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LANDFORMS OF OUR WORLD Earth’s Layers Earth is divided into three layers. The outer layer is called the crust. Beneath the crust lies the mantle. The core is the innermost layer Landforms • The solid features formed on Earth’s crust. • Other features include bodies of water. • Crustal movement and other tectonic activity inside Earth create landforms; mountains, faults, sinks, and volcanos. • Many landforms are shaped by water and wind that carve and erode land surfaces, carrying and depositing soil, sand and other debris. Topographic maps and models are used to represent landforms and help scientists better understand objects and processes. Landforms Archipelago Bay Strait & Cape Channel Canal Delta Desert Gulf Island Isthmus Mountain Peninsula Plateau Plain Sound Swamp Sea Mesa Oasis Valley Source River Tundra Lake Butte Canyon Fjord Geyser Lagoon Glacier Pond Prairie Tributary Volcano Waterfall Estuary Dune Savanna Reef Marsh archipelago ahr-kuh-pel-uh-goh A group or chain of islands in a large body of water Aegean Islands Back to Landform Chart bay A bay is a body of water that is partly enclosed by land (and is usually smaller than a gulf). Back to The bay at San Sebastian, Spain. Landform Chart butte A butte is a flat-topped rock or hill formation with steep sides. Back to Butte near Sedona, Arizona. Landform Chart canyon A canyon is a deep valley with very steep sides - often carved from the Earth by a river. Back to View from the North Rim of the Grand Landform Chart Canyon. cape A cape is a pointed piece of land that sticks out into a sea, ocean, lake, or river. Back to The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, Landform Chart from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. peninsula A peninsula is a LARGER body of land that is surrounded by water on three sides A peninsula in Croatia. Back to Landform Chart channel A channel is a body of water that connects two larger bodies of water (like the English Channel). A channel is also a part of a river or harbor that is deep enough to let ships sail through Back to Satellite view of the English Channel Landform Chart strait and canal Canal- A Strait- A constructed passageway channel filled of water with water used connecting for navigation, two large Back to irrigation, or bodies of Landform Chart drainage. water. delta A delta is a low, watery land formed at the mouth of a river. It is formed from the silt, sand and small rocks that flow downstream in the river and are deposited in the delta. A delta is often (but not always) shaped like a triangle (hence its name, delta, a Greek letter that is shaped like a triangle). Back to Nile River Delta Landform Chart desert A desert is a very dry area. Erg Chebbi, Morocco Back to Landform Chart oasis a fertile or green area in an arid region (as a desert) The Sahara Desert extends into southern Tunisia and covers about 40 percent of the country’s land area. Camels are still used as a means of transportation in Back to some parts of the desert, such as at this oasis near Landform Chart Dūz dune A dune is a hill or a ridge made of sand. Dunes are shaped by the wind, and change all the time Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park Back to Landform Chart estuary An estuary is where a river meets the sea or ocean. Rio de la Plata Estuary Back to Landform Chart fjord A fjord is a long, narrow sea inlet that is bordered by steep cliffs. Geirangerfjord in Norway Back to Landform Chart geyser A geyser is a natural hot spring that occasionally sprays water and steam above the ground. Strokkur Geyser, Iceland Back to Landform Chart glacier A glacier is a slowly moving river of ice. The Upper Grindelwald Glacier and the Schreckhorn, in Switzerland, showing accumulation and ablation zones Back to Landform Chart gulf A gulf is a part of the ocean (or sea) that is partly surrounded by land (it is usually larger than a bay). Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. Back to Landform Chart hill A hill is a raised area or mound of land. The panoramic view from Connors Hill, near Swifts Creek, Victoria Back to Landform Chart island An island is a piece of land that is surrounded by water. A small island in the Adriatic Sea. Back to Landform Chart isthmus An isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger landmasses. An isthmus has water on two sides. The Isthmus of Panama connects North and South America. Back to Landform Chart lagoon A lagoon is a shallow body of water that is located alongside a coast. Nearly half the area of Kiritimati is covered with lagoon, some being freshwater and some seawater. Back to Landform Chart lake A lake is a large body of water surrounded by land on all sides. Really huge lakes are often called seas. One of the many artificial lakes in Arizona at sunset. Back to Landform Chart marsh A marsh is a type of freshwater, brackish water or saltwater wetland that is found along rivers, pond, lakes and coasts. Marsh plants grow up out of the water. Freshwater marsh in Florida. Back to Landform Chart mesa A mesa is a land formation with a flat area on top and steep walls - usually occurring in dry areas. Several mesas near Los Alamos, New Mexico Back to Landform Chart mountain A mountain is a very tall high, natural place on Earth - higher than a hill. The tallest mountain on Earth is Mt. Everest. Mount Damavand, in winter, Iran Back to Landform Chart ocean An ocean is a large body of salt water that surrounds a continent. Oceans cover more the two-thirds of the Earth's surface Bathymetric map of the Indian Ocean Back to Landform Chart plain Plains are flat lands that have only small changes in elevation Moghan plain, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran Back to Landform Chart plateau A plateau is a large, flat area of land that is higher than the surrounding land. Monte Roraima in Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana Back to Landform Chart pond A pond is a small body of water surrounded by land. A pond is smaller than a lake. A garden pond. Back to Landform Chart prairie A prairie is a wide, relatively flat area of land that has grasses and only a few trees. Konza Prairie in Kansas in spring with herd of bison in distance Back to Landform Chart river A river is a large, flowing body of water that usually empties into a sea or ocean. Mississippi river in New Orleans Back to Landform Chart sea A sea is a large body of salty water that is often connected to an ocean. A sea may be partly or completely surrounded by land. Satellite image of the Black Sea Back to Landform Chart sound A sound is a wide inlet of the sea or ocean that is parallel to the coastline; it often separates a coastline from a nearby island Puget Sound and Mt. Rainier of Washington State, USA Back to Landform Chart source A source is the beginning of a river. River Wey near it’s source at Farringdon, Hampshire Back to Landform Chart swamp A swamp is a type of freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddly land and a lot of water. Many trees and shrubs grow in swamps. A freshwater swamp in Florida. Back to Landform Chart tributary A tributary is a stream or river that flows into a larger river. The Mosel flows into the Rhein at Koblenz. Back to Landform Chart tundra A tundra is a cold, treeless area; it is the coldest biome. Arctic tundra on Wrangel Island, Russia. Back to Landform Chart valley A valley is a low place between mountains. U-shaped valley in Glacier National Park in Montana, United States. Back to Landform Chart volcano A volcano is a mountainous vent in the Earth's crust. When a volcano erupts, it spews out lava, ashes, and hot gases from deep inside the Earth. Mount St. Helens in May 1980, shortly after the eruption of May 18. Back to Landform Chart waterfall When a river falls off steeply, there is a waterfall. Havasu Falls, near Supai, Arizona, is an example of a plunge waterfall. Back to Landform Chart reef Ridge of sand, rock, or coral that lies at or near the surface of a sea or ocean. Pamalican island with surrounding reef, Sulu Sea, Back to Philippines. Landform Chart savanna An area of grassland and scattered trees. Back to Landform Chart Acacia savanna south of Fada N'Gourma, Burkina Faso.
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