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					      Unit Eight

Ways of Developing Paragraph
Listing and Exemplification(列举和举例法)

Comparison and contrast(比较对照法)

Cause and Effect (因果分析法)

Definition and classification(定义分类法)

Induction and deduction (归纳与演绎法)
 I. Paragraph Development by Listing
and Exemplification (列举和举例法)
  1. Paragraph Development by Listing
 1) Basic Information
 The main idea in the topic sentence
   can be further developed by listing
   some details, such as reasons,
   methods, which can make the
   paragraph easy to follow.
   The bad impact of tourism on the environment
    has mainly expressed itself in various ways.
    One way is the process of exploiting a new
    scenic spot. In order to attract tourists, a lot of
    artificial facilities have been built, which have
    certain unfavorable effects on the environment.
    This process usually breaks the ecological
    balance of the area.
   Another way the development of tourism
    has damaged the environment occurs
    when tourists go to scenic spots. Some
    tourists don't have the awareness to
    protect the environment, and ignorantly
    throw their garbage here and there. Some
    people even kill the local wildlife to eat,
    which badly damages the balance of the
    natural environment.
       2) Transitional Words

 for   one thing, for another;
 to   begin with, first, second, also,
 besides, moreover, finally;
 one,   another, still another, etc
 2. Paragraph Development by
 1) Basic Information
   using examples and details to
  illustrate your point, and make the
  main idea become specific ,also make
  your paragraph understandable and
There are many different forms of exercises
 to suit different tastes. For example, those
who enjoy competitive sports may take up
ball games. For another example, if they
prefer to exercise alone, they can have a run
 or take a walk in the morning or in the
evening. Besides, people can go swimming in
the summer and go skating in the winter. In
short, no matter what their interests are,
people can always find more than one sports
that are suitable to them.
   2) Transitional Words
for example, for instance, for one thing,
 for another, to illustrate, one example is,
to begin with, first, second, furthermore,
 besides, in addition, moreover, finally, in
 conclusion, in summary, also, a case in
point, as an illustration, incidentally,
namely, that is.
 Useful Words and expression
 举例:illustrate/illustration
 引用:cite/quote an example
 事例:to cite an example
 适用的例子:a case in point
 例如:for example/for instance
 证据:evidence/proof
 不容质疑:it goes without
 表明:unfold/expose/index/reveal/exhibit
  We may cite/quote a single/common
  example of …
 We may mention another example of …
 The following examples can prove my
 I can think of no better illustration of
  this idea than the fact that …
 There is now evidence that …
 The most striking instance is…
 The list of such examples is numerous.
 The above instances drive us to a natural
  conclusion that …
 To illustrate/As another instance
 If one more example is needed, I could
 Given the examples I just outlined, I can
  only say that…
 3) Some problem on using Exemplification
 A. Using improper example
 Eg. Population control is a fundamental
  policy in China. If the country is
  overcrowded too much, the government
  has to spend more money than they can
  afford to support them; Overcrowded, the
  country may seek more land to support its
  people, therefore it may want to have a war
  against other country.
 3) Some Problem on Using Exemplification
 B. Orderless Examples
 Environment Pollution must be curbed for
  the benefit of people. I have traveled
  through half of China from south to north, I
  found that I can not see a clear river or
  lake. When I looked up in the sky, I found
  its color was not blue at all, it is gray! We
  have lost the beautiful globe for ever, I
  thought. So I think we have to take some
  measures to fight pollution.
                Class Work
   Develop the following topic sentence
    into a paragraph, by using listing or
         There are a number of ways
      for us to keep fit. ____________
   Sample:
   There are a number of ways for us to keep
    fit. First, no matter how busy we are,we
    should have exercise every day to strengthen
    our muscles. Second,it is important to keep
    good hours. for example,if we are in the
    habit of going to bed early and getting up
    early,we can avoid overworking ourselves and
    get enough sleep. Finally,entertainment is
    also necessary so that we may have some
    moments of relaxation. If we follow those
    instructions,we will certainly be in good
II. Comparison and Contrast(比较对照
    Use comparison and contrast to develop
    a topic by examining its similarities or
    dissimilarities to another thing, process,
    or state. Comparison emphasizes the
    similarities, contrast the differences. A
    paragraph may use both comparison and
 第一种先A后B式,即在比较过程中,分别论述A
  B3;…的方法。(block pattern )
 (Subject to subject)

      A1 A2 A3

      B1 B2 B3

   见下例 :
   When the average American family goes
    to buy a new car, it is faced with a
    difficult decision because of the variety
    of automobiles. After weeding out the
    impossibilities, most families have to
    choose between the SUV and the
    compact, both of which have good and
    bad features. The compact gets excellent
    gas mileage, from thirty to forty miles
    per gallon. With the price of gasoline
    climbing toward $2.00 per gallon, this is
    no small consideration.
   Handling is another positive factor of a
    compact car. Its size almost
    guarantees excellent maneuverability
    and the ability to squeeze into those
    half spaces in the parking lot. Space
    for people and cargo, however, is
    limited. For the large family, the car
    pool, or the long vacation, these cars
    are not ideal.
   The SUV, on the other hand, would be
    excellent for these types of families and
    activities. It has plenty of room to seat
    six adults with space left over for
    luggage, the family dog, or more people.
    Obviously this large size means handling
    is somewhat awkward. Also, owing to its
    largeness, the SUV does not get the gas
    mileage a compact does, and the owner
    can count on more frequent and more
    expensive stops at the pump. The family
    buying a new car should certainly
    consider these two and carefully weigh
    the characteristics of each.
 第二种是AB交错式( alternative pattern )
 (Point to point)
 即以A1,B1;A2,B2;A3,B3……以成对的形式

    A1        B1
    A2        B2
    A3        B3

    见下例 :
                From Paragraph to Essay
      Despite their obvious differences in length,
    the paragraph and the essay are quite similar
    structurally. For example, the paragraph is
    introduced by either a topic sentences or a
    topic introducer followed by a topic sentence.
    In the essay, the first paragraph provides
    introductory material and establishes the topic
    focus. Next, the sentences in the body of a
    paragraph develop the topic sentence.
    Similarly, the body of an essay consists of a
    number of paragraphs that expand and support
    the ideas presented in the introductory
   Finally, a terminator — whether a
    restatement, conclusion, or
    observation — ends the paragraph. The
    essay, too, has a device which brings its
    ideas to a logically and psychologically
    satisfying completion: the concluding
    paragraph. Although exceptions to these
    generalizations may be observed in
    modern creative writing, most well
    written expository paragraphs and essay
    are comparable in structure.
      Paragraph Writing               Essay Writing
1.For example: a topic sentence ---an introductory
2. Next: sentence developers -----a number of
3. Finally: a concluding sentence ---- a concluding
 比较和对照法常用的过渡词:
 like, likewise, unlike, similarly, in the same
  way, on the other hand, compare with, by
  comparison, in contrast, on the contrary,
  but, so despite, yet, instead, while, whereas,
  however, nevertheless, although, even
  though, conversely, different from, equally
  important, in spite of,instead, in the same
  manner, still
 Short Conjunctions
   Similarly,
   Likewise,
   ...the same...
   ...the same as...
   ...also...
   ..., too.
   both
   Longer Expressions
     In the same way,
     X is similar to Y in that (they)...
     X and Y are similar in that (they)...
     Like X, Y [verb]...
     In like manner,
     One way in which X is similar to Y is (that)...
     Another way in which X is similar to Y is
                Contrast
 Unlike A, B...
 A is not as ... as B...
 In contrast, B...
 A has...; however, B has…
 Although A..., B...
 A is ..., but B is ...
 A is ... whereas B is ...
 A is ...; on the other hand, B
Exercise #1
1.in the same way,2. likewise, 3.another
5. whereas,6. too, 7.while,8. both, 9.however
      Even though we come from different cultures, my wife
   and8I are alike in several ways. For one thing, we are
   ______thirty-two years old. In fact, our birthdays are in
   the same month, hers on July 10 and mine on July
   20.________ is that we both grew up in large cities.
   Helene was born and raised in Paris and I come from
   Yokohama. Third, our hobbies are alike _______. My wife
   devotes a lot of her free time to playing jazz piano.
   ________, I like to spend time after work strumming my
   guitar. A more important similarity concerns our values.
   For example, Helene has strong opinions about educating
   our children and raising them to know right from wrong. I
   feel ________. Our children should receive a good
   education and also have strong moral training.
                EX 2

 Writing   a contrast paragraph.
   Fast food and Traditional food
   Traditional food and fast food
    Even though traditional food and fast food are
    both eatable , which can make people full,
    they are different in various ways. To begin
    with, the biggest difference involves the time
    spent on the food. Traditional food is
    overshadowed by its fast competitor in terms
    of time. Traditional food can consume a
    considerable amount of time from choosing
    materials, to arranging your table for visual
    appeal. In contrast, fast food cannot be faster
    when making a five-minute trip to a store
    around the corner, or even dialing to a fast
    food company.
   Another dissimilarity concerns their
    nutritional value. Traditional food is
    favorably nutritious and balanced,
    compared with fast food. It is reported
    traditional food can retain more nutrition
    before being served on the table, for in
    general, they are cooked with a
    temperate heat. By contrast, the fast
    food are made at such a high temperature
    that nutrition has inescapably vaporized
    during the cooking process. As a result,
    traditional food differs from fast food in
    various aspects.
3. Cause and Effect (因果分析法)
 1) Basic Information
 Use cause and effect in paragraphs when
  you are tracking the development of one
  situation or event out of another. Cause
  and effect is an analytical mode of
  paragraph development that attempts to
  show how events are influenced by or
  caused by others—the linkage of
 2)   Patterns
                 Effect
   Cause         Effect
                 Effect
                 Reason
 Effect          Reason
                 Reason
Pattern One
   Cause       Effect
               Effect
   Linking words: As a result, Next, In
    addition, Finally …
Eg. It is difficult for workers to find
    employment this years.
   As a result, many recent college graduates
    are unemployed or taking part-time jobs to
    meet expenses.
   Next, unemployment among high school
    graduates has meant that large numbers of
    teenagers are seeking unemployment benefits.
   In addition, the unemployment figures are the
    highest in decades.
   Finally, the federal government must
    contribute large amounts of money to support
    the growing numbers of people who are
    receiving welfare assistance.
There is no doubt that youth drug abuse
 is a serious social problem and has
 produced a lot of negative effects on
 our society. The most severe
 consequence is the rapid increase of
 juvenile delinquencies committed by
 youths taking drugs. With the high
 incidence of youth drug cases, many
 once-happy families have been on the
 verge of collapse, which will inevitably
 disrupt social order and jeopardize
 social security and even national
 PatternTwo
           Reason
 Effect    Reason
           Reason
  Linking words : One reason…,In
  addition, another reason…,Finally
 First of all, Second, In addition, Finally
 Eg. It is difficult for workers to find
  employment this years .
 One reason is that many industries are
  not hiring new workers .
 In addition, industries are reducing their
  current staff levels because of a decline
  in national economic conditions .
 Another reason is that workers who once
  might have considered early retirement
  are now staying at their jobs .
 Finally, other workers who once view
  their job as optional now must keep their
  positions in order to meet their minimum
  financial responsibilities .
   In recent decades, cities have grown so large
    that now about 50% of the Earth's
    population lives in urban areas. There are
    several reasons for this occurrence. First,
    the increasing industrialization of the
    nineteenth century resulted in the creation
    of many factory jobs, which tended to be
    located in cities. These jobs, with their
    promise of a better material life, attracted
    many people from rural areas.
   Second, there were many schools
    established to educate the children of the
    new factory laborers. The promise of a
    better education persuaded many families
    to leave farming communities and move to
    the cities. Finally, as the cities grew,
    people established places of leisure,
    entertainment, and culture, such as sports
    stadiums, theaters, and museums. For
    many people, these facilities made city life
    appear more interesting than life on the
    farm, and therefore drew them away from
    rural communities.
     EFFECT                    CAUSES
 (Topic Sentence)        (Supporting Sentences)

There are           Factory jobs attracted people.
several reasons
                    Better schools attracted
for the             families to move to the city.
expansion of
city .              Places of leisure,
                    entertainment, and culture
                    made city life appear more
 3)Transitional Words:
 therefore, consequently, accordingly,
  as a result, hence, so that, thus/
  since, because, for, due to, for this
  reason, owing to
    Useful words and expression
 attribute to / ascribe to / owe to
 lead to/result in/give rise to/entail/cause
 to cause, to produce, to bring about, to
  result from, to be responsible for, to be
  the result of, to be the cause of, to be due
  to, to be caused by, to have an effect on
 The  success/failure/decline
  stems/derives/results from the factors as
 One lies in…another is found in … still
  another consists in…
 There is another reason why I cast my
  preference for… …
 …..is mainly responsible for…
 We may look into every possible
  reason except the real one. The
  leading/underlying/root cause/for …
 These factors, coupled with the factor
  of … ,lead to…
    Basic Sentence Patterns
              is responsible for
  a. A cause produces             an
  effect .
             results in
 Example: Heavy smoking-----lung cancer
    Basic Sentence Patterns
                is due to
 b. An effect   results from    a cause .
                occurs from
 Example: Lung cancer ---heavy smoking
       Basic Sentence Patterns
     Owing to
 c. Because of     a cause, an effect
    As a result of
 Example: He has developed a bad cough.
  He has been smoking heavily.
   ⑴ He has developed a bad cough as
 a result of/owing to/because of
 heavy smoking .
 ⑵ He has developed a bad cough
 owing to the fact that he has been
 smoking heavily .
   EX1. Correct errors.
     There are several possible reasons why my father
    is in excellent health, even though he is over eighty
    years of age. For one thing, he is in excellent
    condition _because_ he has stopped smoking
    cigarettes. He quit smoking cigarettes _because of_
    whenever he climbed stairs he would invariably stop
    several times and cough loudly. His good health is
    also since_ his cutting down on the wrong kinds of
    foods. For example, whereas before he would eat
    fatty red meat and deep-fried dishes several times a
    week, nowadays he seldom does so. He has more
    energy as a result_ He is also in good physical
    shape _as a consequence_ his devotion to
    exercise. He swims three times a week at the local
    gym, and on sunny days he prefers to walk home
    rather than take the bus. So__, my father is in better
    shape than some of his children are!
   Ex 2
 There    are several factors contributing
    to the popularity of studying abroad.
 Ex 2. Write a paragraph with “Cause and Effect”
 Three are several factors contributing to
  the traffic jam.
 The increase of private cars is the first
  reason for the crowded traffic.
 The second reason is that the road
  construction and improvement haven’t kept
  pace with the increase of traffics.
 The last reason involves the bad
  management of transportation system and
  people’s little awareness of traffic
4. Definition and classification
1) Definition
   Definition is the most fundamental way
of developing and analyzing ideas. A writer
has to define the terms to show the
direction of the essay.
   Readers must know the directions
before they can predict what they are going
to read. How complete the definition is and
what kind the writer uses depends on how
much specific information is needed.
     Love is a very general term. It refers
    to a strong feeling of fondness for
    another person. It can happen between
    people of the opposite sex or between
    members of a family. No matter where it
    happens, love can always bring happiness
    to people.
    Tips for Good Definition Paragraphs

 Start your paragraph with a dictionary or
  other authority's definition of the word
  or phrase you are writing about.
 Add another point, your own, to this
 Tell your reader one thing that sth is not.
 Choose another point and explain it
    Tips for Good Definition Paragraphs
 Choose one of the other points you can
  think of, and explain it here.
 Choose another point and explain it
 If you have another point, explain it here.
 Finish with a conclusion which reflects
  all that you mentioned in your
    Webster's II New Riverside University
    Dictionary defines mother's day as "A
    day for honoring mothers
    and motherhood, observed annually on
    the second Sunday in May." Actually,
    mother's day is a celebration, but it is
    much more too. For the family, it is not a
    normal day, busy with chores and work
    around the house, and empty of
   It is a day when children get up earlier
    than usual, and excitedly try to keep their
    plans for celebration secret from their
    mothers. It is a day when mothers
    pretend not to hear the kids excitement
    and preparations, and show absolute
    surprise when they, smiling and parading
    down the hall, carefully and awkwardly
    bring orange juice and overdone toast for
    her breakfast in bed, as a sign of love.
   Mother's Day is a day for remembering - a
    happy day for people who warmly think of
    their mothers, a sad day for those who no
    longer have them, and a day for most of
    the world to celebrate a very special
    member of the family - the mother.
   It is a day when kids and adults buy all
    kinds of gifts for their special women -
    from jewelry to food, to cards and
    flowers, and restaurants are full of
    families trying to give their mothers a
    day off from the kitchen.
         Useful Expressions
what is …, to be defined as, to refer to,
 the definition of …is, to be used to
 describe, in a very real sense, in a
 limited sense, this is, this means, be
 explained, state that, in other words,
 2)   Classification
 A. A classification places items in
  groups according to some principles.
 Eg 1. Colleges can be classified or
  grouped according to their
               location
               size
               course offerings
               cost
Eg2. Cars can be classified by
   Items are placed in a group
 B.
 because they share
 High  performance cars have
  similar features: engine size,
  and the ability to travel fast.
 Luxury cars: leather seats, and
  electronic dashboards
 Family cars: seating for six or
  more and good gas mileage
 C. Classification is important because
 it helps us sort and group things.

 Think how hard it would be to find a
 book in the library without a
 classification system
 D.The topic sentence for a
 classification paragraph presents
 the topic and includes words that let
 the reader know the paragraph will
 place things in groups.
   Topic sentences:

    Four categories of employers exist in
    the workplace.

    An athlete soon learns of the several
    kinds of coaches.

    All automobiles fall into one of three
 E. Place things according to only
 one principle.
 When you develop your
 supporting details, think of each
 sentence that presents a
 particular group as a general
 statement that must be
 followed by specific statements.
 Kinds of exams: multiple choice, true/false,
  in class, take-home, essay, fill-in-the-
  blanks, open book, definition, matching
 Principle of classification: degree of
 group 1: easy
 group 2: moderately hard
 group 3: hard
 items in group 1: true/false, matching
 items in group 2: multiple choice
 items in group 3: essay, fill-in-the blanks
          Class Work
       Kinds of teachers
     kinds of restaurants
        kinds of friends
    kinds of dinner parties
        kinds of bosses
kinds of birthday celebrations
    kinds of radio stations
      kinds of neighbors
       kinds of courses
 Useful Expressions
 to divide…into, to classify…into,
  group…into, to fall into classes, there
  are…kinds (types, groups, classes,
  categories, sorts ) of, according to, in terms
  of, depending on, at the level of
 EX. Write a paragraph with definition and
 On   music
 Classification,
 Deductive  order,
 Inductive order,
 Chronological order,
 Definition,
 Comparison-contrast,
 Cause and Effect
   Ex. Distinguish each Paras.
 1. It is time to face facts. Few children
  these days escape exposure to drug abuse
  and not all children have good role models
  in their home. They need education about
  drug abuse, and that education is probably
  best offered by qualified professionals.
  With proper education about drugs,
  children can make better choices and
  become more productive adults. For all
  these reasons, the time has come to offer
  drug education in the schools.
 Inductive order
   2. Drug abuse has been an especially challenging
    social issue since it first entered the
    mainstream of American life during the 1960's,
    with few children completely escaping exposure
    to drug abuse. In addition, throughout the
    1970's, drug abuse, along with other social
    problems, frequently meant that children have
    fewer good role models in their home.
    Fortunately, in the 1980's, one response to
    this problem was the emergence of aggressive
    drug education programs offered by qualified
    professionals. The next logical step for the
    1990's would be to ensure that children can
    make better choices and become more
    productive adults.
   chronological order
 3.Drug Education in schools is a good
  idea. Not every child has good role
  models at home. Besides, drug education
  is probably best offered by qualified
  professionals. This education is essential
  because in our society, few children will
  completely escape exposure to drug
  abuse. With drug education in the
  schools, children can make better choices
  and become more productive adults.
 Deductive order
 4. The term workaholic describes a
  person who is addicted to work, unable
  to break what can be a dangerous
  habit. Not content with eight hours at
  the office and without a lunch break,
  the workaholic might dine with a client,
  bring home a briefcase full of
  paperwork at night, and return to the
  office on weekends.
 Definition
 5. Historians take a variety of
  approaches to their discipline. Some
  focus on biographies because they
  believe that history is shaped by great
  men and women. Others emphasize the
  physical environment in their belief
  that geographical factors ultimately
  determine the course of events. A
  third group looks for an explanation of
  history in economic forces.
 Classification
 6. Students entering college soon
  discover that they spend fewer hours in
  the classroom than they did in high
  school. They also find that they have
  more long-term assignments than they
  have been accustomed to. College
  teachers seem to be much less visible
  than their high school counterparts.
  While this, at first, creates the illusion
  of freedom, it really reflects the shift
  or responsibility to the student.
 comparison-contrast
   7. Many houses today are constructed by
    builders who own and develop an area of homes.
    The builders often hire teams of workers who go
    from site to site specializing in certain tasks. To
    make this easier and to make the cost of
    materials less expensive, the houses are all built
    based on the same floor plan and the exteriors
    only have minor variations in styles and
    materials. Consequently, the interior details as
    well as the exteriors look very much the same
    from house to house. The overall result of this
    system is a lack of charm and individuality of
    homes in such housing additions.
   Cause and Effect

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