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					LANDFORMS
 OF OUR WORLD
      Earth’s Layers



Earth is divided into three layers.
The outer layer is called the crust.
Beneath the crust lies the mantle.
The core is the innermost layer
                        Landforms
•   The solid features formed on Earth’s crust.
•   Other features include bodies of water.
•   Crustal movement and other tectonic activity inside Earth create
    landforms; mountains, faults, sinks, and volcanos.
•   Many landforms are shaped by water and wind that carve and erode
    land surfaces, carrying and depositing soil, sand and other debris.
Topographic maps and models are used to represent
  landforms and help scientists better understand
              objects and processes.
                        Landforms
Archipelago     Bay       Strait &     Cape     Channel
                           Canal
   Delta       Desert       Gulf      Island    Isthmus

 Mountain     Peninsula   Plateau      Plain     Sound

  Swamp         Sea        Mesa        Oasis     Valley

  Source        River      Tundra      Lake      Butte

  Canyon        Fjord      Geyser     Lagoon     Glacier

   Pond        Prairie    Tributary   Volcano   Waterfall

  Estuary       Dune      Savanna      Reef      Marsh
                     archipelago
   ahr-kuh-pel-uh-goh
    A group or chain of
    islands in a large body of
    water


                   Aegean Islands




   Back to
Landform Chart
                            bay
   A bay is a body of water
    that is partly enclosed by
    land (and is usually
    smaller than a gulf).




   Back to                       The bay at San Sebastian, Spain.
Landform Chart
                           butte
   A butte is a flat-topped
    rock or hill formation
    with steep sides.




   Back to                         Butte near Sedona, Arizona.
Landform Chart
                        canyon
   A canyon is a deep valley
    with very steep sides -
    often carved from the
    Earth by a river.




   Back to
                            View from the North Rim of the Grand
Landform Chart
                            Canyon.
                            cape
   A cape is a pointed piece
    of land that sticks out
    into a sea, ocean, lake, or
    river.




   Back to
                      The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west,
Landform Chart
                      from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point.
                          peninsula
   A peninsula is a LARGER body of land that is
    surrounded by water on three sides




    A peninsula in Croatia.



   Back to
Landform Chart
                       channel
   A channel is a body of
    water that connects two
    larger bodies of water
    (like the English
    Channel). A channel is
    also a part of a river or
    harbor that is deep
    enough to let ships sail
    through
   Back to                      Satellite view of the English Channel
Landform Chart
           strait and canal




                            Canal- A
Strait- A
                            constructed
passageway
                            channel filled
of water
                            with water used
connecting
                            for navigation,
two large
              Back to       irrigation, or
bodies of  Landform Chart   drainage.
water.
                             delta
   A delta is a low, watery land formed at the mouth of a
    river. It is formed from the silt, sand and small rocks
    that flow downstream in the river and are deposited in
    the delta. A delta is often (but not always) shaped like a
    triangle (hence its name, delta, a Greek letter that is
    shaped like a triangle).




   Back to             Nile River Delta
Landform Chart
                        desert
   A desert is a very dry area.




    Erg Chebbi,
    Morocco




   Back to
Landform Chart
                            oasis
   a fertile or green area in
    an arid region (as a
    desert)




                                 The Sahara Desert extends into southern Tunisia and
                                 covers about 40 percent of the country’s land area.
                                 Camels are still used as a means of transportation in
   Back to                       some parts of the desert, such as at this oasis near
Landform Chart                   Dūz
                          dune
   A dune is a hill or a ridge made of sand. Dunes
    are shaped by the wind, and change all the time



    Mesquite Flat Dunes
    in Death Valley
    National Park


   Back to
Landform Chart
                        estuary
   An estuary is where a river meets the sea or
    ocean.




      Rio de la Plata
      Estuary



   Back to
Landform Chart
                                fjord
   A fjord is a long, narrow sea inlet that is
    bordered by steep cliffs.




            Geirangerfjord in
            Norway


   Back to
Landform Chart
                        geyser
    A geyser is a natural hot spring that occasionally
     sprays water and steam above the ground.



    Strokkur Geyser,
    Iceland




   Back to
Landform Chart
                         glacier
   A glacier is a slowly moving river of ice.

             The Upper
             Grindelwald Glacier
             and the Schreckhorn,
             in Switzerland,
             showing
             accumulation and
             ablation zones


   Back to
Landform Chart
                          gulf
   A gulf is a part of the ocean (or sea) that is partly
    surrounded by land (it is usually larger than a
    bay).


    Gulf of Mexico in
    3D perspective.




   Back to
Landform Chart
                         hill
   A hill is a raised area or mound of land.




                          The panoramic view from Connors
                          Hill, near Swifts Creek, Victoria
   Back to
Landform Chart
                                island
   An island is a piece of land that is surrounded by
    water.




        A small island in the
        Adriatic Sea.



   Back to
Landform Chart
                        isthmus
   An isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting
    two larger landmasses. An isthmus has water on
    two sides.


      The Isthmus of
      Panama connects
      North and South
      America.


   Back to
Landform Chart
                           lagoon
   A lagoon is a shallow body of water that is
    located alongside a coast.

    Nearly half the area
    of Kiritimati is
    covered with
    lagoon, some being
    freshwater and
    some seawater.


   Back to
Landform Chart
                        lake
   A lake is a large body of water surrounded by
    land on all sides. Really huge lakes are often
    called seas.


One of the many
artificial lakes in
Arizona at sunset.


   Back to
Landform Chart
                             marsh
   A marsh is a type of freshwater, brackish water
    or saltwater wetland that is found along rivers,
    pond, lakes and coasts. Marsh plants grow up
    out of the water.


       Freshwater marsh in
       Florida.

   Back to
Landform Chart
                       mesa
   A mesa is a land formation with a flat area on
    top and steep walls - usually occurring in dry
    areas.



 Several mesas near
 Los Alamos, New
 Mexico


   Back to
Landform Chart
                      mountain
   A mountain is a very tall high, natural place on
    Earth - higher than a hill. The tallest mountain
    on Earth is Mt. Everest.



        Mount Damavand, in
        winter, Iran

   Back to
Landform Chart
                        ocean
   An ocean is a large body of salt water that
    surrounds a continent. Oceans cover more the
    two-thirds of the Earth's surface


      Bathymetric map
      of the Indian
      Ocean


   Back to
Landform Chart
                         plain
    Plains are flat lands that have only small changes
     in elevation



    Moghan plain,
    East Azarbaijan
    Province, Iran



   Back to
Landform Chart
                       plateau
   A plateau is a large, flat area of land that is
    higher than the surrounding land.



Monte Roraima in
Venezuela, Brazil
and Guyana


   Back to
Landform Chart
                      pond
   A pond is a small body of water surrounded by
    land. A pond is smaller than a lake.



A garden pond.




   Back to
Landform Chart
                           prairie
   A prairie is a wide, relatively flat area of land that
    has grasses and only a few trees.


      Konza Prairie in
      Kansas in spring
      with herd of bison
      in distance



   Back to
Landform Chart
                        river
   A river is a large, flowing body of water that
    usually empties into a sea or ocean.



Mississippi river
in New Orleans




   Back to
Landform Chart
                             sea
   A sea is a large body of salty water that is often
    connected to an ocean. A sea may be partly or
    completely surrounded by land.



    Satellite image of the
    Black Sea


   Back to
Landform Chart
                           sound
   A sound is a wide inlet of the sea or ocean that
    is parallel to the coastline; it often separates a
    coastline from a nearby island

         Puget Sound
         and Mt. Rainier
         of Washington
         State, USA


   Back to
Landform Chart
                           source
   A source is the beginning of a river.




        River Wey near it’s
        source at Farringdon,
        Hampshire


   Back to
Landform Chart
                         swamp
   A swamp is a type of freshwater wetland that
    has spongy, muddly land and a lot of water.
    Many trees and shrubs grow in swamps.




           A freshwater swamp in
           Florida.

   Back to
Landform Chart
                     tributary
   A tributary is a stream or river that flows into a
    larger river.



The Mosel flows
into the Rhein at
Koblenz.


   Back to
Landform Chart
                          tundra
     A tundra is a cold, treeless area; it is the coldest
      biome.


Arctic tundra on
Wrangel Island,
Russia.




    Back to
 Landform Chart
                                 valley
    A valley is a low place between mountains.




    U-shaped valley in Glacier
    National Park in
    Montana, United States.



   Back to
Landform Chart
                            volcano
   A volcano is a mountainous vent in the Earth's
    crust. When a volcano erupts, it spews out lava,
    ashes, and hot gases from deep inside the Earth.


    Mount St. Helens in
    May 1980, shortly
    after the eruption of
    May 18.


   Back to
Landform Chart
                          waterfall
   When a river falls off steeply, there is a waterfall.




        Havasu Falls, near Supai,
        Arizona, is an example of a
        plunge waterfall.



   Back to
Landform Chart
                                 reef
   Ridge of sand, rock, or
    coral that lies at or near
    the surface of a sea or
    ocean.




                                        Pamalican island with
                                        surrounding reef, Sulu Sea,
       Back to                          Philippines.
    Landform Chart
                       savanna
   An area of grassland and
    scattered trees.




   Back to
Landform Chart      Acacia savanna south of Fada N'Gourma, Burkina Faso.

				
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