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Kensol Interim Management _ Business Development



Application of Novel Microbubble Technology –
Fluidic Oscillation - in Aquaculture Industry to
      achieve increased growth rates and

Presentation Overview

   Vision
   Aquaculture overview
   Trend in Aquaculture Practise
   Oxygenation in Aquaculture
   Microbubbles
   Microbubble generation - standard techniques
   Microbubbles - Fluidic Oscillator Technique
   Fluidic Oscillator – What is it ?
   Continuous Flow Vs Ocillatory Flow Program Status
   Characteristics of Oscillatory Flow Microbubbles
   Bubble Size Distribution
   Targeted Application Areas in Aquaculture
   Efficiency/Productivity Advantages
   Roadmap
   Summary

   To develop and commercialise the use of novel microbubble
    technology (Fliudic Oscillation) for the Aquaculture
   In conjunction with all stakeholders to develop the
    application of the Microbubble Technology to create
    sustainable development - & increased production capacity
    - of the industry.
   To improve the energy efficiency and minimise the
    environmental impact of the industry
Aquaculture Overview

   Raceway type freshwater farming
Aquaculture Overview

     Sea-based net cage farming
Aquaculture Overview

      Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS)
Aquaculture Overview

     Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS)
Next Generation Fish Farming ….

               …… Fluidic Oscillation Technology
Aquaculture Overview
  With an annual growth rate of 8% since 1970 , aquaculture
   is the world’s fastest growing food technology (FAO 2006)
  Production in 2006 was 52 million tonnes with a value of
   US$79 billion.
  Aquaculture currently accounts for approx 48% of fish
   production providing 15% of animal protein for 2.9 billion
  Global demand will continue to increase & with decline in
   capture fisheries future growth will come from aquaculture.
   (FAO 2008)
  In 2005, Europe’s aquaculture industry represented (4.4%
   of the world aquacultural animal production) a value of €5.8
   billion (9.1% of the total world value of aquacultural
  North American aquaculture – approx 1.5% of world
   production representing a value of $1.2 billion.
  High FCR & low water usage in aquaculture
Aquaculture Overview

Aquaculture production by regional grouping 2004
Aquaculture Overview

Aquaculture production by regional grouping 2004
Aquaculture Overview

 Increasing competition for resources – water (finite
  resource) and location (coastline & waterways) both with
  competing uses.
 Increasing environmental regulatory issues

 Increasing demand on production to provide sustainable
  food outputs at economically viable costs
 In the next 50 years, the demand for food in the world will
  double requiring food protein sources that have
    fast growth cycles

    high Food Conversion Rates Kg feed/Kg produced
     protein(Fish 1.5 Vs Cattle 8)
    low water use
Trend in Aquaculture Practise

     Increased reliance on technology to drive reductions in
      production costs and facilitate increased production
      capacity. Example - RAS fish farming technology
     Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS)
        closed-loop production systems that continuously
         filter and recycle water, enabling large-scale fish
         farming that requires a small amount of water and
         releases little or no pollution
        Year round production independent of external
         weather or temperature
        Minimal impact on the environment
        Maximum control over fish rearing conditions
        Fresh and saltwater species
Trend in Aquaculture Practise

   Recirculation Aquaculture System – components
Oxygenation in Aquaculture

   Dissolved oxygen (DO) – oxygen gas that is dissolved in
    water. Fish absorb this oxygen through their gills.
   DO content is the single most important factor in
    Aquaculture. DO levels directly impact – food conversion
    rates, stocking levels, production capacity, fish health &
    mortality rates.
   DO is predominantly the first limiting factor in a systems
    fish carrying capacity or stocking density.
   With increasing restrictions on water usage there is an
    increased requirement for more efficient use of reduced
    water supply i.e. increasing the oxygen content of available
    water by mechanical means.
Oxygenation in Aquaculture

   Intensive ‘recirculation aquaculture systems’ require 100%
    oxygenation. Recirculation systems are extensively
    employed in hatcheries.
   Regular use of supplementary oxygenation or aeration in
    many culture systems (e.g. land-based flow-through tanks
    and raceways and cage- or pen-based systems in
    freshwater lakes and in the sea)
   Pure oxygen (93-95%) commonly used for maximum
    transfer & control of DO levels.
   Most commonly employed oxygenation technique is
    pressurised injection of oxygen thro fine bubble diffusers
    giving smallest bubble size of 100 – 500 micron.

                                       Surface area of
                                        microbubbles is
                                        inversely proportional to
                                        it’s radius > surface area
                                        to volume becomes
                                        proportionally larger as
                                        bubble size decreases.
                                       Smaller the bubble the
                                        proportionally greater
                                        the surface area for
                                        transfer of oxygen to
                                        water > greater
                                        dissolution efficiency.
   Smaller the bubble the lower the bouyancy > increased
    residence time for transfer of oxygen.
Microbubble generation - standard techniques

                                      Generating Technique
                                       Most common method of
                                        producing microbubbles
                                        is to force oxygen
                                        through small aperatures
                                        in a ceramic diffuser into
                                        the water column.

 Due to the anchoring effect of wetting forces & coalescence
  the bubbles typically grow to a factor of the pore size i.e.
  10x pore size
   Usually less than 60% of diffuser surface area actually
    produce bubbles due to hydrodynamic instability of bubble
    formation process.
   Reduction in bubble size requires decreased pore size &
    corresponding increase in delivery pressure
Microbubbles - Fluidic Oscillator Technique

With Fluidic Oscillation               Conventional Continuous
         • 20 micron sized bubbles from 20 micron sized
         • Rise / injection rates of 10-4 to 10-1 m/s
         without coalescence : uniform spacing/size
Fluidic Oscillator – What is it ?

No moving part, Self-excited Fluidic Amplifier.


            Mid Ports
         Linked by a feedback Loop
  Continuous Flow Vs Ocillatory Flow
Conventional                                Oscillatory Flow
Continuous Flow         Gas Inlet
                                    Production of Mono-dispersed
Relatively large
                                    Uniformly spaced, non-coalescent
coalescent and
fast rising bubbles

          Gas Inlet
Characteristics of Oscillatory Flow Microbubbles
     Bubble size can be tuned to pore size - 20 micron sized
      bubbles from 20 micron sized pores
         Bubble can be customised to meet application requirement i.e.
          oxygen transfer, CO2 absorbtion, control of buoyancy &
          residence times, control of mixing & distribution behaviour etc.
         Bubble size tuneable i.e. 20 – 100 micron range can be
          generated from a 20 micron pore by varying the oscillation
          frequency whilst still having monodisperse bubbles.
     Decreased bubble size gives increased dissolution
      efficiency. Up to 8 fold smaller bubbles with same
      volumetric flow rates as conventional steady state flow.
      Rise / injection rates of 10-4 to 10-1 m/s without
         In control experiments removal of oscillator gives bubble size
          10 times larger. OTE value was 1.4% for larger bubbles Vs
          10.2% for smaller bubble (measuring point located 10 cm
          above & 2 cm lateral distance from bubble stream.
Characteristics of Oscillatory Flow Microbubbles

      Provides hydrodynamic stabilisation that avoids bubble
       coalescence giving 3-4 fold better aeration rates with
       ~300-500 micron bubbles, up to 50 fold larger with 20
       micron sized bubbles. Microbubbles monodisperse &
       uniformly spaced as they rise
      Microbubbles formed by fluidic oscillation draw 18% less
       electricity than the same flow rate of steady state flow
       forming larger bubbles.
      Design and construction of fluidic oscillation generator
       requires no moving parts.
      Example 20 micron sized pores – tuned to deliver 300
       micron bubbles @ 80 litres/min from 24cmx 24cm diffuser
       @ 0.5 bar air pressure.
Bubble Size Distribution

                            Median: 47 microns
                       Standard deviation: 20 microns
                           20 micron sized pores
System Configuration – Water Treatment

Master-slave amplifier system   Suprafilt layout for 30m^3/h
for fluidic oscillator
Targeted Application Areas in Aquaculture

   Recirculation Systems in Hatcheries
   Recirculation Systems in Intensive on-growing land based
   Outdoor raceway type aquaculture
   Sea based net cage farming
   Shellfish purification process
   Transportation of live fish stock
Efficiency/Productivity Advantages

   Up to 50 fold increase in dissolution efficiency over
    existing technology.
   Ability to custom design bubble size to fit application
    requirement – volume/dissolution/dispersion/absorbtion
    combinations possible for parameters such as water depth,
    saturation levels, gas extraction etc.,
   Increased Growth Rates of up to 40% - increased FCR
    (Tsutsumi 2007). Reduced Mortality Rates of 25% + (BIM
   Reduction in power consumption of 18% +
   Reduction in oxygen use due to higher dissolution
    efficiencies & control of residence times
Efficiency/Productivity Advantages

   Potential for Air to replace Oxygen in certain applications
    – 100% cost reduction on Oxygen requirement (Tsutsumi
   Increased efficiency and reduced operating cost of
    Bioreactor systems in RAS systems
   Greater control on CO2 and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN)
    levels in water
   Reduced environmental impact - increased food
    conversion rate means reduced concentrations of fish
    fecal matter, uneaten food, and other organic debris
   Pilot trials to start in Dec 10 in conjunction with Marine
    Science Department – National University of Ireland Galway
    under direction of Dr. Richard Fitzgerald. Following will be
    covered in the trials
       Performance analysis of fluidic oscillation technology with
        current de facto industry standard diffuser technology &
        subsequent cost analysis
       Performance analysis of transfer efficiencies at various
        combination of bubble sizes, rise rates and volumetric flow rates
       Gas transfer and stripping capability of technology at various
        depth levels, salinity levels & other water parameter variables
        specific to fish farming.
       Mixing/distribution efficiency of technology
       Performance analysis at range of saturation levels specific to
        common types of fish farming

     Phase 2
        On site performance evaluations at three fish farms selected to
         represent a broad spectrum of oxygenation applications –
         indoor recirculation system, outdoor raceway farm and net cage
         sea based farm
   Role out of technology in recirculation aquaculture systems
    & hatcheries
   Ongoing development of technology for other areas such as
    sea based net cage production, transportation and hyper
    intensive farming

   Aquaculture – fastest growing food producing sector with an avg of
    8% annual growth.
   Fluidic Oscillation Microbubble Technology - Next Generation
    Aeration System to replace Oxygen Injection.
   Increased regulatory control – increases reliance on aeration
    technology to increase stocking densities and growth levels.
   Benefits – 40% increase in growth rates or 30% reduction in Feed
    Costs, Reduced Mortality Rates (25% +), reduced Oxygen cost,
    reduced power consumption cost, increased stocking densities,
    improved fish health & tighter control on production parameters.
   Technology Features – High Efficiency, Modular & Flexible, Air Vs
   Green technology that minimises the environmental impact of
    intensive fish farming.
   ‘Drop-in’ solution requiring limited modification to existing system
•   Reduced capital cost investment & shorter payback periods.
For more information contact

       Alan Kennedy

   Ph: +353 86-8093078

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