phoneme in the language by rrrkakushi


									      English grammar signals the difference between subject and object by means of word order; Latin grammar signals it by means of

inflectional endings; other languages use still other device^     I semantic   connection at an, me to                 or   try to come,
tor example, or the   4yof quickly.
                                                                     bites, biting, quickly (some
       Morphemes are then arranged grammatically into such higher level units as words:

morphemes are of course already words: dog, bite,man, quicJ()\then phrases of various sorts, e.g. the dog

(which can function, among other ways, as a "subject"); then clauses of various sorts (in English, such constructions contain a subject and

predicate); and finally sentences, which are marked in some way as not being parts of still larger constructions.

       Recent interest in grammar has focused on the following familiar and yet astonishing (and somehow disturbing) fact—any speaker

can say, and any hearer can understand, an infinite number of sentences; and, indeed, many of the sentences we say and hear have

never been said before.

       How does our grammar provide for this enormous variety and flexibility? If we merely want to reach infinity quickly, we need only

allow ourselves to use the word       and      over and over again. There are, however, two far more elegant devices. One is that of

embedding:                putting a construction inside a construction, etc., like a Chinese puzzle. A classic example is the
216                                                                                               EXPOSITORY TYPE: PROCESS
old nursery tale: "This is the cat that killed the rat
that ate the malt (and so on and on and on) . . .
that lay in the house that Jack built."
     Still more elegant is transformation,
whereby a basic sentence type may be
transformed into a large variety of derived
constructions. Thus the dog bites the man can
be transformed into: the dog bit (has bitten, had
bitten, isbiting,was biting, has been biting, can
bite, etc.) the man; the man is bitten (was
bitten, has been bitten, etc.) by the dog; (the
dog) that bites (etc.) the man; (the man) that
the dog bites; (the man) that isbitten by the
dog; (the dog) that the man isbitten by; etc.

     3.PhonologicalEncoding.When J grammatical
encoding has been completed, the message
enters the phonological component of the codeasa
string of morphemes, and these must now be
encoded for sound. This is accomplished by
encoding each morpheme into one or more basic
phonological units or phonemes (from Greek
phone "sound"). The morpheme -s ofbitesis
converted to the phoneme /s/,chec\to /cek/,stone to
/stdn/, thrift to /0rift/, etc.
     (Written symbols for phonemes are
customarily placed between slant lines to
distinguish them from the letters of regular
spelling and from the symbols used in phonetic
transcription. Just what symbols are used for
phonemes is unimportant; one must merely have
a different symbol for each phoneme in the

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