Chapter 19 test Review Learn! Nato/Warsaw Pact • Ireland, Spain, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden, Finland, Yugoslavia were not members of NATO or the Warsaw Pact in 1955. • Warsaw Pact: Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania. • West Germany was a member of NATO, while East Germany was a member of the Warsaw Pact. Terms • Korean War: The Korean War was fought after Korea was divided into two countries: the Communist North and the pro-American South. • military-industrial complex:The military-industrial complex refers to the permanent mobilization of American troops around the world after the Korean War and increased. • thirty-eighth parallel: The thirty-eighth parallel is the latitude line that divides North and South Korea. • Brinkmanship: Brinkmanship is the ability to go to the verge of war without becoming engaged in actual combat. • arms race: The United States and the Soviet Union were engaged in an arms race to gain weapons superiority. • Sputnik: The Soviet Union’s Sputnik was the first artificial satellite to orbit Earth. • U-2 incident: A Soviet guided missile shot down an American spy plane in what became known as the U-2 incident. ANALYZING A DOCUMENT •“Nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based on the will of the majority. . . . The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed [forced] upon the majority. . . . I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation [conquest] by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.” • Alternative ways of life: One way of life was based on capitalism and democracy, while the other was based on the Communist system. • “The choice is too often not a free one” : Truman meant that the Soviet Union was using pressure and intimidation to spread communism to other nations. • How would US show support? Truman declared that it must be the policy of the United States to support peoples in their struggle for freedom and self-determination. Essay Question • Explain how the contrasting post-World War II goals of the Soviet Union and the United States led to the Cold War. • Very different goals • United States: spread democracy and free enterprise • Soviets: protect themselves from attack, spread communism. • Debated the future of Europe • Tensions quickly developed into the Cold War.
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