Chapter 19 test Review
• Ireland, Spain, Switzerland, Austria,
Sweden, Finland, Yugoslavia were not
members of NATO or the Warsaw Pact
• Warsaw Pact: Soviet Union, Albania,
Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East
Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania.
• West Germany was a member of
NATO, while East Germany was a
member of the Warsaw Pact.
• Korean War: The Korean War was fought after Korea was divided
into two countries: the Communist North and the pro-American
• military-industrial complex:The military-industrial complex refers to
the permanent mobilization of American troops around the world after
the Korean War and increased.
• thirty-eighth parallel: The thirty-eighth parallel is the latitude line
that divides North and South Korea.
• Brinkmanship: Brinkmanship is the ability to go to the verge of war
without becoming engaged in actual combat.
• arms race: The United States and the Soviet Union were engaged in
an arms race to gain weapons superiority.
• Sputnik: The Soviet Union’s Sputnik was the first artificial satellite to
• U-2 incident: A Soviet guided missile shot down an American spy
plane in what became known as the U-2 incident.
ANALYZING A DOCUMENT
•“Nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The
choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based on the will of
the majority. . . . The second way of life is based upon the will of a
minority forcibly imposed [forced] upon the majority. . . . I believe that it
must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are
resisting attempted subjugation [conquest] by armed minorities or by
outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out
their own destinies in their own way.”
• Alternative ways of life: One way of life was based on capitalism
and democracy, while the other was based on the Communist
• “The choice is too often not a free one” : Truman meant that the
Soviet Union was using pressure and intimidation to spread
communism to other nations.
• How would US show support? Truman declared that it must be the
policy of the United States to support peoples in their struggle for
freedom and self-determination.
• Explain how the contrasting post-World
War II goals of the Soviet Union and the
United States led to the Cold War.
• Very different goals
• United States: spread democracy and free enterprise
• Soviets: protect themselves from attack, spread
• Debated the future of Europe
• Tensions quickly developed into the Cold War.