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Printmaking Techniques and introduction to the Baroque Original

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					Printmaking Techniques and introduction to the Baroque Original print Edition Woodcut Engraving Intaglio process Burin Cross-hatching Etching Drypoint States Basic info on prints An “original print” is the image on paper or other material. But, in printmaking, original does not mean unique. All prints from made from one block/plate are originals resulting in multiple originals. The total number of prints made from one image (block/plate) is called an Edition. Prints are usually numbered with a fractions indicating how many were made in that edition. Earlier prints are more detailed (the plate is fresher) and therefore more valuable. A block/plate is sometimes sold and then later reprinted (not necessarily by the original artist). This work is still considered to be the work of the original artist (even when many years separate these new originals and the creation of the plate/block). However, these works are usually considered a new edition. Albrecht Durer, Self Portrait, 1500 Painter and printmaker, wants to understand the Italian understanding of proportions, worked in present day Germany, prints become widely popular during the renaissance—make it for mass audience, in this portrait he looks like Jesus, fur on collar, wishes to show his social class, Albrecht Durer, Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, c. 1497-98 Woodcut: a relief printmaking process (the ink adheres to the raised surfaces; the artist carves away the background or areas not to be printed) Derived from textile practices, wood blocks take off with the invention of paper mills (1226) in Europe, wood prints best on paper A picture of the end of the world, directly from the passage in revelations, makes it visual for us, death on a pale horse in the furthermost foreground, famine next, war, and pestilence or the plague (arrows dipped in the black plague), a lot of freedom because he is not working for patron, not much variation in values Durer, Martyrdom of St. Catherine, 1498 Karl Schmidt-Rotluff, 1918 Japanese Wood Block Prints (Ukiyo-e: The Floating World) Artist: Harunobu, 1725-70 Engraving: an intaglio process (lines to be printed are removed from or cut into the plate using a tool: also includes etching). In an engraving the design is cut by hand on a copper plate. Durer, Adam and Eve, 1504 Attempt at proportions, using Italian renaissance and classical model, focusing on nude models, Venus (Eve) is not as naturalistic as male Not short on symbolism, cat and mouse—right before fall of man, cat taunting mouse as devil and saint taunted Eve with the apple, four humors—in classical medicine, Apocrates, bile— anger, cat; black bile--melancholic, elk; blood—hopeful, optomistic, rabbit; and fem—ox, sluggish and doesn’t care Engraving technique—hard to make free flowing lines, wet paper to sink into engraving to absorb ink

Burin: tool used to incise the copper plate when creating an engraving Farnese Hercules (statue and print) Cross-Hatching: when hatched lines (lines placed parallel to one another) are crossed to create effects of tonal shading and value Rembrandt Van Rijn, Self Portrait, 1659 Bought things at youth when he earned a lot of money, and then when bankrupt Etching: an intaglio process. The copper plate is first coated in a resistant wax and then the artist draws on the surface using a special needle. Once complete the plate is submersed in an acid bath. The acid incises the lines that the artist has drawn but does not effect areas where wax remains Drypoint: When the artist scratches directly into the plate with the needle (no wax) creating tiny raised edges of copper (burrs) along the edge of the line. These harsh edges catch ink and create rich deep ares of shadow/dark color. Rembrandt, Rest on the Flight, c. 1626 Matisse, Jeune Femme, 1946 Fourth State of Three Crosses State: successive stages of creation where the plate is reworked and altered each time. The Baroque (mid to late 16th-17th centuries) Artistic period/style directly following the events of the Protestant Reformation and subsequent Catholic Reformation From “Barocco” (Portuguese) meaning irregular shaped pearl Characteristics of the Baroque Emphasis on extreme lighting with contrasts of light and dark (often like a spotlight) Theatrical, over the top, and emotional Meant to overwhelm your senses, intoxicating Dynamic, extreme diagonals Painterly (can see the artist’s “hand”) Action on multiple planes, most important not always in the foreground Infinite (cannot see definite spatial definitions) Less emphasis on logic and rationality Rembrandt, Christ Preaching, c. 1649


				
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