Imperialism’s new phase
“The sun never sets on the British Empire”
But still includes Germany, France, Belgium,
Netherlands, United States, Russia, Japan,
and even Italy
Industrial Revolution and Nationalism foster
new colonial era known as the Scramble for
Africa on the African continent but expands
throughout the globe
Pattern of change
Enlightenment/Age of Reason
Scientific Revolution Agricultural Revolution _
Logic & Reason
Need for Colonies
New Weapons to protect colonies
Empire Building - Imperialism
Competition between countries for resources
Nationalism National Competition
Restoration of Old Order
Motives for Imperialism
• Economic motive for Westerners to increase their search for
colonies after 1880.
• Capitalist states in the West were looking for both markets
and raw materials—such as rubber, oil, and tin—for their
industries. Europeans also wanted more direct control of the
areas with the raw materials and markets.
• European nation-states were involved in heated rivalries. As
European affairs grew tense, states sought to acquire
colonies abroad in order to gain an advantage over their
• Some Europeans took a more religious or humanitarian
approach to imperialism, arguing the Europeans had a
moral responsibility to civilize primitive people.
• Imperialism was also tied to social Darwinism and racism.
– “white man’s burden”
Influence of Europeans
• Influence of the Europeans on different areas of the world
– Independence movements in Latin America yet European culture the
driving force in leadership
• Sphere of Influence
• Open to outside interference because of weaknesses
• Promoted Western ideas in order to Industrialize
• Were able to maintain traditional values yet Caused a backlash and
increased Nationalistic movements
– Southeast Asia
• Thailand -
• Philippines – coaling stations
• Benefits and detriments of 200 years of British influence
– Middle East
• Ottoman’s falling apart as Europeans push to take over areas
• Types of political rule-
– France-direct rule
– England-indirect rule, protectorates
– Spheres of influence - A territorial area over which
political or economic influence is wielded by one
– Protectorates – a political entity enters into an
agreement to allow a stronger state to protect it against
a third party
– Mandates – obligations handed down by an International
– Extraterritorial – the practice of an occupying country, as
in the case of many European countries, living under
their own country’s laws, as in China
South American Revolutions and
Republics in early 1800s
• By 1830 almost all of the areas of South and Central
America had broken away from their previous European
• By 1823 Mexcio became a republic based on the actions
of Miguel Hidalgo, a parish priest in a small village near
– He roused the local Indians and mestizos to free themselves from
the Spanish and his forces attacked the Spaniards in 1810, but
were soon crushed.
– However, the participation of Indians and mestizos in the revolt
frightened both the creoles and the peninsulares.
– Afraid of the masses, they cooperated in defeating Hidalgo’s
– They then decided to overthrow Spanish rule as a way of
preserving their own power.
– Emile Zapata led the final efforts in 1823
Latin American social classes
• Following the revolutions continued struggle
with the classes determined by centuries of
contact with the Europeans
• Peninsulares - men born in Spain
– held highest offices
• Creoles - Spaniards born in Latin America
– officers in army, but not in government
– often resented power of the peninsulares
• Mestizos - mixed European and Indian
• Mulattos - mixed European and African
• Revolutionary movements successful yet
cannot maintain order
• Latin America left with caudillos
– Strong arm leaders who use the military to
– Original republics replaced by dictators
• Simon Boliver
• San Martin
• Santa Anna
Gran Colombia, 1820-1830
• Bolivar’s vision of a united South America.
• Present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela
• Short-lived due to dissension amongst various
• Bolivar resigned in 1828.
• In 1830, Bolivar’s Gran Colombia divided into
Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.
• Panama later split from Colombia with US
Internal weaknesses caused outside Influences
• China was ripe for rebellions and outside interference
• The Tai Ping Rebellion was widespread and indicated
• The Tai Ping Rebellion appealed to many people
because it called for social reforms.
– These reforms included giving land to all peasants and
treating women as equals of men.
– Women even served in their own units in the Tai Ping army.
Hong Xiuquan, the leader of the rebellion, also called for
people to give up private possessions.
– Peasants were to hold lands and farms in common, and
money, food, and clothing were to be shared equally by all.
– Hong outlawed alcohol and tobacco and eliminated the
practice of binding women’s feet.
Pattern in Middle East
– reforms instituted by Muhammad Ali in Egypt
– He was determined to bring Egypt into the
– He modernized the army and set up a public
– He helped to create small industries in refined
sugar, textiles, munitions, and ships.
• End of 1800s
Direct Rule- (usually the French method)
• The imperialist power controlled all levels of government.
• A French man or a German would be the head of the
– Sultans or chieftans in the areas of Africa would be subservient to the
chosen imperial governor (often a military general then later a person
of noble lineage that may have been in government service).
• The French assimilated many peoples into their own society,
often giving citizenship much like the Romans did at their first
– This was an easier process because the peoples in French colonies
were required to learn French and adopt the French educational
system and government.
• Although many areas resented the change and this caused
problems is did allow for greater integration.
Indirect Rule-(Usually the British method)
• The British advisors and a Governor made colonial
laws that were almost always in favor of Great Britain
but they did allow some local rule.
– In Africa the Sultans would consult with the Governor on
international and economic issues but often local issues
were decided by the area rulers.
• The British did not wish for these people to become
part of their society and kept them very separate.
– In India the peoples who worked for the British were
required to act British but not every allowed into British
– They were not invited into each others homes partially
because of the intolerance of the British to recognize or
understand some religious differences or cultural taboos.
World before WWI
South and East Asia
White Man’s Burden
• 'Take up the White Man's burden
• The savage wars of peace
• Fill full the mouth of Famine
• And bid the sickness cease;
• And when your goal is nearest
• The end for others sought,
• Watch Sloth and heathen Folly
• Bring all your hope to nought ....
• 'Take up the White Man's burden
• Ye dare not stoop to less Rudyard Kipling
• Nor call too loud on Freedom
• To cloak your weariness;
• By all ye cry or whisper,
• By all ye leave or do,
• The silent, sullen peoples
• Shall weigh your Gods, and you.
• 'Take up the White Man's burden
• Have done with childish days
• The lightly proffered laurel,
• The easy, ungrudged praise.
• Come now, to search your manhood
• Through all the thankless years, Cold-edged with dear-bought wisdom,
• The judgement of your peers!'
Benefits for colony
• The Raj
– British rule in India had several benefits for the Indian
– It brought order and stability to a society that had been
badly divided by civil war.
– It also led to a fairly honest and efficient government.
– A new school system was set up by the British
– Railroads, the telegraph, and a postal service were
introduced to India shortly after they appeared in Great
– By 1900, 25,000 miles (40,225 km) of railroads
The Good and the Bad
• Britain improved- • Britain ruined
– Hospitals – Freedom
– Social system
– Canals – Increased racism
– Economic exploitation
– Economic base as the
– Laws & safety
economic activity shifted to
– Improved status for meet the needs of the
women (sati abolished British
• The British administrators made all major
• Indirect rule kept the old African elite in
power chiefly to enforce British decisions.
• It provided few opportunities for ambitious
and talented Africans from outside the elite.
• It sowed the seeds for class and tribal
tensions, which would erupt later.
Making a new map of Africa
• Sphere’s of Influence were legitimized
• Buffer states were established to prevent
intervention of other European nations in their
• Hostile tribes were thrown together.
• Conflicting loyalties had grave consequences
for the African tribes.
• Natural dividing lines such as rivers or
mountains were not considered
Congress of Berlin
• Prompted by the Treaty of San Stefano (1878) which granted
independence to Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania and
concerns of Russia's growing power in the area Ottoman
Empire was reduced in size
• Ottoman Empire was reduced in size
• 1. Serbia, Montenegro, Romania became independent
• 2. Bosnia and Herzegovina were transferred to Austria
• 3. Cypress went to Great Britain
• Several African territories were seized by France, Great Britain
• 5. 1908 Bulgaria became independent
• 6. 1912 Italy seized several territories in the Aegean Sea
• 7. 1913 Crete was annexed by Greece