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   Ch. 1:
          1) What are the advantages and disadvantages in food-producing communities and food-
          gathering communities?
          2) What did kinship ties help with in Neolithic Society?
          3) What were the benefits of urbanization?
       1. Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of nomadism and pastoralism.
       2. The Agricultural Revolutions near the end of the Stone Age had many changes. What
          where some of these changes and how did these changes affect living styles?
       3. Briefly describe, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens, and their lifestyles.

   Ch. 2:
          1) Who did the city-states rely on to feed them and what social classes did the city-states
          2) What was the type of government, what power did leaders have, and what did leaders
          build in Mesopotamia and Egypt?
          3) How did the environment affect religion in these territories?
1. What were some similarities and differences of the lifestyles in the river civilizations of
   Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Indus valley?
2. Religion played a dominant part in Egypt and Mesopotamia, compare and contrast the two.
3. How did the need to organize labor features shape the political structures of these societies?

   Chapter 3 - The Late Bronze Age in the Eastern Hemisphere
      1. Why was access to metals and other raw materials so important to the ruling elite?
      2. As the complex societies formed, how did trade, travel, and communications change?
      3. What was the factor that first brought in prosperity and new ideas and then caused the fall
   of the eastern Mediterranean and West Asia?
       1. Compare and contrast the views of legalism, Confucius, Daoism, and the
           concept of Ying and Yang.
       2. Compare and contrast the Shang and Zhou periods in political,
           economical, and technological stand points.
       3. The center of power shifted between Nubia and Egypt and soon it had
           fully shifted to the kingdom of Meroe. Why did this happen?

   Chapter 4 - New Civilizations in the Americas and West Eurasia
      1. What were the first complex societies in the Americas?
      2. Why did new complex organizations of societies come about in different times in the
   Eastern and Western Hemispheres?
      3. Population movement and relocation in Europe, North America, and West Asia sparked
   what kinds of changes?
   1. What factors caused the Eastern Hemisphere to grow Politically and
   technologically more advanced then the Americas?
        2. What are the Mesoamerican civilizations and why did
            they grow at a slower rate?
         3. Why were certain cultures destroyed or assimilated
             while others survived long after this period?
Chapter 5 – Greece and Iran
   1. Describe how the emergence of the Polis grew towards a democracy in Greece
   2. How was the Persian Empire’s imperial organization set up and what was its role in
       making Persia a successful empire?
   3. How did geography, environment, and contacts with other people shape the institutions
       and values of the Persians and the Greeks?
   4. Understand the Greek cities, Athens and Sparta, and their cultural
   5. How did the Persians manage to hold together their diverse collection of
       lands for more then 2 centuries?
   6. What made early Greece a powerful country and what was the start of
       their decline in power?

Chapter 6 – An Age of Empires: Rome and Han China
   1. What was the effect of the rise of Christianity and how did Roman policies help to
       facilitate its growth?
   2. Describe the Han Dynasty and how the rise and fall was centralized.
   3. Describe the similarities between China’s Empires and the Roman Empire.
   4. What important belief systems arose from the Han Dynasty and how did it affect social
       culture in China?
   5. How did the transformation of the Roman State change the empire in regards to political,
       social, and religious aspects?
   6. What technological advancements defined the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty?

Chapter 7 – India and South East Asia
   1. Why did the Gupta Empire become a “theater state”? What advantages did it have over a
       military-run state?
   2. Describe the distinctive social and intellectual features of Indian Civilization.
   3. Why was commerce so important to the development of East Asian culture and
   4. What religions arose from India and how were they started/created?
   5. How did the Verna system distinguish class?
   6. How did the Mauryan Empire and the Gupta Empire become so powerful and unify most
       of India?

Chapter 8
1. How did technology affect long distance trade?
2. What factors influenced trade in the Middle East and Asia from 300BCE-1100CE?
3. What factors where involved in the cultural unification of sub-Saharan Africa?
4. Explain the origins, functions, and importance of the silk road.
5. What was the Indian Ocean Maritime System? Explain its importance to trade.
6. Explain the trade across Africa (Saharan and sub-Saharan) in relation to the economic

Chapter 9
1. What major changes did the Islamic World experience between the time of Muhammad until
the 9th century?
2. Explain what was involved in the dissolution of the Caliphate.
3. Explain the separate spheres within the Islamic world.
    1. Did Muslim women fare better or worse (in regards to legal matters) than Jewish and
        Christian women?
    2. What were some of the effects caused by the transition in the ancient world from identity
        based on ethnicity and localism to identity based on religion caused by the Islamic
    3. What are the basic beliefs of Islam?

Chapter 10
1. How did medieval society affect Feudalism in Christian Europe from 300-1200?
2. Describe the economic and social structure of medieval Western Europe.
3. Explain the affects of the Renaissance on Western Europe through the 18th century.
    1. What was the Hellenistic Age?
    2. How did Eastern Europe and Western Europe differ politically, economically, and
    3. How did the church and rulers use each other to get what they wanted?

Ch. 11:
   1. How did Buddhism affect Central Asia and China’s governments and societies?
   2. In what ways did Chinese Empire domination change from 750 to 1100 to 1200?
   3. List the order and time period of the Chinese Empires (Sui, Tang, and Song) and identify
        their major focuses/motives that they accomplished.
   4. Name the major technologies/innovations that occurred in the early stages of the Sui and
        Tang, and then show how the Song Empire expanded these technologies.
   5. What did the Tang Empire bring to Chinese economy and politics and what did they
        support that eventually lead to their demise? Why did it?
   6. What were the advantages and disadvantages of privatization in the Song Empire?
   7. What were some of the technological advancements in the Far East in this time period?
        How did they affect the civilizations’ (Korea, Japan, China) interactions?

Ch. 12:
   8. How did Teotihuacán/Aztecs solve the problem of little farm land and its large
   9. The Maya were similar to what other empire in Europe/Mediterranean region?
   10. What kind of tribute system did the Aztecs impose on weaker neighbors?
   11. What technology allowed the Incans to become such a large territory?
   12. How did the environment affect the cultural practices of the Maya, the Moche, and the
        people of North America?
   13. Compare and contrast the Aztecs and Inca politically and economically.
   14. To what extent did religion and politics mix in Mesoamerican society? Give examples.

Questions Chapter 13
1. Analyze the reasons why the Mongol rule was so effective.
2. What did the decentralization of the Mongol empire help facilitate?
3. Analyze the positive and negative effects of the Mongol trade routes within the Mongol
    1. What prevented Europe from being overrun by Mongol forces in the 13th century?
    2. What were some factors, which contributed to the Mongol success?
    3. Why did the Mongols never really become integrated in Russian society and politics?

Questions Chapter 14
1. In what locations were the spoken languages affected by Mongol rule?
2. What was it that the Ming dynasty excelled in? What facilitated this?
3. Why is that the Ming are able to prosper in literature, decorative arts, and painting?
    1. Why did the Ming dynasty excel in literature, the decorative arts, and painting?
    2. What were the benefits for the Ming that came from the close relationship with Korea
       and China?

Chapter 15
    1. How did the Dutch gain economic supremacy in Western Europe? How did the Dutch
       affect trade in Europe, Africa, and the New World?
    2. What effects did the Saharan Trade in Africa and Europe?
1) How did environmental factors shape life in Africa and Asia?
2) What were three things factors linking people in Africa and Asia?
3) What was the worlds most important and richest trading area?
4) How did Islam play a role in trading during this period?

Chapter 16
   1. How had Religion controlled politics in Europe and what effects did the Schism, and the
       different Reformations have on this rule?
   2. What was an Enlightened Monarch and how did they view/effect culture in countries?
   3. Literacy improvements made changes for years to come in Europe and the world. What
       were some of these improvements?
1) Most urban growth in the Latin West stemmed from what?
2) What was the fourth crusade about?
3) What was western european success dependant upon?
4) What was the impact of the Hundred Years War?
Chapter 17

       1. Compare and Conrast Portugal's and Spain's use of the navy from 1450 to 1750.

       2. Analyze the change of motives for explorations from beofre 1450 to 1750.

       3. What affects did an exposure to Europeans have on people of American's
       compared/contrasted with Africa.

1. What new technological advances helped form a more efficient
   economy? How did they affect trade?
2. What major factor broke the unity of the Incan Empire?
3. How did the superiority of its ships and weapons over the smaller and
   lightly armed merchant dhows help Portuguese?
4. Compare and Contrast Spanish and Portuguese motivations for
   undertaking voyages of exploration.
5. What type of colony did the Spanish create in the Americas? How did
   this compare to the colonies in Africa?

Chapter 18

       1. Compare and contrast constitutionalism and absolutism between 1500 and 1750.

       2. How did religious changes influence the government and politics in intellectual

       3. How was each social class affected during this period of time?

1.  What caused the Protestant Reformation and whom did it affect?
2.  Compare and contrast Constitutionalism and Absolutism.
3.  How did the role of men and women in society change from 1500-1700?
4.  How did the defeat of the Spanish Armada impact Spain?
5.  What did the Peace of Augsburg establish and how did this affect much
    of Europe?
Ch. 19
1. What were some of the pros and cons of the Columbian exchange?
2. How did the Catholic Church affect Spanish America and Brazil culturally?
3. Why were the four powers able to direct colonies to willingly defend America in the face of
 1. How did the introduction of French culture affect the Amerindians?
2. What were the patterns of French Settlement and whom did they resemble?
3. How were free whites and free blacks treated differently in the 18th century?
Ch. 20
1. What did Islam and Christianity have in common when it came to interaction in Africa?
2. What did the revolution of sugar production do to impact slavery?
3. How did the Atlantic trading system effect the colonization of the Americas?
4. How did the Columbian Exchange alter the New World?
5. How did religion spread throughout the African countries?

Ch. 21
    1. Compare the social and political dynamics of the Mughal, Safavid, and Ottoman
    2. What were the true motive(s) for the Ottoman and Mughal sultans and Safavid shahs for
       land conquest in Africa and Asia?
1. Why did the Ottomans, Mughals and Safavid empires decline?
2. How did the trading patterns change between 1500-1750?
3. Why were the safavids isolated from their surrounding countries?
4. What distinguished the Mughal Empire from the Ottomans and the Safavids?
5. What was the role of women during the time period of the Ottoman Empire?

Ch. 22
    1. Compare the political leaders and their impacts on Russia and China (or to other great
       political leaders)
    2. Compare the political and social dynamics of Russia, China, and Tokugawa Japan.
1. Why did the Ming Empire fall?
2. What are some of the acheviments of Peter the Great?
3. What advantages did Russia have over the Qing Empire?
4. How did Emperor Kangxi stabalize the Qing Empire and what factors contributed to its
decline after his rule?
5. What was the social crisis that took place in Japan and why did it occur?

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