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					         Solid State Memories
                        國立中央大學 電機系

                                 蘇朝琴
                       Email: ccsu@ee.ncu.edu.tw
                       WWW: http://www.ee.ncu.edu.tw/~ccsu
                       Phone: 03-4227151 Ext 4465
NCU EE
                       Fax:   03-4255830
         NCU-EE-CCSU              Solid State Memories       P.1
Contents
             •   Introduction
             •   Volatile Memories
             •   Nonvolatile Memories
             •   Memory Applications
             •   Advanced Memories




NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU        Solid State Memories   P.2
Introduction
         • Memory Hierarchy
         • Memory Classification - Functions
         • Memory Classification - Material
         • Memory Classification - Solid State
           Memories
         • Memory Structure



NCU EE                                           Introduction
         NCU-EE-CCSU      Solid State Memories           P.3
Memory Hierarchy




                                   Main
     CPU        Register Cache                      Disk   Tape
                                  Memory




NCU EE                                                     Introduction
         NCU-EE-CCSU         Solid State Memories                  P.4
Memory Classification- Function
     • Sequential Access
           – Tape, Disk, MO, DVD, VCD, etc
           – Queue (FIFO), Stack (FILO)
     • Random Access
           – Read Only Memory (ROM)
           – Random Access Memory (RAM)




NCU EE                                             Introduction
         NCU-EE-CCSU        Solid State Memories           P.5
Memory Classification- Material
    • Magnetic Memories
          – Hard disk, floppy disk, tape
    • Magnetic Optical Memories
          – MO disks (read-write)
    • Optical Memories
          – CD, DVD (read only or write once)
    • Solid State Memories
          – DRAM, SRAM, PROM, EPROM, Flash
          – NMOS, CMOS, Bipolar, GaAs,
    • Advanced Memories
          – Ferroelectric Random Access Memories (FRAMs)
          – Quantum-Mechanical, Single-Electron, Neuro-MOS,
            Bio electrical Memories
NCU EE                                                 Introduction
         NCU-EE-CCSU            Solid State Memories           P.6
Memory Classification- Solid State
    • Volatile Memories
          –   Data will be lost if power off
          –   DRAM, SRAM, VRAM, EDORAM, ...
          –   High speed,
          –   Register, Cache, Main Memory
    • Nonvolatile Memories
          –   Data will remain even power is off
          –   PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash Memories
          –   Long data retain cycle
          –   BIOS, Solid State Hard Disk, Memory Card



NCU EE                                                   Introduction
         NCU-EE-CCSU            Solid State Memories             P.7
Memory Structure

                                                                                              R/W
                                            Column Decoder                                    CE
              Address Latch




                              Row Decoder




                                                                      Write Driver
Address




            Memory                          Sense Amplifier                          Data Register
             Array
                                                                                              Data



NCU EE                                                                                    Introduction
         NCU-EE-CCSU                           Solid State Memories                                  P.8
Volatile Memories
         • Classification
         • Dynamic Random Access Memories
         • Static Random Access Memories




NCU EE                                         Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU    Solid State Memories              P.9
Volatile Memories - Classification
  • SRAM - Static Random Access Memories
         – NMOS, CMOS, Mixed MOS, Bipolar, SOI, GaAs
         – Application Specific SRAMs
           Serially Access, Dual-Port, Content Addressable
         – High Speed (<20ns)
  • DRAM - Dynamic Random Access Memories
         – Trench Capacitor Cells, Stacked Capacitor Cells,
         – Application-Specific DARMs
           Silicon File, Video DRAM, Window RAM
         – High Density and Low Power (>16Mb)


NCU EE                                                Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU           Solid State Memories              P.10
SRAM Circuit Structure

                 Precharge


                       Data line                          Data line

                 Word line


                 Write

          Write Data

                                                            Read Data

NCU EE                                                       Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU               Solid State Memories                 P.11
SRAM - Circuit Structure


         CMOS SRAM NMOS SRAM                  ECL SRAM




NCU EE                                           Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU   Solid State Memories                 P.12
SRAM - Cell Structure


           Circuit     Layout                   Cross Section




NCU EE                                               Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU     Solid State Memories                   P.13
SRAM - Architecture




NCU EE                                        Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU   Solid State Memories              P.14
SRAM Circuit Structure

         Precharge


           Data line

         Word line

         Write
                                                 Write Data
                       Write Data




                                                                             Write Data
                                                                 Read Data




                                                                                              Read Data
                                    Read Data




NCU EE                                                                                    Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                            Solid State Memories                                      P.15
DRAM - Circuit Structure

                       3-Tx Cell                      1-Tx Cell




NCU EE                                                        Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU               Solid State Memories                  P.16
DRAM - Cell Structure


           Circuit     Layout                    Cross Section




NCU EE                                                 Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU      Solid State Memories                    P.17
DRAM - Architecture




NCU EE                                        Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU   Solid State Memories              P.18
RAM - Speed v.s. Technology
                                                  20

                 Wafer Average Access Time (ns)   18
                                                  16
                                                  14
                                                  12
                                                  10
                                                  8
                                                  6
                                                  4
                                                   0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4     0.5 0.6     0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
                                                       Effective Channel Length (micron)
NCU EE                                                                                        Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                                             Solid State Memories                    P.19
RAM - Technology v.s. Density

              Effective Channel length (micro)   3.0
                                                 2.0
                                                 1.2
                                                 1.0
                                                 0.8
                                                 0.5
                                                 0.4
                                                 0.3
                                                 0.2
                                                 0.1
                                                       4k 16k   64K 256K 1M 4M 16M 64M 256M 1G 4G
                                                                     Log Density
NCU EE                                                                                      Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                                                 Solid State Memories              P.20
RAM - Technology ITRS 1999

               T Nodes       1999 2001 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015
            Gate L (nm)*     140 120      100      70     50   35   25
            DRAM HPitch      180 153      130      100    70   50   35
            Memory Size      256M 1G       1G      4G     16G 64G    -
           Logic Size (Tx)   6.2M 10M 18M 39M 84M 180M 390M
            On-Chip Clk*     1250 1500 2100 3500 6000 10000 16824
             Off-Chip Clk    480 785      885 1035 1285 1540 1852
               IC Pins       810 900      1100 1500 2000 2700 3642
               Min Vdd       1.8V 1.5V 1.2V 1.2V 0.9V 0.6V          0.4


NCU EE                                                          Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU               Solid State Memories                    P.21
RAM Terminologies
 • Row Address/Column Address
    – share the same address ported, latched by RAS and CAS
    – RAS must be applied before Column
    – Row address define the page
 • Refresh
    – Refill the DRAM capacitor charge lost due to leakage
    – Refresh a row simultaneously every 10ms
 • Page Mode
    – After row address is given, all the data in the page can be
      accessed without giving the row address again
 • Burst Mode
    – After row address is given, the data can be quickly
      accessed serially.
NCU EE                                             Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU        Solid State Memories              P.22
RAM Terminologies
• Asynchronous RAM
   –Data come out certain time after given address and R/W
• Synchronous RAM
   –Data come out certain clocks after given address and R/W
   –Achieved by internal pipelining
• Dual port RAM
   –Two sets of address decoders and read/write circuitry.
   –Can be read/write simultaneously
   –Used in Video application
• Extended Data Output (EDO)
   –Nearly identical to fast page mode
   –Modify sense amplifier to boost bus speed to 40MHz
   –The main DRAM product in 1997.

NCU EE                                            Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU       Solid State Memories              P.23
Memory Type -          Application Specific RAMs
• 3-D RAM--Cache DRAM with on-board ALU for 3-D graphics
  functions.
• Burst EDO--EDO plus a counter to transfer a linearly
  addressed string of data.
• CDRAM--Cache DRAM: internal SRAM cache added to
  DRAM.
• EDORAM-Extended Data Out RAM, also called hyper page; a
  modification of fast page mode to hold data after CAS goes
  high, allowing faster CAS cycles.
• EDRAM--Enhanced DRAM: very fast DRAM cells directly
  mapped to SRAM cache.
• Fast Page Mode--a modification of the basic DRAM to allow
  multiple column accesses from a single row access.
• MDRAM--Multibank DRAM, a collection of smaller, fast blocks
  of DRAM with on-chip interleaving, pipelining.
NCU EE                                            Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU       Solid State Memories              P.24
  Memory Type - Application Specific RAMs (II)
 • RDRAM--Rambus DRAM: specialized interface and 500
   MHz 8 b wide bus controller plus on-chip interleaving.
 • SBSRAM--Synchronous Burst Static RAM: SSRAM plus a
   burst counter.
 • SDRAM--Synchronous DRAM: a standard DRAM with all
   functions referenced to the system clock, burst output mode.
 • SGRAM--Synchronous Graphics DRAM: an SDRAM with
   block write and write per bit.
 • SRAM--Static RAM.
 • SSRAM--Synchronous Static RAM: addition of clock to
   synchronize RAM to system clock.
 • VRAM--Video RAM: Dual Port or multi-port RAM.
 • WDRAM--Window DRAM, a modification of VRAM to reduce
   internal complexity.
NCU EE                                             Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU        Solid State Memories              P.25
DRAM Markets
                              Specialty VRAM
                              Synchronous VRAMs
                              Wide VRAMs
             VRAMs            Window VRAMs
                              Standard VRAMs
                       Revolutionary               Rambus DRAM
                       Evolutionary                DDR/SL DRAM
         Generic
                                                            SDRAM

                                                   Wide
                                                   Low Power

NCU EE                                                    Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU        Solid State Memories                     P.26
DRAM Market
Worldwide shipments (million)


                            2200
                            2000
                            1800
                            1600
                                                                                    VRAM
                            1400
                                                                                    Rambus DRAM
                            1200
                                                                                    CDRAM/EDRAM
                            1000
                                                                                    Synchronous DRAM
                                800
                                                                                    EDO DRAM
                                600
                                                                                    Fast-page-mode DRAM
                                400
                                                                                    Frame Buffer
                                200
                                  0
                                      ‘90 ’91 ‘92 ’93 ‘94 ’95 ‘96 ’97 ‘98 ’99
NCU EE                                                                                   Volatile Memory
                                 NCU-EE-CCSU                 Solid State Memories                   P.27
DRAM Trend


                              256
            Number of DRAMs


                              128                                                 8G
                               64
                               32
                               16                                                2G

                                8
                                                                          512M
                                4
                                                                   128M
                                2                        32M
                                    2M          8M
                                1
                                    ’90 ’91 ’92 ’93 ’94 ’95 ’96 ’97 ’98 ’99 ’00 ’01 ’02


NCU EE                                                                                Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                               Solid State Memories                          P.28
SRAM Development

     SRAM
             64kb 256kb 512kb 1Mb 4Mb                    16Mb          64M     256M         1G
     Density

Cache Size 64KB          128KB      25KB        512KB      1MB     4MB          8M      16M


    Protocal Asynchronous                           Synchronous                 SDRAM


Bus Speed 16M           33M        40M    66M      75M           100M        133M      166M


 Bus Width 8bit         32bits                    64bits           128b                     256


               ‘90     ’91   ‘92    ’93   ‘94    ’95     ‘96     ’97    ‘98    ’99    ‘00     ’01
NCU EE                                                                        Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                      Solid State Memories                               P.29
SRAM Usage


                                            1200
            Worldwide shipments (million)



                                            1100
                                            1000
                                            800
                                            700
                                            600
                                            500
                                            400
                                            300                                                   Asynchronous
                                            200                                                   Synchronous
                                            100
                                              0
                                                   '90   '91   '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97 '98


NCU EE                                                                                                    Volatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                                                       Solid State Memories                      P.30
Nonvolatile Memories
• Masked ROM (ROMs)
         – Data are written permanently during the manufacturing
         – High density and low cost
• Programmable ROMs (PROMs)
         – User programmable only once, Flexible and low cost
• UV Erasable ROMs (EPROMs)
         – User programmable multiple times, Flexible, erased by UV
• Electrically Erasable PROMs
         – Erased by high voltage
• Flash Memories (EPROMs or EEPROMs)
         – Block/page ersable by regular supply voltage


NCU EE                                                  Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU             Solid State Memories                 P.31
Mask ROM Structure

             A0
             A1                                      Address Decoder
             A2

                                                     Word Line


                                                             Data
                                                                 O1
                                                                 O2
                                                                 O3
                       m0 m1 m2 m3 m4 m5 m6 m7


NCU EE                                                 Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU          Solid State Memories                     P.32
Programmable ROM

             A0
             A1                                      Address Decoder
             A2

                                                     Word Line


                                                             Data
                                                                 O1
                                                                 O2
                                                                 O3
                       m0 m1 m2 m3 m4 m5 m6 m7


NCU EE                                                 Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU          Solid State Memories                     P.33
UV Erase PROM

         Source Metal                                           Drain Metal
                        Control Gate Floating Gate



             SiO2                                                   SiO2

                         n+                                n+
                                      Gate Oxide
              Source Diffusion                    Drain Diffusion
                                 Unoxidized
                                 Silion                         Field Oxide
              p-Substrate        Surface

NCU EE                                                          Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                Solid State Memories                      P.34
UV EPROM


                                                       UV Light

                       Vgg

          Vss                 Vdd
                +++++++++++                          +++++++++++


          n+                  n+             n+                       n+



                 Program                                   Erase


NCU EE                                                             Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                Solid State Memories                         P.35
Electrical EPROM



               Control Gate
               Storage Gate




                          n+               n+




NCU EE                                                Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU           Solid State Memories                 P.36
Eelectrical EPROM -


                       Vss                                   Vss

                               Vdd                                        Vdd
                ++++++++eee                            +++         eee

               ----------
          n+                  n+               n+                        n+




NCU EE                                                             Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                 Solid State Memories                        P.37
Flash Memory




                             Erase

                                                                   Erase
             n+             n+              n+               n+
                  Program                          Program




NCU EE                                                        Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                 Solid State Memories                   P.38
Flash Memory




                                                            Program
                            Erase                           Erase

            n+             n+              n+              n+
                 Program




NCU EE                                                      Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                Solid State Memories                  P.39
Flash Memory Structure

                  Gate S
                                                               Select gate
                  Gate F
                                                              Floating gate

 Source                    Drain                  Source                        Drain
              Substrate                                          Substrate

            EPROM cell                            Intel Etox flash-memory cell

                               Trench                                         Floating gate
                               capacitor
           Gate                                   Erase gate                    Select gate
Source                      Drain
                                                     Source                      Drain
         Substrate                                                Substrate

            DRAM cell                                Triple-poly EEPROM cell
NCU EE                                                               Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                   Solid State Memories                              P.40
Flash Memory Types

               Bit Line                         Bit Line



     WL1                            WL1

                                    WL2

                                    WL3
     WL2
                                    WL4




             NOR type FLASH                   NAND type FLASH


NCU EE                                                     Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU          Solid State Memories                       P.41
EEPROM Usage


                    Consumer
         Telecommunications
                     Industrial
                        Office
                   Automotive
           Military/Aerospace
          Impage Processing
                     Computer
                 Mass Storage
                                  0   50       100      150    200   250
                                             Units (million)



NCU EE                                                         Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                  Solid State Memories                   P.42
EEPROM Usage

                                1100
                               1000
                                    900
                Millions of Units



                                    800
                                    700
                                    600
                                    500
                                    400
                                    300
                                    200
                                    100
                                          '92   '93   '94     '95    '96   '97     '98
                                                      Log Density

NCU EE                                                                                   Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                                        Solid State Memories                       P.43
Flash Comparison (1)

                                                                                      Battery-
                        FLASH     FLASH       Full-Feature
         Features                                                EPROM                Backed
                        (NOR)     (NAND)        EEPROM
                                                                                       DRAM
                          2         2             2              2            2
         Cell size   15.2um      12.9um         30.4um           11.9um               3.4um
          Tx/Cell         1        1.25               2              1                   1
          Density    1M bytes    4M bytes       1M bytes         4M bytes         16M bytes
                          2         2             2              2                2
         Chip Size   38mm        163mm         91.5mm            83.4mm               N.A.mm
         Volt Reg.       N/A     Internal        Internal            N/A      Not required
     Data Retain     >10 years   >10 years     >10 years         >10 years            2@2AH


NCU EE                                                                     Nonvolatile Memory
          NCU-EE-CCSU                     Solid State Memories                                   P.44
Flash Comparison (2)

                                                                            Battery-
                   FLASH       FLASH       Full-Feature
     Features                                                  EPROM        Backed
                   (NOR)       (NAND)        EEPROM
                                                                             DRAM
    Write Time    10us/byte   1.2us/byte 2000us/byte 0.5us/byte              1us/bit
   Erase Time     0.9s/chip   10ms/chip    0.002s/chip     1200s/chip        1us/bit
    Read Time       90ns       1600ns          90ns             90ns        1000ns
    Min. Erase
                   All bits   264 bytes       1 byte           All bits      1 bits
    Block size
                                                                               
   No. of cycle     100K      10K~100K      10K~100K           1K~10K



NCU EE                                                                 Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU                    Solid State Memories                           P.45
Flash Comparison

                         Non-       High      Low      One Tx                 Fully bit-   Fast
         Memory type                                                Rewrite
                        volatile   density   power       Cell                 alterable    read
            Flash                                                                     
           SRAM                                                                       
           DRAM                                                                       
          EEPROM                                                                      
    PROM/EPROM                                                                        
            ROM                                                                       
          Hard-disk                                                                   
           Floppy                                                                     
            MO                                                                        
             CD                                                                       


NCU EE                                                                        Nonvolatile Memory
          NCU-EE-CCSU                        Solid State Memories                                 P.46
Flash Memory Comparison
• FLASH cells can be roughly made two or three
  times smaller than the EEPROM
• Flash memory is faster and more frequent
  programming than EPROM
• Flash memory provide better data reliability than
  battery-backed DRAM
• Flash memory fit in applications that might otherwise
  have used ROM (EEPROM), battery-backed RAM,
  or magnetic mass storae
NCU EE                                          Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU     Solid State Memories                 P.47
  Memory Type - Advanced Technologies
 • Ferroelectrical Random Access Memory (FRAMs)
 • Callium Arsenide (GaAs) FRAMs
 • Analog Memories
 • Magnetoresistive Random Access Memories
   (MRAMs)
 • Experimental Memories
         –   Quantum-Mechanical Switch Memories
         –   A GaAs npnp Thyristor/JFET Memory Cell
         –   Single Electron Memory
         –   Neuron-MOS multiple-valued memory technology


NCU EE                                                 Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU            Solid State Memories                 P.48
Memory Packaging - Single Chip




NCU EE                                        Nonvolatile Memory
         NCU-EE-CCSU   Solid State Memories                 P.49
Memory Packaging - Single Chip




NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU   Solid State Memories   P.50
Memory Packaging - SIMM Module




NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU   Solid State Memories   P.51
  Memory Packaging - Multiple Chip Module




NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU   Solid State Memories   P.52
Memory Packaging - Memory Stacks




NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU   Solid State Memories   P.53
Memory Faults - in memory cell array
         •   Stuck-at faults
         •   Stuck-open faults
         •   Transition faults
         •   Data retention faults
         •   Coupling faults
         •   Neighborhood pattern sensitive faults




NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU          Solid State Memories   P.54
Memory Test - Procedure

         Wafer Processing
                             Probe Test
         Assembly
                             Pre-burn-in test
         Dynamic Bur-in
                             Final Test with Sped Select
         Mark
                             Test
         Visual Inspection
                             QA Sample Testing

NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU         Solid State Memories          P.55
Memory Test - Functional Test (I)




NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU   Solid State Memories   P.56
Memory Test - Functional Test (II)




NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU   Solid State Memories   P.57
Memory Test - Functional Test (III)




NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU   Solid State Memories   P.58
 Memory Test - DC Parametric Testing
         •   Quiescent and operating voltage
         •   Output voltage low and high
         •   I/O pin leakage current
         •   Data retention voltage and current
         •   Input voltage low and high




NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU        Solid State Memories   P.59
Memory Test - AC Parametric Testing

 • Read Operation                      • Write Operation
         –   Read cycle time                 –   Write cycle time
         –   Address access time             –   Address setup/hold time
         –   Chip select/enable times
         –   Output hlds/enable times        –   write pulse width
                                             –   data setup/hold time
                                             –   Output active time
   • Other Test
         – Voltage Bump Test
                              5V


NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU               Solid State Memories                P.60
Memory Testing - DFT Standard
    DRAM Test Mode - EIA JEDEC Standard 21C

    • WE and CAS before RAS enter the test mode
    • eight low-order row address define the test mode
    • test mode remain until next normal erfresh cycle
    • data written into will be written into multiple
      locations
    • a Q bit to indicate that the data being retrieved
      are equal


NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU      Solid State Memories       P.61
Memory Testing - DFT Propietory
         Multibit and Word Line Mode




NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU       Solid State Memories   P.62
Advanced Memory Testing - BIST




NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU   Solid State Memories   P.63
Memory Testing - Fault Tolerant
 • Static Redundancy - Spare columns and spare rows
 • Dynamic Redundancy -
         – Error Detection and Correction (ECC)
         – Standby Reconfiguration Method
           Use fault-status table to switch rows/columns
         – Memory Reconfiguration by the Graceful Degradation
           Scheme
           Use associate memory (fault coincidenct bits) to switch
           bits
 • Current Technology - 1 fault per M-bits


NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU            Solid State Memories            P.64
Memory Test Time




NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU   Solid State Memories   P.65
IC Industrial (1998) - World Wide Products


                                                MOS Micro 37.7%
                                                MOS Memory 18.3%

                       125.6                    Analog 15.2%
                       BUSD                     MOS Logic 14.8%
                                                Disc&Opto 13.2%
                                                Bip Digital 0.9%


NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU           Solid State Memories                P.66
IC Industrial (1998) - Products

          70
          60
          50
                                                         Mic ro
          40                                             Me m o ry
          30                                             Lo g ic
                                                         An a lo g
          20
                                                         O t h e rs
          10
           0
               Wo rld   US A   J apan        Ta iw a n
NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU           Solid State Memories              P.67
IC Industrial -          Top Companies

          World Wide 125,600 M US$                  Taiwan 3,668M US$
   Intel   22,880      Mitsubishi   3,287            台積電         502
   NEC      7,351      Philips      3,265            聯電          184
   TI       6,500      Lucent       2,750            華邦          156
   Motorola 5,880      Siemens      2,743            茂矽          126
   IBM      4,900      AMD          2,473            旺宏          123
   Toshiba 4,885       NS           2,115            聯誠          120
   Hitachi  3,893      Hyundai      1,835            世界先進         99
   Samsung 3,800       Matsushita   1,775            茂德           85
   ST       3,730      TSMC         1,520            力晶           67
   Fujitsu  3,435      LG           1,500            德碁           60
                                    M US$                      億 NT$
NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU         Solid State Memories                  P.68
IC Industrial -              Top DRAM Companies

                                       DRAM                 IC
                       Hyundai/LG       2,960              3,335
                       Samsung          2,854              3,800
                       Micron           1,791
                       Siemens          1,694              2,743
                       NEC              1,010              7,351
                       Mitsubishi       1,003              3,287
                       Hitachi            957              3,893
                       Toshiba            763              4,885
                       Fujitsu            701              3,435
                                                           M US$
NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU                Solid State Memories           P.69
IC Industrial -         Taiwan
                   台積電      TSMC
                     德碁       TSMC-Acer
                     世界先進     Vanguard
                     世大       WSMC
                   聯電       UMC
                     聯瑞       UICC
                     聯嘉       USIC
                     聯誠       USC
                     合泰       UTEK
                   華邦       Winbond
                   茂矽       Mosel-Vatalic
                   旺宏       Macronix
                   茂德       Promos
                   力晶       Powerchip
                   南亞       Nanya
NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU        Solid State Memories   P.70
IC Industrial -          Taiwan Memory Producers


                       Memory         Technique     Foundry
             德碁        DRAM            Fujitsu      Fujitsu
             世界先進      DRAM*           Mitsubishi
             世大        DRAM            Fujitsu      Fujitsu
             聯電        Flash                        SanDisk
             華邦        DRAM,Flash      Toshiba      Toshiba
             茂矽        DRAM                         Sharp
             旺宏        Flash, ROM      Philips,VLSI Matsushita
             茂德        DRAM            Infineon
             力晶        DRAM            Mitsubishi   Mitsubishi
             南亞        DRAM            OKI, IBM
NCU EE


         NCU-EE-CCSU         Solid State Memories                P.71

				
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