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Knowledge Processes in Tourism Development Towards an .._1_

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					             Advancing the Social Science of Tourism
             University of Surrey 2011




Analysing Tourism Policy
    From an industrial towards a
   knowledge-economy paradigm

1. Introduction: Tourism, knowledge economy
   and public policy
2. Re-conceptualising tourism policy
3. Public policy and knowledge dynamics:
   Tourism and the rest
4. Towards knowledge-based tourism
   development strategies

    Henrik Halkier, Aalborg University, halkier@cgs.aau.dk
                  Tourism, knowledge
               economy and public policy


Analytical concerns
• generational approach (e.g. Fayos-Solá, Hall)
   – boosterism, economic, community, sustainable
• multi-dimensional ideal-types
• applied in discursive ‘game of labels’
• over-looking variation and contradictions

Policy concerns
• EU Lisbon strategy in practice: high-tech, big
  science, manufacturing clusters ?
• Tourism and other services sidelined?

     Henrik Halkier, Aalborg University, halkier@cgs.aau.dk
          RE-CONCEPTUALISING
            TOURISM POLICY

Points of departure
• new institutionalism (North)
• network theory (Rhodes)
• discourse analysis (Åkerstrøm Andersen)
• policy analysis (Hogwood, Hood)


Point of reference
• institutionalist approach to regional policy
   – H Halkier: Institutions, Discourse and Regional
     Development, Peter Lang 2006

 Henrik Halkier, Aalborg University, halkier@cgs.aau.dk
                           RE-CONCEPTUALISING
                             TOURISM POLICY

                                                            Organisation
 Socio-     State/region                 Sponsoring         Aims
 economic   Tourists       Destination   Strategy     DMO   Instruments
                                                                           Targets
 context    Competitors                  Resources          Knowledge




Focus on three central relations
• the destination and its political, social, economic contexts
• the destination and its destination management
  organisation (DMO)
• the DMO and it targets among firms, workforce, tourists,
  institutions


            Henrik Halkier, Aalborg University, halkier@cgs.aau.dk
                          Public policy and
                        knowledge dynamics
EURODITE methods
• focus on seven selected sectors, including tourism
• territorial / sectoral knowledge dynamics
• firm-level case studies
• policies that make a difference

EURODITE tourism                           Attraction
case studies                   Cultural                 Natural
Organi-    Individual   Ruhr heritage            Achterhoek rural
sation                  Skaane film              North DK coastal
                        Antalya branding
                        North DK museums
           Collective   Antalya football         Antalya coastal

          Henrik Halkier, Aalborg University, halkier@cgs.aau.dk
                       Public policy and
                    knowledge dynamics / 1
Strategy:
average (cool KIBS?)
                             Relative importance of
                             development strategies
                                         Expan-   Dupli-   Modern-   Crea-
                                         sion     cation   isation   tivity
                             Auto          ●●       ●●       ●●        ●●
                             Food          ●                 ●●●      ●●●
                             ICT          ●●●       ●●       ●●         ●
                             KIBS         ●●●       ●        ●●●        ●
                             New
                             media         ●        ●        ●●●      ●●●
                             Tourism       ●        ●        ●●●       ●●
                             All cases     ●        ●        ●●●       ●●


          Henrik Halkier, Aalborg University, halkier@cgs.aau.dk
                       Public policy and
                    knowledge dynamics / 2
Strategy:
average (cool KIBS?)

Targets:                       Relative importance of
average (brainy KIBS)          policy targets
                                           Hardware   Software   Orgware
                               Auto           ●         ●●●        ●●
                               Bio            ●●         ●         ●●●
                               Food           ●●        ●●●        ●●
                               ICT           ●●●         ●         ●●
                               KIBS           ●         ●●●        ●●
                               New
                               media         ●●●         ●●        ●●
                               Tourism        ●●         ●●        ●●
                               All cases      ●●         ●●        ●●

          Henrik Halkier, Aalborg University, halkier@cgs.aau.dk
                       Public policy and
                    knowledge dynamics / 3
Strategy:
average (cool KIBS?)
                              Relative importance of
Targets:                      policy instruments
average (brainy KIBS)
                                          Autho-   Infor-           Organi-
                                          rity     mation   Finance sation
Instruments:
                              Auto         ●●●       ●        ●●      ●●●
Information > finance
(culture funding?)            Food          ●        ●●       ●●      ●●
                              ICT          ●●●      ●●●       ●       ●●
                              KIBS          ●       ●●●       ●       ●●●
                              New
                              media                  ●●      ●●●      ●●●
                              Tourism       ●       ●●●       ●       ●●●
                              All cases     ●        ●●       ●●      ●●●


          Henrik Halkier, Aalborg University, halkier@cgs.aau.dk
                          Public policy and
                       knowledge dynamics / 4
Strategy:
average (cool KIBS?)
                                  Relative importance of
Targets:                          policy governance
average (brainy KIBS)                                Regional/
                                            EU Nat     local
Instruments:                      Auto       ●   ●●     ●●●
Information > finance             Bio       ●●   ●●      ●●
(culture funding?)
                                  Food       ●    ●     ●●●
Governance:                       ICT       ●● ●●●
average (multi-level              KIBS       ●   ●●     ●●●
media)                            New
                                  media     ●●   ●●      ●●
                                  Tourism    ●   ●●     ●●●
                                  All cases  ●   ●●     ●●●
           Henrik Halkier, Aalborg University, halkier@cgs.aau.dk
                          Public policy and
                       knowledge dynamics / 5
Strategy:
average (cool KIBS?)

Targets:                      Relative importance of
                              knowledge types
average (brainy KIBS)
                                         Analy-   Syn-          Sym-
Instruments:                              tical  thetic         bolic
Information > finance         Auto          ●     ●●●              ●
(culture funding?)            Bio         ●●●      ●●              ●
                              Food         ●●     ●●●              ●
Governance:                   ICT         ●●●       ●             ●●
average (multi-level
                              KIBS                 ●●            ●●●
media)
                              New media    ●●      ●●             ●●
Knowledge types:              Tourism             ●●●            ●●●
symbolic (media science)      All cases     ●     ●●●             ●●
           Henrik Halkier, Aalborg University, halkier@cgs.aau.dk
                 Towards knowledge-based
                      tourism policies
Existing policies key features: Across sectors
• instruments/networks knowledge intensive
   – growing importance of knowledge input/competences
• under-utilised combinatorial knowledge


Room for knowledge-oriented tourism policies
• networked DMOs
   – with local SMEs and extra-regional/sectoral links
• creative generation of market/trend intelligence
   – private partners and public knowledge institutions


         Henrik Halkier, Aalborg University, halkier@cgs.aau.dk
   Analysing Tourism Policy
        From an industrial towards a
       knowledge-economy paradigm


For draft written paper and full report:
halkier@cgs.aau.dk

Read more about EURODITE:
www.eurodite.bham.ac.uk


          Henrik Halkier, Aalborg University, halkier@cgs.aau.dk

				
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