorder. In 1931 Gramophone Company and Columbia Graphophone Com
                   later called as "VINYLITE"   Record (composition: copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate etc). In 1920 Unio
                                                Pick-up Device (Auto-offsetting tracking arm)
                                                Reproducer for hill-and-dale records. Also 1784845 about needle
                                                Phonograph reproducers for Vertical Recordings (esp. wax so that light vertical pressure le
                                                Reproducing Arm (Auto-offsetting device by pulley)
                                                Sound Reproducer for hill-and-dale records. Light tracking force 10g. Analysis of effective
                                                Vibration Translating Device (Recording device using moving coil and damping plate and
                                                Electroplating upon metallized surface
                                                Recorder Stylus (suitable for use of hill and dale type) Also 1918271: Sound Recording and
 aphophone Company in UK                        Moving Coil Electromechanical Device (sound recording and reproducing).
                                                Sound Reproducing System: L/V two channels from single groove
                                                Vibration Translating Device (reproducer with double moving coils). Also 2027169 & 213
                                                Vibration Translating Device (MC type reproducer for hill-and-dale records). Analysis on m
                                                Phonograph reproducer (MC) for Lateral and Vertical Recordings
                                                Vibration Translating Device (single moving coil) for hill-and-dale-recording. Also 199054
                                                Phonograph reproducer (MC) for Lateral and Vertical Recordings
 ic and Musical Industries in UK                Sound Transmission including Stereophonic/Electric Recording & Reproducing Syste
                                                Sound Recording & Reproducing System (45/45 degrees stereophonic groove and equ
                                                Feed Mechanism for disk recording machines. Later patents 2200866 & RE22183, 221393
                                                Sound Recording and Reproducing System [Idea of equalization with pre-emphasis on reco
                                                Sound Reproducing & Recording Apparatus
                                                Phonograph Pickup (Improvement of response at low frequencies)
                                                            Vibratory System (Recording System: driving coil and feedback coil incorporated into v
 ng Corporation in New York                                 Recording Head and Process of Recording. Recording on film with stylus. Also 2173050. R
                                                            Arm balanced by spring tension. Also 2254844 about turntable mechanism with variable sp
                                                            Aluminum Record Blank coated with Ricinoleic Acid [for embossing]
                                                            Recording Stylus.
                                                            Translating Device (for recording & reproducing on record cylinder). Also 2110092 Comm
                                                            Device to convert electrical into mechanical energy or inversely (Moving-conductor type p
                      "Beam-Of-Light Pickup"                Photoelectric Phonograph. Also 2316113, 2359808, 2399585 & 2480272 etc by Thompson
                                                            Vertical Reproducer (voice coil=MC type) with sliding shoe or advance ball in order to red
                                                            Phonograph (Floating System by Coil Springs)
                      Presto Recorder                       Automatic Equalising System for Recording on Disk Records.
                                                            Bi-radial stylus tip. Also John Reid invented universal reproducing stylus (2584922-1952)
                      Product of Vinyl Record               Phonograph Records (made of Vinyl resin). Also 2206636(1940) & 2217170(1940) etc
                                                            Sound Recording. Improvement of vertical cut records: forerunner of tracing simulator. Als
evelopment Company                                          Phonograph Recorder (Piezoelectric Cutter Head using Bi-morph Rochelle Salt Element). A
                      pre-emphasis=orthacoustic recording   Sound Translating System. Also 2379707: Audio-Frequency Compensator Circuit in consid
                      Fairchild                             Sound Recording and Reproducing Mechanism. Moving Coil System. Also 2792456
                                                            Sound Record and Reproducing System. He proposed exponential curved V groove suitabl
                                                            Stylus for Reproducers. Also 2160793, RE22371,2261616, 2313324 & 2348526 about crys
                                                            Signal Recording and Reproducing System: compensating the loss of high frequencies due
                                                            Translating Device (Piezoelectric Element=Torsion Bar Form) Also 2381861, 2455913 &
                                                            Sound Recording Apparatus
                                                            Signal Translating Apparatus [piezoelectric pickup]
                                                            Tracer Mechanism for Investigating Surface Irregularities
                                                            Vibration Translating Device for hill and dale or lateral type of recordings
                                                            Sound Recording Apparatus (The feed screw of Recording Head is driven by the centre of
                                                            Sound Recording & Reproducing Apparatus [esp. for Home Recording]
                                                            Sound recording & reproducing Apparatus. Patents 2077388, 2094201, 2107050 etc by Be
                                                            Electromechanical Conversion-Device (Improved Reproducer). Also 2239717etc. Frederic
                                                            Transducer (Phonograph pickup for lateral-cut records)
 and Television Corporation                                 Phonograph Pickup (MC type similar to cutter head) with peculiar suspension suitable for l
mpany, Inc., in Massachusetts                               Phonograph Pick-up. Previous patent 1915804(1933)
                                                            Cutting, Grinding or Polishing Machine for Diamonds or other stones and the like (showing
 and Television Corporation                                 Phonograph Pick-up Device (MC type)
                     Audograph                              Sound Recording and Reproducing Machine. AUDOGRAPH is recording with constant gro
                                                            Method of and System for Recording Audio Frequency Waves. Also 2475200 about signal
                                                            Electric Pickup (MC type). Faus also invented 2415681(VR type) for GE.
                                                            Hum-less Electrodynamic Pickup (lateral MC pickup) Also 2542457. Newspaper "The Tec
                                                            Pickup with reed of magnetic material. Also RE23327(1951) Damper-less type (suspension
                                                            Electrostatic Pickup. Also 2465288(capacity type pickup), 2388578(Record Reproducing
                                                            Electric Phonograph Pickup of the Capacity Type. In 1944 Snepvangers moved to CBS Lab
                                                            Tone Arm Mounting
                                                            Magnetic Translating Device. Previous patent 2356810
                      Dictabelt                             Stylus Construction and Method (Embossing sound track). Related patent 2534735 &25883
                      Type C/D                              Electromagnetic Pickup (T-shaped stylus assembly) =GB615421-615424. Another GB5869
                                                            Phonograph pickup with mechanical filter. Also 2531689: Electrical Translating Means and
 dcasting Corp. in Ohio                                     Electrodynamic Phonograph Pickup (one turn of coil=ribbon type?) In 1945, the Crosley in
 ompany in New Jersey                                       Phonograph Pickups (Piezoelectric).
                                                            VR(variable reluctance) Cartridge
                                                            Magnetic Phonograph Pickup. Also 2444336, 2456388, 2508753, 2547441 etc. Lionel B. C
                                                             Variable Resistance Phonograph Pickup. Also 2415403 & 2511664 (idea similar to anc
                                                             Reproducer for hill-and-dale and lateral cut phonograph records. Also 2516919(1950): Ele
                                                             Phonograph Pickup having permanent magnet armature [MM type pickup in SP era]
                                                             Phonograph Pickup having permanent magnet armature [MM type pickup in SP era] Why h
                                                             Pickup Mounting. Also 2498210 about piezoelecttric pickup.. The Aviation Corporation la
                      GE monaural cartridges                 Magnetic Phonograph Pickup. In 1947 Bachman was invited to Columbia Broadcasti
                      Lever-Type Cartridges (around 1946) Transducer having a pair of Levers coupling the driving member to the translating element
                                                             Feedback Control System for Recording Cutter and the like
                                                             Auto-offsetting pantograph arm similar to Garrard Zero series. See also later patent b
 evelopment Company                                          Phonograph Pickups (Piezoelectric). Related Patent 2519185. The Brush Development Com
                                                             Universal Tone Arm for Multispeed Record Player. Lloyd J. ANDREAS invented various s
esented by The Secretary of Navy                             Recording Equipment having an adjustable advance ball
 ps & CO. Inc. in New York                                   Recording Stylus (detailed function of burnishing facet angles) Earlier patent 2187512-19
                      Westrex Cutter Head Model 2A/B         Electrodynamic Phonograph Pickup (Lateral cutter head with feedback coil). In 2746130
                                                             Electrodynamic Pickup having U-shaped Coil Holder
                      Seeburg/Pickering Blackhead            Magnetic Sound Reproducer having removable stylus assembly. Also 2538164 cartridge, 2
                                                             Phonograph Pickup. This patent tells the problems and difficulty of tracing on new "microg
 dcasting Corp. in Ohio                                      Dynamic Balanced Arm with two spring coils. Also 2587529
                      RPX-050 etc                            Dual Stylus Phonograph Pickup for Multispeed Record Players. Also 2554208 about impro
                                                             Magnetic Phonograph Pickup Head with two pairs of pole pieces. Also 2388116
                                                             Phonograph Pickup and Mechanical Motion Converting System Therefor. Also 2567105 (C
rens S.A. in Sainte-Croix, Switzerland                       Talking Machine with Record Changer. Also 2592323, 2574071 etc
                                                             Phonograph Stylus of small effective tip radius
                                                             Universal Reproducing Stylus. Analysis of differences of records between the past and pres
                      Ortofon Type A/B/C and AD              Moving-Coil Phonograph Pickup. Coil is wound vertically on elongated core which is supp
 ecord Company, Limited, London                              Electrodynamic Phonograph Pickup
                                                             Spiral and Eccentric Groove Cutter for Phonograph Records and the like.
 evelopment Company                                          Ceramic Electromechanical Transducer (elongated hollow or tubular piezoelectric element
                                                             Moving-Coil Sound Recording Head. Arnold Robinson Sugden started "Connoisseur" bran
                                                             Sound recorder with Sound-Controlled-Stylus Feed (Variable Pitch)
                                                             Electrodynamic Recording Device.
                                                             Gramophone Record (Record Composition)
                                                             Induction Heating of Recording Styli. Related patent 2628104 by Shardlow assigned to RC
                                                             Phonograph Needle (ball bearing needle - mere fancy at the time, but now it can be embodi
                                                             Phonograph Record with raised rim for groove protection
                                                             Double-Twist Phonograph Stylus Assembly
                                                             Phonograph Pickup Mounting (proposing Inclined Arm Mounting for anti-skating: "Since t
                                                             Method of assembling phonograph translating devices
                                                             Phonograph Pickup Device and the like (Improvement on Masterson's patent 2560358 assig
                                                             P
                      "Vertical Drive"Cartridges (around 1949) honograph Apparatus (Piezoelectric pickup with protective tusk for stylus: low tracking fo
                                                             Arm Assembly (proposing viscous damping theory). His another patent 3622163(1971) Lin
                                                             Phonograph Pickup with styli alternatively used for LP and SP (Turnover type cartridge)
                                                             Electrodynamic Pickup
                                                             Phonograph Pickup: Piezoelectric type
                      TD 124                                 Driving Device for a Grammophone Turntable. [wheel rubber driven by intermediate whee
                                                             Record Cutting Stylus Suspension (Advance Ball Damping Suspension to insure the cutting
                                                             Disc Design for Compatible Center Holes: For playing on larger hole, the hub portion may
                                                             Sound Recording Apparatus (Automatic Variable Pitch Recording)
                                                             Stylus Removable Cartridges (plural styli on one cantilever)
                                                             Automatic Molding Apparatus. Also 2853737 These have good reference to previous paten
                                                             Phonograph attachment for eliminating static electricity from records
                                                             Mechanical Coupling Device (Pickup Cartridge using bimorph piezoelectric plates) Also 27
                                                             Click mounting of stylus holder on piezoelectric cartridges
                       W-202                                 Variable capacity pickup. Also 2507188(1950)
                                                             Phonograph Stylus (universal tip applicable for both coarse & fine grooves) Similar idea w
                                                             Stereophonic Record Making (Monaural Two Faces synchronised). Daniel P. Doncaster inv
                                                             Phonograph Tone Arm
                       Model 120/160 with detachable headshell PA-20
                                                             Transducer (using ceramic element) Also 2771513
                       Fairchild                             Vibration Translating Device (Monaural Cutter driven by moving coil)
                                                             Tone Arm Construction for Phonograph (arm shape itself is amplifying sound mechanically
                                                             Recording Method using translating head and stylus (Recording on plastic belt)
                                                             Phonograph Pickups (Piezoelectric) Also 2717929
                                                             Automatic Variable Pitch Control Apparatus for Disc Recorders
                                                             Universal Phonograph Pick-up Cartridge (stylus turn-over type for LP/SP use=universal) A
                                                             Pickup Heads (moving-conductor type called also as ribbon type). This idea is not new (for
                                                             Stereophonic Record using monophonic double faces (Also 2950116)
                                                             Wide range dynamic phonograph pickup
                                                             Universal Pickup Head (Vertical/Lateral/Stereo by changing connection)
                                                             Binaural Phonograph Pickup (L/V stereophonic type since this patent was applied in 19
                                                             Phonograph Pickups (Monophonic Piezoelectric Cartridge). Also 2881005 by Michalko an
                                                             Moving Armature Phonograph (MC type) Pickups. Also 3043920 (Permanent Magnetized
                                                             Improvement of Monophonic MI Cartridges
                       Sonotone 9T etc                       Piezoelectric Stereo Pickups (various construction) Also 2849239, 2955170, 2955216, 317
gham Sound Reproducers Ltd)                                  Auto-changing mechanism. Also 3049354 for auto-return and re-set mechanism
                                                             Stylus turnover=two needles cartridge
                                                             Ceramic Binaural Phonograph Pickup. Related patent 3377439 for Erie Technological Prod
                                                             Cutter (esp. Depth) Control Means for cutting recording grooves (Scully Automatic Recodi
                                                             Playback system for stereophonic records with mechanical rumble filter
                                                             Method of manufacturing phonograph styli (special shape of shank base suitable for bondin
elefunken-Decca Schallplatten GmbH                           Method and apparatus for dual sound track recording (Cutting head for L/V two channels)
                                                             Apparatus for Sound Recording (Variable Pitch) Also 2977424 & 2792454 & 2792455
 s Musicales et Electrique Pathe Marconi, Paris              Gramophone Pick-ups [about resilient stylus arm suspension]
c and Musical Industries in UK                               Moving Coil Electro-Mechanical Transducers
                                                             Phonograph Reproducer (silicone oil Damped Arm suitable for the use on a movable vehic
                                                             Gramophone Records Cleaning Machine
                       Telefunken Studio 220                 Automatic Phonograph including size selecting mechanism to set arm to the first groove of
                       M12 & M16                             Transcription Tone Arm: Incorporating Dynamic Damping Theory developed by B.B. Ba
                       GMC5 (turnover-type MC)               Moving Coil Pick-ups for phonographs and the like
                       Decca London cartridges               Gramophone Pickup (Stereophonic L/V matrix to comply with 45/45 system). Bayliff
                       "EverClean"Records                    Antistatic Record Disks
                       Pickering Unipoise 194                Phonograph Pick-up Arm with one-point bearing. Also design patent D183546-1958
                                                             Method of
                       "Sonosheet" was appended to books or magazines. producing PVC thin film records
                                                             Off-Center Indicator [to check the concentricity of phonograph records and metal phonogra
                                                             Tone Arm Assembly [crystal tone arm = link for piezoelectric stereo cartridge]
                                                             Stereophonic Signal Transducing Systems. Reproducing circuit for L/V type variable capac
                                                             Stereophonic Recording: various ideas about amplitude&velocity limiter or expander
                                                             Dual Sound Track Transducer Head (Stereo cutting head)
                                                             Phonograph Pickup Cartridge: Sample of Moving Magnet (Monophonic)
                                                             Electromagnetic Engraving Apparatus. J.B. Minter invented also 3067292: Stereophonic So
                                                             Method of manufacturing phonograph records ("microfusion" method using pulverised resi
                      Stromberg-Carlson RA-498                Tone Arm Suspension and Balancing System. RA-498 by Stromberg-Carlson utilized visco
                                                              MC cartridges (Stereophonic & Monophonic). Vertical coil assembly in his another patent
                                                              Cartridge for Phonograph pickup (Electro-Mechanical Element=Piezoelectric?)
                                                              Gramophone Pickups (Arm very similar to later patent 3167317 by Percy Wilson). John W
                       T shape cutter head                    Device for the recording or reproduction of sound tracks.
                                                              Phonograph Record Cutter (Stereophonic)
                       M1/M2                                  MM cartridge (originally monophonic cartridge) with offset around 18degrees at cantilever
                                                              Stereophonic Mechanical Transducer (=Piezoelectric) Similar patent 3523690 by Vanderko
                                                              Phonograph
                       Fairchild SM-2? (clamping block with two screws) Pickup Cartridge: Stereophonic Moving Magnet type cartridge with unique sus
                                                              Phonograph Pickup Cartridge and Replacement Stylus Therefor. Also 2937243, 3015703, 3
                                                              Various Stereophonic MI Cartridges
c and Musical Industries Limited in UK                        Method of making grooved records (Variable Pitch and Depth Control).
                                                              Stereophonic MM. ELAC engineers in Kiel applied for German patent No. 1105628 w
                       M3D                                    Stereophonic pickup cartridge
                       "Shigacut"                             Piezo-electric Stereo Transducer. Bimorph type piezoelectric transducer by pasting tw
                       Fairchild 500 arm with cartridge SM-2 Inside force cancelling device
                                                              Phonograph Turntable [air floated and air driven turntable]
                                                              Method and apparatus for eliminating overloading in modulating systems having pre-empha
                                                              Multi-groove Stereophonic Sound Recording and Reproducing System
                                                              Inside force cancelling device(spring) for arm
                                                              Electro-Mechanical Transducer with negative feedback for the recording and reproduction
                       WESTREX stereo cartridges              Phonograph Reproducer (Twin moving coils). Westrex Corp was a wholly-owned sub
                                                              Magnetic Cartridge with compensating pole piece (MM type).
                       Type EPU 100                           Gramophone Pick-ups (Variable Reluctance Type)
                                                              Tone Arm. Percy Wilson as the technical editor of the Gramophone wrote "Needle-Track A
                                                              Recording Stylus (special curved V form similar once proposed by Alberheim in 2310049-
                                                              Stereophonic Electrostatic Pick-up [virtually belonging to IM/MI type pickup]
wyn-Mayer Inc. [MGM]                                          Machine for making Disk Phonograph Records
                                                              Apparatus for forming phonograph record masters, mothers and stampers
                                                              Record cleaning device for mounting on a record changer tone arm
                                                              Stereophonic Transducer with adjustable feedback coils
                                                              Drive Yoke for Phonograph Pickups (Yoke for piezoelectric elements). Hammond invented
 c Gesellschaft (ELAC)                                        Phonograph pickup for grooved records
                                                              Electrodynamic Transducer (Ideas for stereophonic cutters or pickups)
                                                              Compliant Phonograph Stylus Mounting (two styli on cantilever=stylus turnover for piezoe
orporation, Puerto Rico                                       Phonograph Cartridge (Rotary lever exchanging cantilevers each with stylus for LP or SP).
                                                              Stereophonic Piezoelectric Pickup Cartridge
                                                              Recording Needle and Method for making the same (bonded tip forming is shown in detail)
oelectrische Industrie, Amsterdam                             "Ronette" type Piezoelectric Stereo Pickup. Also 3022384, 3136554, 3136555, 3178520
                       Dyna-lift                              Tone Arm Lift by Magnetic force. Similar type was already invented by Kellog of RCA 232
                                                              Sound Signal Transforming System. Compressing or expanding in accordance with loudnes
                       Dynagroove                             Recording System for compensating expected distortions on playback. Related patent 2960
                       "Parostatik" Disc Preener              Record Clening Device
                                                              Transducer(Cutter/Pickup etc)
                       Stanton Unipoise #200                  Arm with one-point bearing pin: VTF adjustable by sliding the weight on the arm wand. Hi
                                                              Optical Sound Recording & Reproduction. [using optical fibers]
                       SX-45? or SX-68?                       Stereophonic Electrodynamic Transducer (45/45 type cutter head) See also 3194896 (Stere
                                                              Record Changing Mechanism
                                                              Phonograph pickup with resiliently loaded stylus beam (piezoelectric element is inherently
                                                              Tone Arm (Tangential straight arm extending from side)
mith Laboratories, Inc. in Ohio                            Stereophonic Photoelectric Transducer (Semi-conductor Photoelectric Cell: germanium tra
                      TD 224                               Automatic Record Changer [feeding a record one by one from separate stack of records wit
                      International                        Magnetic Anti-skating Mechanism (claim priority, application GB July 1962)
                                                           Elliptical stylus making from cone by cutting front and back faces
                      Point4                               IM cartridge having removable stylus
                                                           Magnetic Stereophonic Phonograph Pickup (New Construction of MM type).
                                                           Press Machine for Molding Records
                      SP1/2/6/7/8/9/10/12/14 etc           MMC(=Moving Micro Cross=Moving Iron) & MC with low moving mass. SP7/9 were
                                                           Phonograph Record Reproducing Apparatus (Inclined arm base & cartridge suspension)
                      DUAL 1019 etc                        Antiskating Device (Spring and lever). Actual device applied on 1019 looks much refined/m
                      SP.25mkII & LAB 80 etc               Inside force cancelling device (thrust bar and L-shape weight). Edmund Walter MORTIME
                      Skate-o-meter                        Apparatus for measuring antiskating force in pick-ups
c and Musical Industries                                   Apparatus for Automatic Production of Gramophone Records. Also 3264386
                      Euphonics CK-15-P                    Piezoresistive Transducer. Also 3501732: Semiconductive Piezoresistive Transducer. En
                                                           Stereophonic Magnetic Phonograph Pickup . MM cartridges Also 3349194 about off cente
                                                           Stereophonic Ribbon Cartridge
                                                           Uni-pivotted arm damping utilising eddy current. Original title: Appratus for recording sou
c Gesellschaft (ELAC)                                      Electromagnetic pickup with exchangeable stylus assembly for phonograph records
                      Toshiba-Nagaoka "Ultra-C"            Method of preparing stylus from corundum (sapphire or ruby crystal). Crystalline orientatio
                      PUA-237 and PUA-286 etc.             Pickup Arm. Anti-skating mechanism by cam and lever with spring. Also 3492006 about th
                                                           Recording Device (cutting stylus in consideration of VMA/VTA)
                                                           Two-Speed Phonograph Drive for "juke boxes". Also 3131800(1964) by Osborne for Coin
                      Satin cartridges                     Dynamic Mechanism having a damper. Also 3142786(patented 1964, applied 1960) about
                                                           Automatic Record Player Apparatus ("juke box" or "music box")
                                                           Method of making grooved records with compensation for reproduction errors. Tracing Sim
                                                           Disc Recording & Reproducing System
                                                           Selective Frequency Band Compression for Modulated Groove Sound Recording
                      1000ZE/X etc                         MI Cartridges
                                                           Phonograph Pickup with de-coupling of the stylus mass (showing electrically equivalent cir
                      Trade Mark "Royal Sound Stereo"      Recording Method and Apparatus for compensating third order distortions. Tracing Simula
                                                           Variable Reluctance Cartridges
                                                           Tangential Arm/Turntable floating bearing with pneumatic power from turntable mo
                      A-2 & BE (elliptic stylus), BT/R &BR Stereophonic Cartridge (Piezoelectric type, the compliance of which is adjustable at user's e
                      PTS(=Pinchless Tracing Simulator)    Disc Recording System with precompensation by successive differentiation. Tracing compe
                      Lenco Clean                          Record Cleaning Device (Arm type: cleaning fluid is made of distilled water and detergent
                                                           Sound Recording Method and Apparatus describing the method to reduce the difference be
                      PE 2015/3015 & PE 2020/2020L         Arm with two coil springs (one for VTF, another for antiskating). Antiskating Force is obta
                                                           Monaural-Binaural Phonograph with independent spaced styli
                                                           Auto Players (starting point for electromagnetic control of arm) Also 3689079(1972) e
                      Toshiba C-100P                       Stereophonic Photoelectric Pickup Device
                                                           Method and Apparatus for producing Phonograph Records
                                                           Variable Reluctance Cartridge Also 3515817
 m Gesellschaft in Germany                                 Apparatus for the automatic production of Gramophone Records
                                                           Method and Apparatus for cutting a groove in the surface.
                                                           Phonograph Pickup Cartridge with selectively settable compliance. Also 3527900 & 34261
                      Parastat                             Record Cleaning Device
                                                           Elliptical Phonograph Stylus 0.7x0.2mil (forerunner to Van den Hul type with constant rad
                      VF-3100/5 & VF-3100/e                IM cartridge with magnet located behind armature (unique stylus holder knob was in
                                                           Individual adjustable magnets for MM
                                                           Induced Magnetic Moving Iron Stereophonic Phonograph Pickup with replaceable stylus as
                        RABCO                             Linear Tracking Arm with servo-drive on spring suspension. In 1968 Rabinow formed
                        Many Pickering Cartridges         Removable brush attachment on cartridge
                        200C                              New armature assembly for MM: disc-shaped magnet of platinum-cobalt alloy. A pipe of m
                                                          Stereophonic Phonograph Pickup with single pad for piezoelectric element coupling, suppo
                        DL-107                            MM Cartridge with E-shaped cores & flat magnet (for ex. thickness 0.5mmx 2mm square/d
                                                          Quadrasonic Sound System. Matrix 4 channel surround. Also 3746792-1973(Multidire
                                                          Automatic Record Press
                                                          Magnetic Phonograph Pickup having plural inducing magnets
Steyning, Sussex, EN)                                     Pickup Arms (Design quite different from any SME arms: side thrust is compensated by inc
                                                          Induced Magnetic Moving Iron Stereophonic Phonograph Pickup with replaceable stylus as
                     Vacorec                              Phonograph Record Vacuum Cleaner. Also 3005223 & 3150401
yo Seisakusho (brand name "GLANZ")                        IM Cartridge
                     No embodiment?                       Light Electric Tone Pickup (modern version of "Beam-Of-Light Pickup"). Also 3534181 in
                     EPC-95SS                             Semiconductor Stress Transducer (various drawings for armature constructions: some are to
                     MC-4100 & LC-40 (made to order)      MC cartridge with V shape core for coils. MC-4100 was forerunner of detachable/rep
                                                          Phonogram Tone Arm. Guha also invented later for Avnet=B.I.C.turntables and arms.
                        All GRADO cartridges since '70s   Flux-Bridging Stereophonic Pickup. Also 3694586(1972) toroidal armature, 3881073(197
                        SP-10 (1970)                      Directly Driven Turntable. Later motors since 1971 have been much simplified (without s
                        CD4-1(demodulator) etc            Discrete 4 Channel Recording/Reproducing System. Preceding Patent 3401237(1968):
                        SFG-2                             Stylus Tracking Force Gauge
                        PL-A20 etc                        Automatic Record Player (repeat function with sub-motor for arm control)
                        M15 etc                           IM=VMS(Variable Magnetic Shunt) Cartridge: The armature acts as a variable mag
                        AT-35X                            V shape magnets=VM (Japan patent application 42/53200 year 1967)
                                                          Tone Arm Mechanism. Also 4004817(1977). Seisuke Shimoda once invented patents 3388
ms in Lubeck, Germany                                     Pickup or Cutting Device with two moving coils
                    C-401S                                Capacitive Transducer directly coupled to cantilever (Electret Condenser type cartridge)
                    Garrard zero 100                      Magnetic anti-skating Mechanism
                                                          Electro-static transducers (condenser type pickup) His previous patent 3649775 was assign
                                                          Magnetic Pick Up with FLUXBRIDGE and Replacement Stylus
                        AT-21(only one model)             V shape IM cartridges (Japan patent application. 43/57408 year 1968)
                                                          Idea for cartridge with magnet armature NSN
                        "SQ" matrix system                Stereo-Quadraphonic Records. Also 3745242, 3784744, 3875338 about decoders, 3890466
                                                          Linear Tracking Guide with magnetic floating mechanism
                        4MD-1X(1971) etc                  Stylus Tip (Shibata type) Suitable for 4 channel reproduction. Its line contact profile (a cu
                                                          Magnetic Device for Anti-skating (Two Crescent Magnets inside of Arm Pillar)
                        "SQ" decoder                      Four Channel Decoder with Variable Mixing of the Output Channels. Also 3883692 In 196
                        "QS" matrix system                Quadrasonic Sound System for Two Channel Transmissions. Matrix 4 channel surround. A
                                                          Pickup needle having a diamond tip soldered by a hard solder to a shaft
                        "QM-4" matrix                     Quaternary Stereophonic Sound Reproduction Apparatus.
                                                          Record Presses. Also 4141531
                                                          Phonograph Record Player Tone Arm Assembly. Maybe the first model of pivot suspension
                        780/4DQ                           MI Cartridge for 4-channel groove reproduction
                                                          Method of cutting gramophone records: Pitch and Depth control in consideration of reprod
                                                          Phonograph Stylus (reproducing stylus improved from Shibata type)
                        MT-100/101/202E etc               Magnetic Pickup Cartridge (disc-shaped moving magnet pivotally supported on the rear end
                        PS-6750 & PS-8750 etc             Tone Arm Wand of Carbon Fibers.
                        XL-35/45                          Cantilever made of Carbon fibers. Embodiment in XL-35 and XL-45 was carbon-clad alum
                        Carbon-clad shell (SH-160)        Cartridge shell for phonograph pickup. Carbon-clad shell is based on another patent 39572
                                                          Record stylus. Stylus substrate having a surface coated with a film of silicon carbide or bor
a Aktiebolag (Sweden) [now ALPHA SWEDEN]                  Arrangement in moulding presses with parted press tools for the production of hot-pressed
                    CD-4 demodulator SH-3380 etc             Four-channel stereophonic reproducing system for reproducing discrete CD-4 four-channel
s Music and Records Group, Inc.                              Phonograph record pressing die assembly
                                                             Record disc recording system with signal amplitude controlled by stylus arm position. Sign
                                                             Cleaning gramophone records. Also 4449214-1984.
                     FA112 & FA145                           Phonograph Turntable Anti-skating Device
                                                             Phonograph record cleaning composition (see also 3965520 Brush and cleaning compositio
                                                             Stereo phonograph cartridge (stereo piezo-electric cartridge) Also 4326285-1982 (new desi
                     QDC, 2002-e (built-in microcircuit for phono input)
                     600LAC &500ID(=inertially damped) Magnetic Cartridge. Damping rod within cantilever pipe, main magnet axial at the end of p
                                                             Moving coil pickup cartridge with diaphragm coupling
                     Pixall                                  Roller for cleaning phonograph records (adhesive tape peeling off after use). The idea is no
                                                             Record Composition
                     PS-600 & PS-800 (1977) etc              Improvement of cantilever: an aluminum pipe whose periphery carries a porous vacuum va
                                                             Tone arm for record player (coupling of auto-offsetting & anti-skating mechanism)
                     FR-1MKII?                               Moving coil-type cartridge (Non-magnetic bobbin) Japanese Patent Application S49-85
                                                             Methods and devices for recording, engraving and reproducing modulated information in te
                                                             Phonograph record detecting arrangement (optical beam and sensor for size select)
                     B-I-C turntables (Model 940/960/980) Cueing control. Dwipendra Nath Guha invented also 3949995(needle control-unique dynam
                                                             Pickup Cartridge [Piezoelectric ceramics or silicon semiconductors pickups structure with h
                                                             MM cartridge with single rod magnet located tangential to cantilever.
                     SR-M99                                  Flat DD Motor: a plurality of magnets provided on the inner surface of the turntable so as t
                     "UD-4" improved from CD-4               Multi-directional sound signal recording and/or reproducing system with crosstalk compens
                                                             MM Cartridges with two magnets
                     Beogram 4000(1972)                      Automatic phonographs with linear tracking arms. Using photocell for controlling arm
                     PS-6750, PS-8750 & PS-X7                Turntable Mat. The vibration-damping properties of the mat may be enhanced by providing
                     Milty ZEROSTAT                          Device for neutralizing the charge on statically-charged surfaces. British Patent GB150049
                                                             Electrostatic Transducer
                     SONUS                                   Magnetic Pickup and Removable Stylus Assembly of Low Mass. Pritchard left ADC and st
yo Seisakusho (brand name "GLANZ")                           New type MM cartridge (coils fixed to the end of yoke) looking like mixture of MM, IM an
                                                             Pivoted arm control arrangements. Magnetic or electro-magnetic counterbalance and VTF s
                                                             Stereo pick-up with casing serving as common pole piece. Also 4456984(1984)
                     "Jelco" arms                            Pick-up arm rotary pivot bearing structure ("One Point Cross Suspension System")
                                                             Record Disc Cutting Stylus (esp. for 4-channel record disc recording system)
                     YM-308II etc                            IM cartridge with both a rod-shaped armature and a disk-shaped armature (called as tri-pole
                                                             Apparatus for the manufacture of disc records. Automated record press incorporated
                     SL-1650                                 Auto changer. See also patent 3827697-1974 (reissue RE29730-1978) invented by Miyosh
                     PX-1(1977)                              Linear Tracking Arm with optical servo-drive. His other patent 4007939, 4083565, 413920
                                                             Linear Tracking Arm with electric coils for sensors.
                     DuaL 1249(1975)                         Drive Device with Belt and Stepped Pulley. "Vario Pulley" for auto player.
                                                             Piezoelectric type pickup cartridge for stereo with pressing and intermediate members for c
                     PS-4750 & PS-4350                       Turntable mat with rubber sucker discs.
                                                             Linear bearing for parallel tracking arm. Thin film of magnetic fluid lubricant material betw
                                                             Cleansing of contaminants from gramophone records. [Arm type record cleaner: brush incli
yo Seisakusho (brand name "GLANZ")                           Pickup cartridge called as "Moving Flux"(see also 4011417). Unique construction having m
                                                             Assembly of armature in continuation from 3761647: current AT clip-on stylus holder
                                                             Method of and apparatus for controlling turntable speed: proposing constant linear velocity
                     EPA-100                                 Pickup arm device dynamically damped (silicon oil+spring incorporated in balance weight:
                     PS-X5/6/7 etc                           Automatic Player with repeat function (auto-return force is obtained by gear coupled to spin
                     XL-55, XL-44L, XL-88D etc               MC Cartridge: coils are wound in such a manner that the electric potentials generated in dia
                     Satin cartridges                        Moving Coil Cartridge with magnetic means to affix stylus holder (Patent in Japan 15/7/19
                     HT-840(1977) etc                        Electric motor (Star-shaped flat driving coils to obtain constant torque=called as "Unitorqu
                    DA-307/8/9 & DA-401                  Tone Arm with Dynamic Damping Mechanism (Design Patent D253410 by Sasaki 1979 fo
ining & Manufacturing Company                            Phonograph Pickup Device (Magnetic Control of tone arm with coil and magnet)
                                                         Pickup Cartridge with Moving Magnet Armature
                                                         Combination of MM/IM with two magnets
                                                         Stylus (called as "VITAL") BTW: in 1971Ogura developed 4-channel stylus PM type dif
                                                         Device for cutting a sound groove on a disc recording medium (a cutting stylus with non sta
                                                         Fluidically supported and fluidically driven turntable.
                                                         Programmable phonograph device detecting the bands (maybe first example using LED a
                                                         Tone Arm with Dynamic Lateral Balancer and Damper
                                                         Playback stylus for phonograph record stamper. Related patent 4153257 is for a turntable to
                  SMA2, STM4 etc                         Electric motor (simplified Direct Drive Motor with a stator assembly with a first plurality o
                                                         Phonograph preamplifier network with infrasonic cutoff response Also 4032885
                  DV-505                                 A device for damping vibrations of a tone arm. Eddy current damper and dynamic mechani
                  Beogram 6002/8002                      Linear Tracking Player
                  P8E P8ES P7E P6E P6R                   Sound pickup having plastic enveloped pole plate to pole rod junction. Also 4054758 for ca
                  AT34 etc                               Two moving coils. Actual embodiment is modified from this patent: first embodiment AT3
                  Rolling 150                            Roller for cleaning phonograph records (Adhesive rubber roller washable after use)
                  PS550s(1977) etc                       Phonograph turntable control system (for auto player incorporating electronic anti-skating e
                  PX-1(1977)                             Automatic record player of linear tracking pickup arm type (using optical sensor devices)
                  PS-B80(1978)                           Electro-magnetic controlled arm. Embodied arm as "BIOTRACER" looks related to
                  MC20 etc                               MC cartridges with improved damper construction. Also 4220341(Pickup) & 4145582(MC
                  NP-AT, 625E etc                        Phonograph cartridge replaceable stylus assembly. "The tube is crimped along a circular c
                  HPF (hot pressed ferrite) core?        Magnetic type pickup cartridge block shaped pole piece construction
                                                         High-Fidelity Tone Arm
                  Phono Crosstalk Canceller PCC-1000     Crosstalk compensating circuit
                  DiscTraker (1978)                      Phonograph tone arm and cartridge damping system
                                                         Apparatus for cutting audio disks: references to patents by SCULLY with WESTREX/TEL
                                                         Compact MC Cartridge without magnet pole in front of coils which are driven by coaxial ri
                                                         Apparatus for recording on tape from a phonograph record (Phonograph-Tape synchro Mec
                  Maybe B790/B791/B795 etc               Bearing arrangement: Magnetic control of arm by magnets (and/or coil as shown in next pa
                                                         MM cartridges
                  Black Widow                            Tone Arm Design.(Design Patent). Ikeda Makoto designed another arm D257534(1980) wi
                  ADC Accutrac 4000 (direct drive) etc   Record Player. ADC in USA was absorbed into BSR group at this time. Another patent by
                  Loci                                   Articulated Parallelogram Phonograph Tonearm
                  Orsonic SG-2E                          Lateral pressure detector for use with a phonograph record player.
                  SME Series III                         Tone Arms
                  V15 Type IV etc                        Phonograph pick-up transducer using a one-piece bearing and inertial damper fabricated fro
                  DISCOFILM?                             Process for removing dust and grease from phonograph records. Similar US Patent No.437
                  CP-Y(1977)                             Pickup cartridge with sealing damper (called as "tip damper") to prevent entry of foreign m
                                                         MM Cartridge with axial located (preferably hollow) coils without any yoke to prevent the
                  MC-1(1977) etc                         MC cartridges with printed coils. Also 4251695(1981) and 4374433(1983) and 4532620(1
                                                         Damping apparatus for damping the resonance of disc record tone arms. Also 4131284
                                                         Device for cutting a sound groove on a disc recording medium (anti-static diamond cutting
                                                         Phonograph cartridge with very hard metal ceramic frame. Also 4344167 about shell and d
                  Garrard MRM101                         Noise detector employing plural delay circuits. Garrard Music Recovery Module for sup
                                                         MI Cartridge
                                                         Apparatus for removing warps or surface irregularities from polyvinyl phonograph records.
                  RP-7100 & RP-9100 (1981)               Automatic (programmable) record player. This idea (nonrecorded section detection sensor
                                                         Protective compositions for recording. Pardee wrote "Determination of Sliding Friction Be
                  Car Running Record Player              Record player for a stationary record disc. Car Running Record Player: toy automobile with
TTDD: EPC-205CMK3 etc               Damper made of an elastomer comprising a blend polymer of a silicone rubber polymer and
FR-7                                MC Cartridge (bobbin-less coils & 4 pole magnets)
                                    Electrodynamic transducer with longitudinally moving magnet
MC200(1981) etc                     Compact moving-coil pickup of low weight and high quality [square moving coil and ring m
MC-7, MC-3, MC-1000, MC-2000 etc MC Cartridge (V/H matrix, H-V matrix).
SL-10                               Jacket Size Record Player. Design Patent
                                    Phonograph pick-up cartridge
"Korvet"                            Tone arm: A viscous dynamic damping subassembly is designed to eliminate the main reso
                                    Turn table device for record players (Air Floating Platter for belt drive system)
Moerch UP-4                         Tone Arm. "The suspension of the tone arm is of the dual-bearing type where the vertical m
PL-70LII(1981)                      Arm pipe for record player tonearms (a composite material consisting of a thermoplastic re
EPC-300MC(1977)                     MC Cartridge with core-less twin-ring coils
Lustre GST-801                      Pickup Arm with Magnetic Application on Anti-skating & VTF
                                    Lever operated stylus guard. This paper contains reference to previous patents, but first two
SL-1300MKII & SP-15 etc             Speed control circuit for phase-locked loop motor drive systems. Fine adjustment speed co
V15 Type IV(1978) etc               Stabilizing and static removing attachment for phonograph pickup cartridge. Also De
Adaptor shell (SH-80S/SH-90S)       T4P mounting device. Adaptor shell for connecting T4P cartridge to arm with SME type co
Audio's Rock Reference & Elite Rock Damping of arm/cartridge. Front End Damping Trough
EPC-U205C III(1979) etc             Method of making boron cantilever (also 4212838, 4382454 and 4433408). Denon also
MC-1S & MC-1X(1978)                 MC cartridges (push-pull mode). Printed (photo-etching) aluminum-film coil on silicon pla
Lencomatic                          Linear track cleaner mounted on dust-cover. Corresponding patent applications DE265000
                                    Balanced input phonograph preamplifier circuit
                                    Stylus positioner tool with pointer for arm pivot
Exclusive & PL-50L/70L etc          Tone arm damping device. Damping of both horizontal and vertical vibration forces utilizin
Dynamic Servo Tracer                Arm driving device (horizontal/vertical coils): DP-100M(1981) and DP-57L(1982)=DP-62
                                    MC cartridge with replaceable stylus assembly
PL-L1(1978) & PL-L5(PL-L1000)       Linear-Tracking Pickup Arm Drive Assembly. Also 4253126, 4356560, 4404671 etc. A lin
PX-3(1981)                          Device for controlling pickup arm movement in linear tracking pickup arm apparatus. Desi
Protrac XLM etc                     Unitary phonograph cartridge and head assembly. Another patent No. 4165078 for Flip-up
Geodisc                             Cartridge alignment system: this variation of Dennessen utilizes a sight line or sight ridge w
2002e 530mp 630mp etc               Stereo phonograph cartridge. The elements were made of the piezoelectric material though
                                    Precision phonocartridge interface (measuring and tuning adaptor between arm cable and p
EPA-250 & EPA-500 arm systems       Pickup arm device. Exchangeable arm assy consisting of base system and exchangeable arm
AD-093/AE-341                       Self-propelled record cleaner (also 4360906)               Inventors working in Kyushu HIT
AP-D80 AP-D50                       Front loading type record player
                                    MM Cartridge (V/H matrix, H-V matrix) Also 4597071 by Ito etc assigned to Yamaha
                                    Linear tracking tone arm (arm moves on carriage by mechanical gravity balance shift on the
EEI Alignment Gauge                 Lateral Tracking Measuring/Alignment Tool for Arm (claim priority, application GB July 1
                                    Electromagnetic pickup cartridge (low cost magnet without center hole can be applied, inst
Final KKC-48                        Cartridge Equalizer. Dynamic Lateral Balancer to be equipped additionally on the shell nec
                                    Vertical tracking angle meter: Measuring instrument which extracts and directly displays th
                                    Passivating and silver removal method [in the processes of making Mother]. The term to "p
AT-30E/AT-31E etc                   MC cartridges with replaceable stylus assembly
                                    Stylus for Quadraphonic Reproducers (Also 4416005-1983)
P25MD/24 P25MD/35 P15MD             Electromagnetic transducers for converting mechanically acoustic events into alternating vo
TT-801& QL-A95                      Vacuum Turntable System for a Record Player (also 4234195 & 4493072): Optional Suctio
                                    Phonograph cartridge alignment. New alignment template.
XL-50 & XL-70                       MM Cartridge with delta-shaped jointless laminated core
                                    Rubber disc for a record player turntable
GM-1E                               MC cartridges with replaceable stylus assembly. Also 4272652
                                                          Pickup Cartridge of Movable Magnet Type. Also 4353125 etc
                      PC-5MC,PC-31MC,PC-41MC              MC cartridges with replaceable stylus assembly
                                                          Digital stylus force gauge
                                                          Electrodynamic pickup cartridge having simplified coil structure Also 4237347 (Two Movi
                                                          Cantilever and phonograph pickup cartridge. Cantilever pipe of a ceramic material compos
                                                          Record cleaner/conditioner using pad with container for volatile liquid: this is interesting be
                                                          Brushless DC Motor: common flat motor with two phase stator windings (4 coils) and
                        BSLT & VZ-V3 system(1981)         Both Sides Play Vertical Linear Tracking Player (two tonearms with two MM cartridges, o
 nt, but the inventors are mainly engineers of JVC)       Record disc playing apparatus having the function for correcting rotational irregularities du
                        PL10 (Universal-Einstell-Lehre)   Pickup adjusting equipment. The tool was supplied together with cartridge model P25MD s
                                                          Tone arm. Modified one-point bearing comprising of uni-pivot and ball bearing. A vertical
                        AT666EX                           Stabilizer for record discs: detachably placed on the turntable of a record player to hold a re
                        PC-50MC PC-70MC PC-41MC           MC cartridge: 4magnets and 6 poles (accurate alignment of stylus unit on cartridge body). A
                        V15VxMR &M97xE/Me97HE             Stylus protection mechanism: called as "Side guard stylus protection system"
                        TX-1000(1981) Dragon-CT(1983)     Method of correcting a position of a disk record on a turntable (Disk Centre Searchin
                                                          Record cleaning mechanism. This patent quotes interesting references invented by Wilson a
                        PS-X800(1981)                     Linear tracking arm drive apparatus
                                                          Linear Tracking System with pneumatic guideway
                        NAD 5120, TESLA NC470 etc         Dynamic vibration absorber for a phonograph tone arm. Also US4514838 & 4542494. Jiri
                                                          RIAA Equalizer circuit. An equalizer circuit is provided which has a high D.C. stability wit
                                                          Virtual ground preamplifier for magnetic phono cartridge (current amplifying method appli
                                                          Tubular beryllium phonograph needleshank and method of formation
                        XR-Q7(1981)                       Record player with vibration cancellation mechanism. Previous Patent 4425638 for Dual T
                                                          Method and apparatus for cleaning phonograph records(Vacuum Cleaning)
                        DMM (Neumann SX 84)               Apparatus and Method for cutting information into a metallic record carrier. Also 4538256
                        DL-301 & DL-300                   MC cartridge (Twin dampers and yoke-less magnet circuit). Further development from earl
                                                          Tonearm alignment gauge
                                                           etc
                        "Sound Burger"AT727/Nordmende/SabaMinimum-sized Portable (Battery Operated) Player. Design Patent D279755. There were si
                                                          Stereo phono pick-up and/or cutter
                                                          Aluminum-aluminum oxide stylus arm (=cantilever). The patent document is interesting on
                        HA-2, HA-3                        Small signal amplifying circuit for a pickup cartridge: first transistor incorporated within sh
                                                          Stylus (Micro-ridge etc)
                        PS-FL99                           Record player with automatic music search function
                        PL-X9 (1982)                      Bookshelf type player (turntable sliding in and out from case) see also 4450549(1984)
                                                          Method of and system for cutting a phonograph record with two-channel modulation. A sys
ro Design, Inc. (Montreal, CA)                            Magnetic pickup preamplifier
                        XL-MC5                            Moving coil type cartridge mounted on cantilever within central opening of ring magnet
abushiki Kaisha in Japan                                  Moving coil type pickup cartridge
                        Well-Tempered                     Tone Arm having a bifilar flexible ligament suspension for vertical and lateral displacemen
                        PL-88FS(1983)                     Dual drive system for phono pickup arm (programmed music selection). The prior art refer
 titute of Technology/Elite Townshed, Ltd.                Auto-offsetting apparatus on arm (programmed slot)
                                                          Air bearing straight line tracking phonograph tonearm
                                                          Audio signal amplifier for an electromagnetic phono cartridge (PU>Step-down Transforme
                        Talisman "Direct Field Focus"     MC with intensified field focus: 1) a rear magnet and a front magnet mounted in an axially
                                                          Apparatus for the injection moulding of disc records. Two matrices, each bearing modulat
                        Model 1.5 etc                     Tone Arm Assembly (unique alignment method). His previous patent 4587646(1986)abou
                                                          Kit for cleaning phonograph records (attachment on homeuse vacuum cleaner)
                        Well-Tempered                     Low-noise bearing for phonograph turntables and the like
                        ELM series(GP330/331/350/351)     Elongated phonograph pick-up head with snap-together construction. Also 4534022. ELM
                                                          Stylus
                      LT-1 and later products by ELP           Laser Turntable. Also 4972344(1990) for Dual Beam Optical Turntable. There were m
                                                               Magnetic system for a stereo pick-up with a movable coil
                                                               Disc reproducing system for compensating mechanical imperfections: his previous patent 4
                                                               Record optimizer system and method of utilization
                                                               Display case for phonograph album and record
                                                               Revival of Edison-type cylinder!!! [Cylinder instead of stylus vibrates as resonator/microph
                      PDX-2000mk2 & PDX-3000 etc.              Tone arm (straight arm without offset angle coupled with alignment design to reduce side f
                      TTX/TTX-1/TT200/TT500                    Tone arm assembly with interchangeable tone arm tube. Design Patent No. D433011(2000)
                      STR8-80 & T.80 etc                       Phonograph turntable with MIDI output
                                                               Method for reconstruction of phonograph records from physical measurement. Also 733041
                                                               Frictionless, non-destructive playback system for cylinder recordings [Laser pickup for cyli
                      Model DPS/2/Reference etc                Spring-suspension magnetically stabilized pick-up arm. Model 1& TA-1 have modification
                                                               Turntable with vertically adjustable platter. VTA between the stylus of the cartridge and the
of the University of California                                Metrological digital audio reconstruction. Audio information stored in the undulations of gr
                      Phantom series                           Method and apparatus for tone arm magnetic stabilization and damping system: satisfies the
                      Cobra                                    Tonearm: claim on the ornamental design for a tonearm
                                                               Phonograph tone arm mounting, decoupling, vertical tracking angle adjustment system, and
                                                               Tone arm assembly. It utilizes conventional thread and weight system combined with cam a




ear to it by proposing a determinant and find Bernoulli number before Bernoulli. Seki used a regular polygon (131072) and calculated pi to the 11th decim




ance that it is hard for them to believe that the world is filled with equally brilliant people.
e when one sits in the Patent Office Search Room for a day
s on any subject one can possibly conceive."
ds on drawing, but patent front page titled "Improvement in Phonograph or Speaking Machines"). His other patents on phonograph: 201760(Speaking Mac
Sounds. Disk with spiral groove type "phonogram", but commercial embodied model was wax cylinder type "Graphophone" see 341288 invented by T
(1887) for Gramophone (horizontal recording) was cylinder type. Disk type Gramophone was invented by W. Suess: US Patent No.427279(1890) and assi
Also 601198 for Gramophone and Actuating Device Therefor. Also 624625, 655556, 814786 & 951127 etc. Johnson was founder of Consolidated Talking

 x mold]. His patent 682992(1901) is reissued as RE012096. Also 1022100 about re-pressing (recycling) disk sound records
 ing Sound-Record Cylinders [by Electrodepositing metal on master record]. Also 657956, 666,937 & 750119 about celluloid cylinder. Ademor Napoleon
life needle made of hard small diameter rod core surrounded by or embedded in soft material. In 1915 Emerson started Emerson Phonograph Company fo
 r with pressing the disc in heated condition].
 roduced double-sided records. Some early Odeon labels refer to this patent.
ateral-cut groove of uniform depth consists of spoon-formed cutting stylus, advance pin (to regulate the depth of groove to be cut) and air-blast nozzle (con
records (cylinders). Mixture of metallic soap as stabilizer, carnauba as wax, lampblack as pigment etc.
duplication of matrix for lateral-cut disks). Also 785316 about unique duplicating method: recording on inner wall of cylinder and "nurling"=knurling blan
 ny invented 655195(1900): Gramophone Sound-Box for The National Gramophone Company in New York. In another patent 915936(1909), Cheney pro
ear Tracking Arm fed by worm gear so that worm gear must be interchanged in accordance with the pitch width of records]
und grooves with lead-in markings [The similar multigrooves were adopted later in some of toy phonographs - see also 3584881 assigned to Mattel etc]


 r thin flat flexible disc record)

  Stylus Tip). Hard record material such as Phenoric resin was experimented by Aylsworth so that there was a need for making hard stylus tip. Also 145668
e of fusible Phenol resin etc)
 tor regulating with eddy current disks)
y cylinder type though in patent 1234451 Edison indicated disk type mold.
d with new groove configurations (the walls of groove merging smoothly into the surface of the record). Also 1246652 about cutting tool for sound-recordi
ting sound box. In 1894 Charles and Émile Pathé built a small phonograph factory in a suburb of Paris and began to record singers as eminent as Mary Gar
aking sound-records for talking machines (Molding Die)
es received through horns are electrically mixed & recorded on Single Record Blank.

 -arm and tone-tube. Also co-inventor of 1293489

r both vertical & lateral records: projecting arm linked to stylus arm. Also 1324643:Adjustable Sound Box. Capps invented 570378-1896 (Spring Motor)
ove configurations seeking for standardization of lateral recording [the method of reforming any metal master record after recording is indicated: lapping, b


 records without the aid of heating and cooling mediums. Related patent 1307812(1919) by Errickson: Columbia disclaims patent of Errickson partially.
vious patent 1384295(1921) originally filed in France, May 17, 1918 is (one of) the earliest invention of electric pickups.
m; application not limited to phonograph)

 s, Brunswick sold the control of the record company to Warner Brothers]
eproducing). Dictaphone started as producer of dictation machine esp. for recording telephone and later produced various machines in timely formats (wax
me, no mention of specific 33.33rpm. He indicated 36-40rpm for synchronising motion picture)
 lus for cutting harder material than soft wax blank so that such recording without electro-plating and pressing can be repeatedly reproducible.
g transmitter=microphone capable of picking up 80-8,000Hz, amplifier, loud speaker=monitor and recording head with advance ball for lateral grooves)
rgy (Basic technology for electric recording and reproducing) Also 1645139, 1628666 and 1709571 etc.
  element and vibration-damping material)
onnection with radio receiving circuits) Also 1957512 Reproducer with superaudible frequency: Weinberger proposed grooves with high frequency carrier
  Phonograph] Also 1743251 Means for recording sound, 2113907 pickup, 2621260 Electric Phonograph(Cylinder) etc
 ication filed Nov. 15, 1919). The methods of reducing noises (by pre-emphasis on recording) or distortions (by compensation with opposite distortion on r
ke. 1974895 (Reproducer) was assigned to RCA in USA
erring sound from cylinder record to disc record. "It is known that a record upon wax cylinder gives in some respects more faithful reproduction of the reco
lus tip made by electroplating method: thin coating of nickel stripped from conical mandrel)


hragm in sound box is changed to electric transducer)
614133 In 1925 E.dward W. Kellog and Chester Rice developed coil-driven (dynamic) paper-cone speaker. Later when GE transferred their radio an
Also 1846871(arm) & 1934857 (pick-up)
ertical-cut of the finely grooved type ) Also 1778043, 1780409, 1804961, 1958386(pick-up for lateral-cut & vertical-cut record), 1980888 & 1992727 etc.
out Sound Reproducing Instrument
s). Jones invented 1746730, 1812634, 1918972 etc about Reproducer for hill-and-dale records. 1531252(1925) Electric Reproducer assigned to Wired Ra

  structure and coil are sealed in an oil filled casing by a flexible diaphragm. T-shaped armature supported by the diaphragm vibrate with it as the stylus flex
achine for making diamond stylus of small radius). There is description about vertical-cut fine groove (for example 450 threads per radial inch). The mi
 echanical energy or inversely [pole pieces comprising laminations of different alloy compositions to attain both DC permeability and AC permeability]. A
 ion motor with worm gear and governor: platter spindle separated from driving spindle so as to be isolated from mechanical and electric noises)
 835072 etc. He is more famous for his book "Look to Germany"="Sieh: das Hertz der Europas"(1937) in Hitler era.
 l (tungsten rod) is inserted and fused together into shank
 nsideration on lateral/vertical inertia and anti-skating device with spring)
es [Forerunner of Linear Tracking Arm]

e Crash of 1929, Victor Talking Machine Company merged with Radio Corporation of America to become RCA Victor.

-up applicable without any adjustment for either "lateral" or "hill-and-dale"records
 Company and Columbia Graphophone Company merged and formed Electric and Musical Industries (EMI).
 oride and vinyl acetate etc). In 1920 Union Carbide established Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation. Also refer to 2335986(1943 Vinyl Resin P


gs (esp. wax so that light vertical pressure less than 5g is intended). Also 2033284 (attachment to convert hill-and-dale reproducer to lateral reproducer)

ght tracking force 10g. Analysis of effective mass and stiffness etc.
e using moving coil and damping plate and viscous damping medium between the diaphragms).

e type) Also 1918271: Sound Recording and Reproducing System
 recording and reproducing).
els from single groove
double moving coils). Also 2027169 & 2133815 for hill and dale or lateral type of recordings, 2031948 Damping Device, 2105916 Sound Reproducing S
ucer for hill-and-dale records). Analysis on mechanical and electrical circuits to compensate frequency responses.

oil) for hill-and-dale-recording. Also 1990548, 2038216 about the support of recording head by stream of air instead of "advance ball" since "the mechanic

/Electric Recording & Reproducing System. More extensive descriptions are presented in GB394325(1933)
5/45 degrees stereophonic groove and equipment)
Later patents 2200866 & RE22183, 2213936, 2222342, 2239042, 2240321, 2250242, 2323257, 2354558, 2357033, 2369087, 2369088(Equalising), 2441
ea of equalization with pre-emphasis on recording and de-emphasis on reproduction to obtain flat response]
coil and feedback coil incorporated into vertical recording head). Relative patent 2162986(cutter amplifier) by Wiebusch
cording on film with stylus. Also 2173050. Related patent 2188687 by Lohn, 2154589 by Vermeulen etc.
 about turntable mechanism with variable speed, 2192998 about pickup
c Acid [for embossing]

ng on record cylinder). Also 2110092 Commercial Phonograph, 2057621 Dictating Machine.
ergy or inversely (Moving-conductor type pickup to be connected to transformer. cf RCA Inductor Microphones)
9808, 2399585 & 2480272 etc by Thompson and 2348660 by Stephan. Similar method was already shown in 1578645(1926) assigned to Western Electric
h sliding shoe or advance ball in order to reduce stylus pressure (less than 10g)


niversal reproducing stylus (2584922-1952) for Avco which bought Crosley in 1945.
 Also 2206636(1940) & 2217170(1940) etc
 records: forerunner of tracing simulator. Also 2122207(1938) & 2219930(1940)
ad using Bi-morph Rochelle Salt Element). Also 2343417 about phonograph pickup: Kornei's reported about elastic contact of spherical tip on the middle
 io-Frequency Compensator Circuit in consideration of high frequency loss due to groove radius.
 . Moving Coil System. Also 2792456
oposed exponential curved V groove suitable for lateral recordings to reduce pinch effect. Also 2310048 about vibration translating system
71,2261616, 2313324 & 2348526 about crystal pickups, 2222552&2342457&2346733&2363655 about Tone Arm, 2145389 about Arm and pickup, 2197
mpensating the loss of high frequencies due to groove radius [Inner start & 33.3rpm transcription disk]. Also 2311385 (combination of hill-and-dale opera
rsion Bar Form) Also 2381861, 2455913 & 2461475(stylus arm) and 2583289 etc




or lateral type of recordings
f Recording Head is driven by the centre of turntable)
sp. for Home Recording]
 ents 2077388, 2094201, 2107050 etc by Bender assigned to same company use a strip of film as recording medium.
 ed Reproducer). Also 2239717etc. Frederick Vinton Hunt (1905-1972), a professor at Harvard University about acoustics, wrote together with his colleag

 head) with peculiar suspension suitable for lateral & hill-and-dale movements. Also 2386089. 2410329(1946) with powdered iron core by Albright is also

amonds or other stones and the like (showing machine tool for making elliptic tip). Also see 671830-1901 & 835964-1906 by Loesser about Machine for S

AUDOGRAPH is recording with constant groove speed like CD using soft vinyl disc sandwiched between two wheels. Also related patents 2410607, 25638
 equency Waves. Also 2475200 about signal recording apparatus, 2491215 about recording head with advance ball
 2415681(VR type) for GE.
pickup) Also 2542457. Newspaper "The Tech" dated February 7, 1950 titled "Churchill Repairs English Language"indicating Churchill's misuse of "me" in
E23327(1951) Damper-less type (suspension/flexibility is obtained by reed) and 2581551, 2595561, 2622156 etc
 type pickup), 2388578(Record Reproducing System including electric circuit) etc
  pe. In 1944 Snepvangers moved to CBS Laboratories for LP project and later in 1958 joined in Fairchild Recording Equipment Corporation.


ound track). Related patent 2534735 &2588327(Recording Head). Yerkovich's patents 2318828 & 2371116 assigned to Dictaphone show full details of di
mbly) =GB615421-615424. Another GB586900 by O'Brien (American) is also shown on the metallic cover of Type D.
o 2531689: Electrical Translating Means and Variable-Inductor Transducer Therefor. Pickup Signal transmitted by antenna and received by radio rec
of coil=ribbon type?) In 1945, the Crosley interests were purchased by Aviation Corporation. The radio and appliance manufacturing arm changed its name


2456388, 2508753, 2547441 etc. Lionel B. Cornwell worked as chief engineer for Cinaudagraph Corporation.
so 2415403 & 2511664 (idea similar to ancient telephone pickup)
onograph records. Also 2516919(1950): Electrodynamic Phonograph Pickup
armature [MM type pickup in SP era]
armature [MM type pickup in SP era] Why has this patent application same title as above?
ecttric pickup.. The Aviation Corporation later changed its name to Avco Manufacturing Corporation, and then in 1959 to Avco Corporation. In 1986 Avc
 man was invited to Columbia Broadcasting System for LP project.
he driving member to the translating element. Also 2486099

Garrard Zero series. See also later patent by Klein 2983517(1961). For information, Garrard (Plessey) arm design was based on GB 1342739 (app
 atent 2519185. The Brush Development Company in Cleveland was engaged in applying piezoelectric device on underwater acoustics during 2nd World W
ayer. Lloyd J. ANDREAS invented various stylus (2326424, 2502242, 2599312, 2771295) and arm (2681228) and needle wear comparator (2740296) etc

 ng facet angles) Earlier patent 2187512-1940 by Frank L. Capps is almost standardised while this later patent about two step facets is not realised
 utter head with feedback coil). In 2746130 Davis showed method of securing heating conductor to stylus applicable to Westrex Model 2A.

 stylus assembly. Also 2538164 cartridge, 2545859 dual styli
ems and difficulty of tracing on new "microgroove" records.

 Record Players. Also 2554208 about improvement of cantilever, 2557752 about cartridge mounting with connector. 2748199, 2776342, 2820853, 30476
airs of pole pieces. Also 2388116
onverting System Therefor. Also 2567105 (Crystal Pickup)


erences of records between the past and present or between USA and England. Also 2686679
d vertically on elongated core which is supported with dampers on vertical axis. Coil windings and pivot were modified later by Anneberg etc as per GB7

 raph Records and the like.
ated hollow or tubular piezoelectric element to protect dielectric element from breakage). Related patents 2484950
Robinson Sugden started "Connoisseur" brand for consumer products.




patent 2628104 by Shardlow assigned to RCA
 fancy at the time, but now it can be embodied?) Related patent 2594759(1952) by Fischer


ned Arm Mounting for anti-skating: "Since the tracking instability is greatest for the outmost sound groove, it is advantageous to tilt the axis of rotation in

 vement on Masterson's patent 2560358 assigned to RCA)
 ith protective tusk for stylus: low tracking force suitable for LP). Also 2565586 & 2583289(stylus) & 2652260etc. "Vertical" in comparison with previous
eory). His another patent 3622163(1971) Linear Tracking Arm and 3301565(1967) Suspended cartridge and Inclined Arm/Turntable Base for anti-skating
d for LP and SP (Turnover type cartridge)


 [wheel rubber driven by intermediate wheel and rotary members are interconnected by a single belt] Also 2684248(record player with an automatic record
all Damping Suspension to insure the cutting of grooves of substantially uniform depth)
playing on larger hole, the hub portion may be broken away within indentations.


These have good reference to previous patents since SP era. Also 3662051(1972)
 ectricity from records
e using bimorph piezoelectric plates) Also 2771514, 3089922. Related patents 2938966 by Spencer and 3067296 by Heinlein about piezoelectric element


 both coarse & fine grooves) Similar idea was already presented by Graupner and Gullner in Germany (German Patent 885163-1953: Universal-Doppelna
Faces synchronised). Daniel P. Doncaster invented practical patents for CBS: 2646283, 2873978, 2951705, 3044783 etc.


  driven by moving coil)
 hape itself is amplifying sound mechanically without using diaphragm of sound box)
 tylus (Recording on plastic belt)


 s turn-over type for LP/SP use=universal) Also 2601126: Universal Tone Arm
lso as ribbon type). This idea is not new (for example 1916162-1933 invented by Parker and assigned to Pacent Electric Company used U-shape copper st
e faces (Also 2950116)

o by changing connection)
 ic type since this patent was applied in 1953 before 45/45 stereo era)
  c Cartridge). Also 2881005 by Michalko and Faillace
ups. Also 3043920 (Permanent Magnetized Rotor on pivot)

 ion) Also 2849239, 2955170, 2955216, 3177300, 3182136 and much later patent 3952171(1976) to Micro-Acoustics
 uto-return and re-set mechanism

 patent 3377439 for Erie Technological Products which had been manufacturing resistors & ceramic condensors (in 1980 company was sold to Murata Ma
 ecording grooves (Scully Automatic Recoding Machine had already variable pitch control)
 mechanical rumble filter
ecial shape of shank base suitable for bonding diamond tips). His another patent 2992007(1961) about titanium shank for bonding a diamond tip with solde
ording (Cutting head for L/V two channels) Also 3014992(Cutting head) & 3390888 (Cutting stylus)
h) Also 2977424 & 2792454 & 2792455


Arm suitable for the use on a movable vehicle)

 mechanism to set arm to the first groove of each record size.
mic Damping Theory developed by B.B. Bauer

 rix to comply with 45/45 system). Bayliff invented 4100371(Loudspeaker system with phase difference compensation) for Decca Limited

ng. Also design patent D183546-1958

y of phonograph records and metal phonograph stampers]. In producing a stamper, the center hole is obliterated during the plating process: necessary to pu
or piezoelectric stereo cartridge]
 roducing circuit for L/V type variable capacitance cartridge to make applicable to any type of modulations(45/45 & L/V). In monophonic era (1950), P. W
 t amplitude&velocity limiter or expander for stereophonic recording system

 ng Magnet (Monophonic)
nter invented also 3067292: Stereophonic Sound Transmission & Reproduction (forerunner of CD-4 using FM technology)
("microfusion" method using pulverised resin instead of pre-mixed lump/biscuit/cake). His binaural records with two concentric grooves were produced in
RA-498 by Stromberg-Carlson utilized viscous damping material in the trough of arm pivot suspension (forerunner to Decca/Keith Monks). His another pa
Vertical coil assembly in his another patent 3018336(1962) resembled to Ortofon Type A(2591996-1952) while this new patent had "cross coils" wound o
hanical Element=Piezoelectric?)
r patent 3167317 by Percy Wilson). John Walton worked also for The Decca Record Company in England and reported many articles to AES during 1960


e) with offset around 18degrees at cantilever to be coupled with M12/M16 professional arms-see patent 2983516
lectric) Similar patent 3523690 by Vanderkoppel was assigned to Electro-Voice.
 oving Magnet type cartridge with unique suspension. He invented capacity pickup and assigned many patents (2397888 &2417712& 2426061etc) to RCA
t Stylus Therefor. Also 2937243, 3015703, 3047677(Stereophonic pickup), 3118978, 3219764 etc

Pitch and Depth Control).
 applied for German patent No. 1105628 with priority date 30 Nov. 1957 (publication 27 April, 1961) and its US patent 3463889 (filing date Oct. 2

ype piezoelectric transducer by pasting two elements. This type stereo cartridge was produced in 1960 - I feel a Japanese joke in SHIGACUT (di


ing in modulating systems having pre-emphasis means
nd Reproducing System

 eedback for the recording and reproduction of sound waves
s). Westrex Corp was a wholly-owned subsidiary of Litton Industries since 1956 and the successor to Western Electric's cinema sound business un


r of the Gramophone wrote "Needle-Track Alignment" in 1924 and also designed record cleaning machine (based on which Keith Monks and Loricraft etc
ar once proposed by Alberheim in 2310049-1943)
elonging to IM/MI type pickup]

 ers, mothers and stampers


 piezoelectric elements). Hammond invented also 3429580 tone arm mechanism for V-M Corporation

onic cutters or pickups)
tyli on cantilever=stylus turnover for piezoelectric pickup)
g cantilevers each with stylus for LP or SP).

same (bonded tip forming is shown in detail)
 Also 3022384, 3136554, 3136555, 3178520, 3514550, 3525528 etc. Also 2825763(1958) for Monophonic Piezoelectric Pickup
 was already invented by Kellog of RCA 2324214-1943
 ng or expanding in accordance with loudness level. "Sound signal translating system wherein high level sounds may be translated and reproduced at relati
distortions on playback. Related patent 2960568 by Leyton assigned to RCA : Tape Reproducing System.


 e by sliding the weight on the arm wand. His another patent 3309094 for Phonographic Turntable Assembly

 5 type cutter head) See also 3194896 (Stereophonic Transducer with adjustable feedback coils)

us beam (piezoelectric element is inherently stiff and heavy, hence beam is designed to have reduced mechanical impedance for better performance) Also 3
 onductor Photoelectric Cell: germanium transistor)
 ne by one from separate stack of records without stacking the records on the turntable thus avoiding the height difference at stylus point] Earlier patents: 2
 ity, application GB July 1962)


 ew Construction of MM type).

  & MC with low moving mass. SP7/9 were plug-ins for B&O arm
 nclined arm base & cartridge suspension)
 device applied on 1019 looks much refined/modified from original drawing.
  -shape weight). Edmund Walter MORTIMER invented stylus pressure gauge Model SPG 2 in US2687643(GB701462).

 phone Records. Also 3264386
 miconductive Piezoresistive Transducer. Engineers (Wood and Grover) of Euphonics Corporation reported in AES Convention (Oct.1965):"In October of
MM cartridges Also 3349194 about off center mounting of armature

 nt. Original title: Appratus for recording sound on or reproducing sound from disc records.
 us assembly for phonograph records
 pphire or ruby crystal). Crystalline orientation with respect to the direction of rubbing between stylus and record for extended life time of corundum tip.
 nd lever with spring. Also 3492006 about the location of Lateral Balance Weight. Shimoda was working for Toho Machine Co., Ltd which has been engag

". Also 3131800(1964) by Osborne for Coin Controlled Phonograph and 3734512 for Tonearm Assembly for Automatic Phonograph
142786(patented 1964, applied 1960) about round coil of aluminum ribbon wire (10x100microns) for MC cartridges [later models since M6-45 are said to

 ensation for reproduction errors. Tracing Simulator/Compensator

odulated Groove Sound Recording

 lus mass (showing electrically equivalent circuit for mechanical piezoelectric element and damper)
 ating third order distortions. Tracing Simulator for 3rd harmonic distortion in addition to previous method (2nd harmonic distortion compensating upon re

 with pneumatic power from turntable motor air-pressure
  compliance of which is adjustable at user's end to match with tone arm mass)
 by successive differentiation. Tracing compensator in recording to reduce pinch effect in reproducing with conventional spherical stylus.
  uid is made of distilled water and detergent or distilled water and ethyl alcohol=ethanol).
 ibing the method to reduce the difference between VMA and VTA by determining springback value and effect.
 er for antiskating). Antiskating Force is obtained simultaneously with tracking force by means of a synchronized cam. P+E merged into DUAL in 1971.

netic control of arm) Also 3689079(1972) etc




 settable compliance. Also 3527900 & 3426163

unner to Van den Hul type with constant radius of curvature=edge. Included angle 60-65degrees and arcuate chord distance 0.9mil of radius 0.7mil for bott
mature (unique stylus holder knob was intended preliminarily for optimum stylus pressure). Also refer to 3908096 invented by Furuya and assign

 honograph Pickup with replaceable stylus assembly
pring suspension. In 1968 Rabinow formed the RABCO company to manufacture straight-line phonographs, and the company was later bought out by Har

magnet of platinum-cobalt alloy. A pipe of magnetic conductor is provided to reinforce the coupling between stylus arm and the magnet and at the same tim
ad for piezoelectric element coupling, support and damping [Stylus Turnover Piezoelectric Type]. Also 3699268
net (for ex. thickness 0.5mmx 2mm square/diameter). Windings are wound on the centre leg of E-shaped core. Also multi-layered cantilever is shown.
el surround. Also 3746792-1973(Multidirectional Sound System) & 3959590-1976(Stereophonic Sound System) & 5857016-1997(Space-mapping soun


SME arms: side thrust is compensated by inclination of pivotal axis.)
honograph Pickup with replaceable stylus assembly and one common pole piece


 "Beam-Of-Light Pickup"). Also 3534181 invented by Zimmermann
wings for armature constructions: some are too complicated so that the simplest is realized?)
 C-4100 was forerunner of detachable/replaceable stylus assy for MC system.
 r for Avnet=B.I.C.turntables and arms.
4586(1972) toroidal armature, 3881073(1975), 4031336(1977) and 4174111(1979) cantilever anchor suspension
e 1971 have been much simplified (without skewed stator slot) in order to make winding the stator easy - see US Patent 3860843(1975)
 System. Preceding Patent 3401237(1968):"Simultaneous Recording of Two Signals per Channel" invented by Kenjiro TAKAYANAGI (famous i

 sub-motor for arm control)
dge: The armature acts as a variable magnetic load conveying stylus movements. Patent reissued in 1977 under RE 29232. Also 3878342: Replace
ation 42/53200 year 1967)
 eisuke Shimoda once invented patents 3388912/3492006 for Sony

 lever (Electret Condenser type cartridge)

up) His previous patent 3649775 was assigned to Sony.

n. 43/57408 year 1968)

3784744, 3875338 about decoders, 3890466 about encoders

nel reproduction. Its line contact profile (a curve of large radius of curvature in its parts in contact with a record groove in a vertical section) is easy to be o
 nt Magnets inside of Arm Pillar)
f the Output Channels. Also 3883692 In 1968 Sony started a joint company CBS-Sony Record Company in Japan.
 ransmissions. Matrix 4 channel surround. Also RE29171(3777076), 3783192, 3825684, 3836715, 3887770, 3892918, 3934086, 3952157, 3982069, 4021
 y a hard solder to a shaft


 y. Maybe the first model of pivot suspension using flexible cords.

 nd Depth control in consideration of reproducing stylus profile

 g magnet pivotally supported on the rear end of needle holder: one-point pivot and receptacle both made of hard jewel in order to have definitive fulcrum)

t in XL-35 and XL-45 was carbon-clad aluminum cantilever. Related patents for XL-35/45: 3987255 about generating system and 3992017 about cone typ
-clad shell is based on another patent 3957272 invented by Yasuda and assigned to Sony: "the carbonaceous fibers bonded together by a synthetic resin an
e coated with a film of silicon carbide or boron carbide thereon.
 ress tools for the production of hot-pressed plastic material products, especially grammophone records
 for reproducing discrete CD-4 four-channel stereo disc (esp. automatic muting circuit)

 tude controlled by stylus arm position. Signal amplitude limiting toward inner (softer operation than tracing simulators).


also 3965520 Brush and cleaning composition for phonograph records)
tric cartridge) Also 4326285-1982 (new design of damper)
 ever pipe, main magnet axial at the end of poles, other two magnets for flux balancing at side. Unique double dampers [forerunner of Shure's "selective da

ve tape peeling off after use). The idea is not new: in 1959 Joseph NOGUERAinvented similar product for MILTY in GB891740.

whose periphery carries a porous vacuum vapor deposited beryllium layer
 ffsetting & anti-skating mechanism)
 obbin) Japanese Patent Application S49-85387(Publication S51-014002)
and reproducing modulated information in tetraphony: 2separate grooves 4 channels. His other patents 2437997,2458346,2488763&2506441about cinema
 cal beam and sensor for size select)
d also 3949995(needle control-unique dynamic arm with two springs for side and down forces) & 4004816(programmer for record player) for Avnet, Inc i
 con semiconductors pickups structure with higher separation and usable for discrete 4 channels]
angential to cantilever.
d on the inner surface of the turntable so as to be disposed in a state alternately opposite in polarity and a plurality of coils provided on a stationary substrat
  reproducing system with crosstalk compensation means. Also 3985978. Improved discrete 4 channel system named as UM system=UMX:"UNIVERSAL

g arms. Using photocell for controlling arms.
 es of the mat may be enhanced by providing solid particles which float in the viscous liquid. Also 4079946
-charged surfaces. British Patent GB1500492-1978(first filed 9 March 1974) carries following amendment note: "By a direction given under Section 17(1)

 bly of Low Mass. Pritchard left ADC and started Sonic Research Corp. around 1975. Also 4067582 about stylus suspension
 of yoke) looking like mixture of MM, IM and MC
  electro-magnetic counterbalance and VTF system. This patent is also registered in Japan (S51-23702 in 1976) by Strathearn.
 pole piece. Also 4456984(1984)
ne Point Cross Suspension System")
 record disc recording system)
 nd a disk-shaped armature (called as tri-pole armature): patented in Japan, Canada, GB, Germany and USA.
 ds. Automated record press incorporated with trimming the flash around the edge of the disc. This contains good reference to previous patents in
 eissue RE29730-1978) invented by Miyoshi about record player operating "six cycles by rotating the index wheel until the number "6" appears on the view
His other patent 4007939, 4083565, 4139200 etc.

ario Pulley" for auto player.
ith pressing and intermediate members for coupling

ilm of magnetic fluid lubricant material between the bearing surfaces
ecords. [Arm type record cleaner: brush inclined 35degrees from record plane enabling scouring liquid to pass down into the groove at least partially towar
 lso 4011417). Unique construction having merit of MM/IM/MC. Also see Design patent D266504(1982) assigned to The Astatic Corporation (cartridge m
3761647: current AT clip-on stylus holders for VM stylus assembly
ble speed: proposing constant linear velocity of turntable as later CD player.
n oil+spring incorporated in balance weight: its damping character is adjusted by turning the control knob with magnet)
 urn force is obtained by gear coupled to spindle motor). Also 4098512 & 4106775 by Takizawa assigned to Sony
er that the electric potentials generated in diametrically opposite coils are added together. Also related patent No. 4410975(1983) about improved damper
  affix stylus holder (Patent in Japan 15/7/1975: 50-86422) Also 4179589 about cantilever suspension
  obtain constant torque=called as "Unitorque motor") Also 4109170 & 4260920 etc
(Design Patent D253410 by Sasaki 1979 for DA-307).
of tone arm with coil and magnet)


gura developed 4-channel stylus PM type different from Shibata(JVC).
 ording medium (a cutting stylus with non static electricity structure to avoid sticking the chip cuts to groove) Also 4212471(1980)

e bands (maybe first example using LED and photodetectors along cartridge), Also 4119844 for sensor built-in cartridge

 . Related patent 4153257 is for a turntable to enable playback of record matrices and stampers. The turntable rotates in the direction opposite that of a con
with a stator assembly with a first plurality of pairs of primary pole pieces each pair constituted by a first metal part for the energization by an in-phase cur
nic cutoff response Also 4032885
  Eddy current damper and dynamic mechanical damper are applied on the main arm of DV-505 while additional eddy current damper for sub arm as indica

ate to pole rod junction. Also 4054758 for cartridge damper [AKG-TS-system: TS stands for Transversal Suspension]
 fied from this patent: first embodiment AT34 with 180degrees reverse location of coils while later models have V shape bobbins connected to the end of c
 ive rubber roller washable after use)
player incorporating electronic anti-skating etc). Also 4158459 for the arm weight device to provide a low profile pick-up arm. Also 4266783:Control mec
 up arm type (using optical sensor devices)
d arm as "BIOTRACER" looks related to later patents 4184688, 4214756, 4214757, 4240641, 4241926 etc.
 ion. Also 4220341(Pickup) & 4145582(MC cartridge with square magnetic armature) Nakatsuka visited Ortofon around 1975 and assisted in developmen
bly. "The tube is crimped along a circular crimp line engaging the damper intermediate the forward and rear edges with the portions of the damper that do
 ole piece construction




  patents by SCULLY with WESTREX/TELDEC with NEUMANN etc.
  front of coils which are driven by coaxial ring magnet. Any yoke for producing parallel magnetic field as in the prior art is not required and the pickup can
 raph record (Phonograph-Tape synchro Mechanism) similar to patent by Sony 3906169(1975). Synchro function was popular in '80s.
 by magnets (and/or coil as shown in next patent 4170362)

oto designed another arm D257534(1980) with new counter weight system
o BSR group at this time. Another patent by Leech for Pico Electronics (USP4170359: auto changer mechanism) is related to belt-driven Accutrac 2000 &

nograph record player.

 ce bearing and inertial damper fabricated from different materials. Allen R. Groh presented an article entitled "The Dynamic Vibration Absorber Principle
 nograph records. Similar US Patent No.4378597/4455636 were invented by Lion Corporation and embodied in Nagaoka/Jeweltone "RECOPACK".
  "tip damper") to prevent entry of foreign matters such as moisture or dust into the cartridge casing. Electret condenser-type cartridge CP-Y is shown in Fi
ollow) coils without any yoke to prevent the generation of magnetic distortion by a yoke.
5(1981) and 4374433(1983) and 4532620(1985)
 of disc record tone arms. Also 4131284
 ording medium (anti-static diamond cutting stylus prevents cut chip from adhering to stylus and groove) Also 4105213(1978) by Owaki etc of JVC.
amic frame. Also 4344167 about shell and damping therefor
 ts. Garrard Music Recovery Module for suppressing scratch noise upon playing records. Similar method was also presented in US patent 4208634-1980 in

ularities from polyvinyl phonograph records. "The apparatus includes a plurality of plate-like members which are used to engage with the lead-in lips and/o
 idea (nonrecorded section detection sensor =LED+optical sensor mounted on arm head) might be developed from earlier US Patent 4226425: Nonrecorde
wrote "Determination of Sliding Friction Between Stylus and Record Groove" in JAES December 1981 and "Comments on -Determination of Sliding Fric
 Running Record Player: toy automobile with stylus for tracing and playing back sound from disk. Also 4284279
 nd polymer of a silicone rubber polymer and polyisobutylene. TTDD=Technics Temperature Defense Damper


d high quality [square moving coil and ring magnet]. Also 4310917 about damping device consisting of a disc shaped inertia body clamped between two ru




embly is designed to eliminate the main resonance frequency of the tone arm and includes a hollow casing rigidly affixed to the lever. "Korvet"arm by A. L
 ng Platter for belt drive system)
of the dual-bearing type where the vertical movement of the arm takes place around two bearings, characterized in that the mid-point between said bearing
site material consisting of a thermoplastic resin and graphite powder). Also 4269416: Head shell for record player tonearms (a composite material consistin


ns reference to previous patents, but first two references are Design patents assigned to Shure in 1975 (not 1875)!
 tor drive systems. Fine adjustment speed control circuit for Quartz-locked motor.
 or phonograph pickup cartridge. Also Design Patent D252628 by Wellwood and Deschamps
cting T4P cartridge to arm with SME type connector is shown. Also see 4571717(1986) assigned to Audio-Technica about T4P mounting adaptor for shell

12838, 4382454 and 4433408). Denon also made boron cantilever for DL-305 etc by chemical vapor deposition: Japanese Patent JP1109750 propo
o-etching) aluminum-film coil on silicon plate.
orresponding patent applications DE2650004/GB1565305/JP53057001 were assigned to Lenco by Rudolf LAENG. There were a few variations for Lenco


orizontal and vertical vibration forces utilizing a single damping mechanism around arm pivot assembly.
DP-100M(1981) and DP-57L(1982)=DP-62L? DP-59L(1984) etc.

 Also 4253126, 4356560, 4404671 etc. A linear motor direct-drive arm on two guide bars. Its unique jog dial "REMOTE OPERATION/CONTROL KNO
n linear tracking pickup arm apparatus. Design Patent D268028(1983) for PX-2(1979) is also adopted on PX-3(1981) with small modifications
 ly. Another patent No. 4165078 for Flip-up stylus protector with magnifying lens on it. Also 4340957
 ennessen utilizes a sight line or sight ridge which is aimed at the pivot point for the tone arm instead of pointer.
  e made of the piezoelectric material though quoted as electrets in commercial documents - maybe it is reasonable since its electrical equivalent circuit is si
 and tuning adaptor between arm cable and phonoamp) In 1972, at a meeting in Europe, eight people representing companies in the USA, UK, France, Swi
nsisting of base system and exchangeable arm unit with counter weight.
            Inventors working in Kyushu HITACHI Maxell so that various models were supplied from Lo-D(HITACHI) and Maxell(Battery brand of HITA

 4597071 by Ito etc assigned to Yamaha
ge by mechanical gravity balance shift on the uneven parallel bars)
 r Arm (claim priority, application GB July 1979)
gnet without center hole can be applied, instead special magnet holder is used)
  to be equipped additionally on the shell neck - funniest patent I ever see. It is based on the theory presented by Iyeta: US Patent 4113265: Tone pickup ar
 ment which extracts and directly displays the vertical tracking angle of a phonograph pickup during playback of a known test record signal, and which also
processes of making Mother]. The term to "passivate" means to treat a metal surface so that a metallic coating can be applied to the treated surface and sub


chanically acoustic events into alternating voltages. [MI/IM cartridge using ring magnet similar to Ortofon VMS] Also 4512009 new damper developed fu
 (also 4234195 & 4493072): Optional Suction Pump Unit="Turbo-Disk-Stabiliser"This idea itself is not new (see 4065135-1977 by Doughty, 3608909-19
fied coil structure Also 4237347 (Two Moving Magnets)
antilever pipe of a ceramic material composed mainly of aluminum oxide
 ainer for volatile liquid: this is interesting because of criticism on prior arts. Also 416626 & D259911
th two phase stator windings (4 coils) and 2 hall elements and 8 poles rotor magnet Also 4135120(1979)&4220879(1980) invented by Hosimi and a
er (two tonearms with two MM cartridges, one on each side of the record to allow the continuous playback of both sides).
ion for correcting rotational irregularities due to record disc eccentricity. Angular velocity is controlled electrically in accordance with the eccentric ratio.
 lied together with cartridge model P25MD series.
ing of uni-pivot and ball bearing. A vertical pivot attached to one of the bases and cooperating with a spherical thrust bearing in the other base, and a ball m
n the turntable of a record player to hold a record disc placed thereon by attraction (by vacuum pump).
alignment of stylus unit on cartridge body). Also 4327433 & 4519063
e guard stylus protection system"
 ord on a turntable (Disk Centre Searching Mechanism). Earlier patent 3481609 invented by Lukens is more illustrative about the eccentricity of record
s interesting references invented by Wilson and Meyers for Metrosound Audio Products Ltd in UK. Also 3945647 [cleaning machine using endless belt dr


one arm. Also US4514838 & 4542494. Jiri JANDA invented FLAT TONE ARM, for which patent was applied worldwide though never patented.
 provided which has a high D.C. stability without degrading the equalization characteristic.
o cartridge (current amplifying method applied on magnetic cartridges)
d method of formation
 anism. Previous Patent 4425638 for Dual Turntable for cancellation.!
  records(Vacuum Cleaning)
into a metallic record carrier. Also 4538256, 4248438 4531207 & 4748612(diamond stylus)
gnet circuit). Further development from earlier patent 4455639 by Aoki and 4161631by Matsuda etc.

ayer. Design Patent D279755. There were similar products from Sony: battery operated "Flamingo"PS-F9 with Dynamic Balanced Linear Tracking Arm &

ever). The patent document is interesting only for other references in the past.
tridge: first transistor incorporated within shell as "Satellite" for head amplifier.


 out from case) see also 4450549(1984)
h record with two-channel modulation. A system for controlling the mean depth and spacing of V-grooves

ver within central opening of ring magnet

spension for vertical and lateral displacement
 ammed music selection). The prior art reference No. 4230324 is incorrect. Correct number should be 4230323-1980 (SHARP). Optical music selection id


phono cartridge (PU>Step-down Transformer>Current-voltage conversion stage)
 et and a front magnet mounted in an axially juxtaposed manner within a support sleeve so as to define therewith a magnetic field chamber 2) higher output
 ecords. Two matrices, each bearing modulation to form a microgroove disc record, are fixed to half-moulds by means of sleeves, having first and second
d). His previous patent 4587646(1986)about same uni-pivot arm
nt on homeuse vacuum cleaner)

 together construction. Also 4534022. ELM (Extra Light Mass 3g) series cartridges appeared around 1984
 al Beam Optical Turntable. There were many attempts before Stoddard - see US Patent 3,325,603(1963) by Rabinow etc: "Stereo Record Player Using

chanical imperfections: his previous patent 4918678 contains many related references (full history of vain attempts to reduce distortions caused by warp etc


 stead of stylus vibrates as resonator/microphone]
upled with alignment design to reduce side forces during DJ play. ASTS: anti-skipping tonearm system).
arm tube. Design Patent No. D433011(2000). See also straight non-offset arm D494158(2004) for disc jockey turntable D491915(2004)

ds from physical measurement. Also 7330414(2008)
or cylinder recordings [Laser pickup for cylinder or a 33, 45 or 78 RPM record]
-up arm. Model 1& TA-1 have modification around suspension of arm (two strings & flat magnets)
A between the stylus of the cartridge and the record can be easily adjusted without tweaking or touching the tone arm
o information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with little or no contact, by measuring
abilization and damping system: satisfies the need for achieving neutral balance and stabilization for unipivot tone arm assemblies including antiskating m

ertical tracking angle adjustment system, and vertical guide system
 ead and weight system combined with cam as an anti-skate mechanism and claims that "the anti-skate force applied to the stylus is uneven resulting in app




 131072) and calculated pi to the 11th decimal place.
 her patents on phonograph: 201760(Speaking Machine), 227679(Phonograph), 386974(Mechanical improvement with motor), 393967, 400650 (Collapsib
der type "Graphophone" see 341288 invented by Tainter. Also 341212,341287(magnetic disk recording), 374133(paper cylinder), 375579, 380535, 38588
by W. Suess: US Patent No.427279(1890) and assigned to Emile Berliner though Berliner in 382790(1888) already proposed solid resisting material (wax)
 etc. Johnson was founder of Consolidated Talking Machine Company in 1900 which became Victor Talking Machine Company in 1901. Victor Talking M


50119 about celluloid cylinder. Ademor Napoleon Petit worked also for Edison.
Emerson started Emerson Phonograph Company for producing his label "Emerson Record".


 depth of groove to be cut) and air-blast nozzle (contrary to modern suction nozzle). Basic recording method is almost established in this mechanical (sound

inner wall of cylinder and "nurling"=knurling blank cylinder by rolling reversal matrix. Also 1107502
York. In another patent 915936(1909), Cheney proposed unique groove and forked stylus to trace two V grooves at once (sound is recorded at land).

 aphs - see also 3584881 assigned to Mattel etc]




was a need for making hard stylus tip. Also 1456687 Stylus Mounting




 Also 1246652 about cutting tool for sound-recording machines.
 nd began to record singers as eminent as Mary Garden.




 ox. Capps invented 570378-1896 (Spring Motor) for The National Phonograph Company, 727921-1903(Automatic Sound Recorder) & 783420 for Amer
master record after recording is indicated: lapping, brushing, polishing, burnishing the surface of master or reforming the sharp corner of groove by spinning


 olumbia disclaims patent of Errickson partially.
 n of electric pickups.




 produced various machines in timely formats (wax cylinder/plastic belt/magnetic tape etc).

essing can be repeatedly reproducible.
 ding head with advance ball for lateral grooves)


 erger proposed grooves with high frequency carrier of AM for broadcasting phonograph playback sound directly.
ons (by compensation with opposite distortion on recording or reproducing) are indicated. Also 1661793 & 1685913

ome respects more faithful reproduction of the recorded sounds than a record cut upon a disc, and the proposal has been made..to transfer...from the cylind




 speaker. Later when GE transferred their radio and allied work to RCA, Dr. Kellog also went to RCA.

ut & vertical-cut record), 1980888 & 1992727 etc. 1992727 was assigned to ATT. His early patents: 1595978(1926) & 1745776(1930) about pickup switc

2(1925) Electric Reproducer assigned to Wired Radio Inc.

 d by the diaphragm vibrate with it as the stylus flexes the diaphragm about its diameter".
  (for example 450 threads per radial inch). The minute record groove was first experimented around 1930 for vertical-cut records.
ain both DC permeability and AC permeability]. Another patent 2108275(1938) by Roelof Vermeulen and Arend Thomas was assigned to Philips in Nethe
 ed from mechanical and electric noises)




 ration. Also refer to 2335986(1943 Vinyl Resin Phonograph Record). 1956837(1934) by Schmidt indicated application of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Aldehyde


t hill-and-dale reproducer to lateral reproducer)




 Damping Device, 2105916 Sound Reproducing System.


of air instead of "advance ball" since "the mechanical disturbances caused by the advance ball as it slides over the wax is now audible in finished records a




58, 2357033, 2369087, 2369088(Equalising), 2441651(Recording Head) & 2464064 etc were assigned to the Sound Scriber Corporation. Early patent 163
mplifier) by Wiebusch




wn in 1578645(1926) assigned to Western Electric, 1768273(1930) assigned to Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1793403(1931), 2063225, 2088960, 219102




about elastic contact of spherical tip on the middle of V groove in J.S.M.P.E vol.37 (Dec.1941)


8 about vibration translating system
t Tone Arm, 2145389 about Arm and pickup, 2197967 about Sound Reproducing Apparatus (Arm coupled with pickup and amplifier circuit), 2379282&2
Also 2311385 (combination of hill-and-dale operation and lateral operation is made possible by switching connection on transformer), 2280763 (phonogra




ity about acoustics, wrote together with his colleague J.A. Pierce: "On Distortion in Sound Reproduction from Phonograph Records" J.A.S.A 1938, a monu

1946) with powdered iron core by Albright is also related to this pickup.

1 & 835964-1906 by Loesser about Machine for Sawing Diamonds

n two wheels. Also related patents 2410607, 2563860, 2628842& 2740633 etc.


 Language"indicating Churchill's misuse of "me" instead of "I" reports that Winston Churchill dictates his memoirs on the dictating machine of the Sound


d Recording Equipment Corporation.


116 assigned to Dictaphone show full details of dictating machine using a loop of acetate film.

ansmitted by antenna and received by radio receiver - there was such trend since Philco also obtained similar patent 2441464(1948) from Albrigh
and appliance manufacturing arm changed its name to Avco, but the broadcast operations continued to operate under the Crosley name, until they adopted
nd then in 1959 to Avco Corporation. In 1986 Avco was purchased by Textron.




sey) arm design was based on GB 1342739 (applied 1971, publication 1974 - but had not been "patented" officially).
 evice on underwater acoustics during 2nd World War. German-born Semi Joseph Begun invented piezoelectric pickup (2363497etc) & magnetic recorder
81228) and needle wear comparator (2740296) etc. for PERMO.

later patent about two step facets is not realised.
 lus applicable to Westrex Model 2A.




th connector. 2748199, 2776342, 2820853, 3047676 & 3088000 by Dally. 2572712 by Fisher. Slide-in type 2820854 by Woodworth.




t were modified later by Anneberg etc as per GB700155(1953) & DE873757. There was rare stereo modification model: the cantilever has been fixed at




ve, it is advantageous to tilt the axis of rotation in a direction lateral of the arm in the position in which the arm engages the maximum diameter sound groo


652260etc. "Vertical" in comparison with previous lateral bearing arrangement such as 2381861etc.
 and Inclined Arm/Turntable Base for anti-skating




so 2684248(record player with an automatic record changer).
3067296 by Heinlein about piezoelectric element for stereophonic cartridge.


German Patent 885163-1953: Universal-Doppelnadeln fuer normale und Microrillen-Schallplatten)




 Pacent Electric Company used U-shape copper strip as armature).




ndensors (in 1980 company was sold to Murata Manufacturing Company in Japan).


tanium shank for bonding a diamond tip with solder bond of granulated nickel.




ence compensation) for Decca Limited




iterated during the plating process: necessary to punch a center hole in each stamper anew.

ons(45/45 & L/V). In monophonic era (1950), P. Weathers invented electrostatic pickup (US Patent 2507188).




 rds with two concentric grooves were produced in 1951- but similar was already invented by Dolittle of RCA (1817177 & 2126370) etc.
forerunner to Decca/Keith Monks). His another patent No. 3025066 for Turntable PR-499
2) while this new patent had "cross coils" wound on a plastic cubic bobbin (magnetic? plug inside).

nd and reported many articles to AES during 1960s about "stylus mass and elliptical points" etc. Also 3444335: "Phonograph Pick-up with de-coupling of




atents (2397888 &2417712& 2426061etc) to RCA. He worked also for CBS 1944-1957.




61) and its US patent 3463889 (filing date Oct. 21, 1958 - publication in 1969) was assigned to Shure. This USP3077521 filing dated Nov. 6, 1958 in

1960 - I feel a Japanese joke in SHIGACUT (directional cut of crystal element by the idea of inventor Shiga) and cartridge shape looking like CIG




 to Western Electric's cinema sound business unit.


ne (based on which Keith Monks and Loricraft etc made commercial models). Also 4070028 etc.




honic Piezoelectric Pickup

 sounds may be translated and reproduced at relatively low levels and yet to maintain the same illusion of perspective and tonal balance as the original sou




chanical impedance for better performance) Also 3102171
height difference at stylus point] Earlier patents: 2831693(record changer) by Zaner and 3129006(automatic record changer) by Zahner and Thevenaz and




ted in AES Convention (Oct.1965):"In October of 1964 Euphonics Corporation announced the development of a new phonograph transducer utilizing ... S




d record for extended life time of corundum tip.
g for Toho Machine Co., Ltd which has been engaged in precision machining since 1947.

y for Automatic Phonograph
C cartridges [later models since M6-45 are said to have triangle coils]




hod (2nd harmonic distortion compensating upon recording).




 th conventional spherical stylus.


hronized cam. P+E merged into DUAL in 1971.




uate chord distance 0.9mil of radius 0.7mil for bottom in this patent)
 refer to 3908096 invented by Furuya and assigned to Micro Lab (=Micro Seiki in Itabashi, Tokyo).
aphs, and the company was later bought out by Harman-Kardon Corporation. His other patents 2915315(1959), 3129946, 3249361, 3249362, 3356372, 3

ween stylus arm and the magnet and at the same time to increase equivalently the length of magnet and increase the magnetic moment of the magnet under

d core. Also multi-layered cantilever is shown.
nd System) & 5857016-1997(Space-mapping sound system) etc




- see US Patent 3860843(1975)
 invented by Kenjiro TAKAYANAGI (famous inventor of TV in Japan) and assigned to JVC. Additional patent 3883699(1975) for system and 40


n 1977 under RE 29232. Also 3878342: Replaceable Stylus




 record groove in a vertical section) is easy to be obtained: two planes cut off from cone.


770, 3892918, 3934086, 3952157, 3982069, 4021612 etc.




e of hard jewel in order to have definitive fulcrum)

out generating system and 3992017 about cone type damper.
eous fibers bonded together by a synthetic resin and secured to a metal cover plate by a suitable adhesive or by a heat-press".
ouble dampers [forerunner of Shure's "selective damper"/inertial damper]: cantilever suspension and inner rod working as inertia damper for high frequenc

for MILTY in GB891740.




437997,2458346,2488763&2506441about cinematograph and condensor. 1904408(1933) about Needle Securing Device for Talking Machine

16(programmer for record player) for Avnet, Inc in New York.. AVNET, the owner of importer "British Industries Corp." (B-I-C) needed their own produ


 plurality of coils provided on a stationary substrate disposed to face said turntable to have an increased driving torque - see Fig.10
ystem named as UM system=UMX:"UNIVERSAL MATRIX"system compatible to CD-4, RM and SQ/QS and regular stereophonic disks for reproducing




ent note: "By a direction given under Section 17(1) of the Patents Act 1949 this application proceeded in the name of ZEROSTAT INSTRUMENTS LIMI




n 1976) by Strathearn.




is contains good reference to previous patents in LP era. Also 4141538 for disc record press
dex wheel until the number "6" appears on the viewing window".




o pass down into the groove at least partially towards the base of the groove]
2) assigned to The Astatic Corporation (cartridge model MF200). Also 4123067 about unique stylus pivot suspension (embodied in model G-7 cartridge)




atent No. 4410975(1983) about improved damper with grooves for better separation between channels.
oove) Also 4212471(1980)




 table rotates in the direction opposite that of a conventional turntable and is provided with a tone arm carrying a stylus designed to ride the ridges of the st
t metal part for the energization by an in-phase current and a second plurality of pairs of primary pole pieces each pair constituted by a second metal part fo

dditional eddy current damper for sub arm as indicated in Fig. 9 & 10 is omitted from actual models. Dr. Tominari (deceased in 2002) was professor in Tok


 ls have V shape bobbins connected to the end of cantilever similar to their VM type.

 w profile pick-up arm. Also 4266783:Control mechanisms for pick-up arms of record players


d Ortofon around 1975 and assisted in development of MC20 etc. In 1976 Nakatsuka joined to Namiki Precision Jewel and in 1986 started ZYX (meaning
d rear edges with the portions of the damper that do not engage the crimp also being free of the tube".




as in the prior art is not required and the pickup can be constructed quite compactly in the cantilever support member.
 function was popular in '80s.




chanism) is related to belt-driven Accutrac 2000 & 3500+6 with umbrella spindle. A venture company or project Accutrac Ltd. was a 50-50 partnership be




ntitled "The Dynamic Vibration Absorber Principle Applied to a High-Quality Phonograph Pickup" in Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, June 1977
odied in Nagaoka/Jeweltone "RECOPACK".
ctret condenser-type cartridge CP-Y is shown in Fig.1 though document refers to CP-X Condenser Pickup Cartridge (1970).




 Also 4105213(1978) by Owaki etc of JVC.

d was also presented in US patent 4208634-1980 invented in Netherlands and assigned to Philips.

which are used to engage with the lead-in lips and/or label regions on one or more records and to apply appropriate forces. The effectiveness of the method
 oped from earlier US Patent 4226425: Nonrecorded section detection in an automatic record. US Design Patent D265196-1982 shows RP-7100 with smal
 and "Comments on -Determination of Sliding Friction Between Stylus and Record Groove- and Author's Reply" in JAES December 1982.
a disc shaped inertia body clamped between two rubber pads - named by Ortofon as WRD (Wide Range Damping) system. Idea about "selective damping"




g rigidly affixed to the lever. "Korvet"arm by A. Likhnitsky is related to this patent.

cterized in that the mid-point between said bearings is placed eccentrically with respect to the center of gravity of the said separate element/s and which be
ord player tonearms (a composite material consisting of a thermoplastic resin and graphite powder)Also 4341838 & 4366205 etc about graphite comosite a




io-Technica about T4P mounting adaptor for shell.

r deposition: Japanese Patent JP1109750 proposed additional process CVD on PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition).

olf LAENG. There were a few variations for Lencomatic (also swing arm type?). LAENG invented Leco lamp USP4106082 etc.




og dial "REMOTE OPERATION/CONTROL KNOB" was based on previous patents such as 4118039/4147365. Linear motor drive was shown also in S
n PX-3(1981) with small modifications


easonable since its electrical equivalent circuit is similar to capacitance load. Also 4320492:Variable weight phonograph cartridge
resenting companies in the USA, UK, France, Switzerland and Germany formed a HiFi company soon to be known as NAD (New Acoustic Dimension).

o-D(HITACHI) and Maxell(Battery brand of HITACHI)




nted by Iyeta: US Patent 4113265: Tone pickup arm device keeping excellent dynamic lateral balance and damping effect.
yback of a known test record signal, and which also has the capability of measuring and directly displaying tracing distortion
 ating can be applied to the treated surface and subsequently be removed therefrom. It is believed that the passivating aqueous solution of the present inven


on VMS] Also 4512009 new damper developed further from 4054758 though actual embodiment looks much simplified without second elastic element.
 new (see 4065135-1977 by Doughty, 3608909-1971 by Rabinow)
1979)&4220879(1980) invented by Hosimi and assigned to Sony

electrically in accordance with the eccentric ratio.

herical thrust bearing in the other base, and a ball making contact with one of the bases and cooperating with a guiding element in the other base.




 is more illustrative about the eccentricity of record grooves. Also see old patent by Lathrop (USP2863668 in 1958): Apparatus for establishing concentric
o 3945647 [cleaning machine using endless belt driven by rotation of the record]


 applied worldwide though never patented.




F9 with Dynamic Balanced Linear Tracking Arm & FM transmitter, mini-compo "Heli Player"PS-Q7&9 with FM transmitter around 1982.




230323-1980 (SHARP). Optical music selection idea was invented in 60s: for example 3368080-1968(CITIZEN). Seemingly this application originated fro




 erewith a magnetic field chamber 2) higher output is achieved without increasing the number of windings and thereby adversely affecting the moving mass
oulds by means of sleeves, having first and second fixing flanges which extend into the gap between the matrices. See also 3619449-1971(injection materia
63) by Rabinow etc: "Stereo Record Player Using Optical Means Separate from The Tone Arm" and US Patent 3,992,593(1976) & RE30,723(1981) by H

n attempts to reduce distortions caused by warp etc). Also 4755979(1988)




ockey turntable D491915(2004)




onstructed, with little or no contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods coupled with digital image processing and numeric
pivot tone arm assemblies including antiskating mechanism using pulley belt tension.


rce applied to the stylus is uneven resulting in appropriate and uniform anti-skating properties throughout the radial travel of the stylus from the outer edge
provement with motor), 393967, 400650 (Collapsible Blank), 414761(Wax Blank), 430278(cutting edge and reproducing stylus), 430277, 437425, 437497
 , 374133(paper cylinder), 375579, 380535, 385886, 385887(Graphophonic Tablet), 421450, 428646, 506348.
88) already proposed solid resisting material (wax) coated on plate or cylinder. Also 548623, 564586, 637196, 637197, 689349 etc
 king Machine Company in 1901. Victor Talking Machine Company was created by merger and reorganization of two existing companies: Emile Berliner'




hod is almost established in this mechanical (sound-box) recording era.


 grooves at once (sound is recorded at land).




3(Automatic Sound Recorder) & 783420 for American Graphophone Company, 1836153-1931(Stylus Holder) for Columbia Phonograph Company, 21875
or reforming the sharp corner of groove by spinning stylus in order to reduce pinch effect]. Also 1580567.
oposal has been made..to transfer...from the cylinder to a disc...From the wax disc a matrix is made in the usual or any suitable way and from the matrix a n




95978(1926) & 1745776(1930) about pickup switchable between mechanical diaphragm (Sound Box) & electrical pickup, 1598895 & 1630642 about elec




30 for vertical-cut records.
nd Arend Thomas was assigned to Philips in Netherlands




dicated application of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Aldehyde Condensation on record. 1997489(1935) by Hermann etc in Germany indicated various examples of po




s over the wax is now audible in finished records and often predominant in original recordings".




to the Sound Scriber Corporation. Early patent 1637165(1927) was assigned to The Bristol Company.
ories, 1793403(1931), 2063225, 2088960, 2191026 etc.




led with pickup and amplifier circuit), 2379282&2412718 Recorder. Roy DALLY worked for Webster Electric, Electrovox & GE and was awarded Emile
ng connection on transformer), 2280763 (phonograph apparatus, piezoelectric pickup with cantilever+stylus made from tungsten wire)




n from Phonograph Records" J.A.S.A 1938, a monument paper simulating various phonograph distortions. W. D. Lewis and F. V. Hunt, "A Theory of Trac




is memoirs on the dictating machine of the Sound Scriber.




ned similar patent 2441464(1948) from Albright.
perate under the Crosley name, until they adopted the Avco name in 1968.
electric pickup (2363497etc) & magnetic recorders (2048487&2048488) etc for this company.




type 2820854 by Woodworth.




dification model: the cantilever has been fixed at a cube for special Cardanic transmission 'cross- coupler' which converts stylus deflection to channel-se




he arm engages the maximum diameter sound groove for which the phonograph is designed.")
RCA (1817177 & 2126370) etc.
444335: "Phonograph Pick-up with de-coupling of the stylus mass"




re. This USP3077521 filing dated Nov. 6, 1958 in USA is corresponding to Elac's German patent No. 1175007 with priority date 6 March, 1958 (p

ntor Shiga) and cartridge shape looking like CIGAR-CUT. It is said that this is the first stereo cartridge using bimorph type piezoelectric device w




of perspective and tonal balance as the original sound." Also 3293364
matic record changer) by Zahner and Thevenaz and 3129945(new umbrella type spindle) by Thevenaz.




ment of a new phonograph transducer utilizing ... Since the development of this silicon fiber by Endevco Corporation, several years of rigorous testing and
(1959), 3129946, 3249361, 3249362, 3356372, 3390886, 3675932 etc.

ncrease the magnetic moment of the magnet under vibration.




ditional patent 3883699(1975) for system and 4033592(1977) for special cutting stylus and 4211978(1980) for cross-talk component cancellation ci




e or by a heat-press".
er rod working as inertia damper for high frequency range suitable for quadraphonic application.




e Securing Device for Talking Machine

h Industries Corp." (B-I-C) needed their own products since Plessey of England (parent company of Garrard in this era) set up their own distribution of Ga


 driving torque - see Fig.10
QS and regular stereophonic disks for reproducing 4 channels.




n the name of ZEROSTAT INSTRUMENTS LIMITED".




ot suspension (embodied in model G-7 cartridge)
arrying a stylus designed to ride the ridges of the stamper. Also 4113267 invented by Wittenberg and assigned to Pickering
 eces each pair constituted by a second metal part for energization by an out of phase current ) Also 4024473 about stroboscopic device.

 Tominari (deceased in 2002) was professor in Tokyo Metropolitan University [servo technology], established Dynavector in 1977, also developing fuel in




Precision Jewel and in 1986 started ZYX (meaning three axes in audio=time/amplitude/frequency) for producing MC cartridges based on his ideas and pate




r project Accutrac Ltd. was a 50-50 partnership between BSR and Pico.




ournal of the Audio Engineering Society, June 1977. "additional selective suppression of unwanted vibrations at the resonant frequencies of the moving sys




ppropriate forces. The effectiveness of the method and apparatus is enhanced by the application of moderate heat from an external source".
n Patent D265196-1982 shows RP-7100 with small modification.
s Reply" in JAES December 1982.
e Damping) system. Idea about "selective damping" was proposed by Allen R. Groh (Shure 15VI).




gravity of the said separate element/s and which bearings are attached on one side to the said element/s, and between said two bearings a vertical pin, which
 4341838 & 4366205 etc about graphite comosite applied on shell, arm and diaphragm.




o lamp USP4106082 etc.




4147365. Linear motor drive was shown also in Sony patent 4322840 and Plessey patent 4185836 etc.




ight phonograph cartridge
o be known as NAD (New Acoustic Dimension).




e passivating aqueous solution of the present invention passivates a nickel surface by forming a conductive oxide layer on the surface.


much simplified without second elastic element.
 with a guiding element in the other base.




668 in 1958): Apparatus for establishing concentric operation of phonograph sound grooves.




9 with FM transmitter around 1982.




ITIZEN). Seemingly this application originated from printing machine.




gs and thereby adversely affecting the moving mass of the stylus assembly. IMO: Sumiko high output MC cartridges such as Blue Point etc adopt conventi
matrices. See also 3619449-1971(injection material: polyvinyl aceto-chloride)
S Patent 3,992,593(1976) & RE30,723(1981) by Heine: "Disc phonograph record playback by laser generated diffraction pattern" etc.




coupled with digital image processing and numerical analysis.




ut the radial travel of the stylus from the outer edge to the disk's label area". It reminds me of Sony model PUA-237/286 arms (USP3388912) using cam an
e and reproducing stylus), 430277, 437425, 437497, 453741, 454941, 484583(Cutting-Tool), 499879, 500208(Magnetic damping of cantilever), 513095, 6

37196, 637197, 689349 etc
ization of two existing companies: Emile Berliner's Berliner Gramophone Company, which produced disc records, and Johnson's Consolidated Talking M




Holder) for Columbia Phonograph Company, 2187512-1940 (cutting stylus) etc. Almost 50 years engaged in recording industry from the beginning.
 e usual or any suitable way and from the matrix a number of records can be pressed."




& electrical pickup, 1598895 & 1630642 about electric reproducer, 1625918 about Electric Phonograph, 1656712 phonograph connected to telephone rece




n etc in Germany indicated various examples of polymerized vinyl alcohols.
Electric, Electrovox & GE and was awarded Emile Berliner from AES in 1961.
ylus made from tungsten wire)




ns. W. D. Lewis and F. V. Hunt, "A Theory of Tracing Distortion from Phonograph Records," J.A.S.A. 1941. These researches led to the development of c
pler' which converts stylus deflection to channel-separated rotary motion (patents GB859606 = DE1076385).
No. 1175007 with priority date 6 March, 1958 (publication in 1964). Filing date/priority date is most important in case of patent dispute & in coun

 tridge using bimorph type piezoelectric device while most representative piezoelectric stereo pickup (see 3218399 etc) is using two separate eleme
Corporation, several years of rigorous testing and use in the ..." Later (1976) cartridge SDT-10 by Win Laboratories follows similar system.
8(1980) for cross-talk component cancellation circuit etc.
rard in this era) set up their own distribution of Garrard products in USA. Related patent 3973778 for belt-drive turntable assigned to Avnet.
473 about stroboscopic device.

lished Dynavector in 1977, also developing fuel injection for MIKUNI (carburetor maker) in Japan.




oducing MC cartridges based on his ideas and patents.




ations at the resonant frequencies of the moving system is desirable". Also influencing Ortofon "selective damping system"=WRD.




erate heat from an external source".
and between said two bearings a vertical pin, which is also attached to said elements, is positioned and in combination being surrounded by damping fluid




ive oxide layer on the surface.
C cartridges such as Blue Point etc adopt conventional design (one magnet and two yokes) while original patented design was yoke-less=direct.
erated diffraction pattern" etc.




el PUA-237/286 arms (USP3388912) using cam and spring. Also Audio Technica AT-1500IIIseries arms have the similar turnover point of bias force at gr
00208(Magnetic damping of cantilever), 513095, 605667, 652457, 655480 etc.


sc records, and Johnson's Consolidated Talking Machine Company, which produced machines for playing disc records.




d in recording industry from the beginning.
, 1656712 phonograph connected to telephone receiver. 2031865-1936 (System and apparatus for recording and reproducing sound) was assigned to RCA
1941. These researches led to the development of criteria that eventually made possible the long-playing record.
ost important in case of patent dispute & in counting its valid period (usually 20 years from priority date).

up (see 3218399 etc) is using two separate elements.
Laboratories follows similar system.
lt-drive turntable assigned to Avnet.
e damping system"=WRD.
n combination being surrounded by damping fluid in a well that is positioned in the non moveable part of the tone arm in the said cavity, surrounded by the
al patented design was yoke-less=direct.
s have the similar turnover point of bias force at groove radius 8.5cm. I wonder what's new - recently I cannot find any innovative idea about analog equip
ding and reproducing sound) was assigned to RCA.
f the tone arm in the said cavity, surrounded by the element/s, and on their other side the above two bearings are attached to bearings or just one bearing co
cannot find any innovative idea about analog equipment.
ings are attached to bearings or just one bearing comprising the horizontal movement of the tone arm".

				
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