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					                                          Midterm Exam


Multiple Choice Questions.

   1. A __________________ represents the structure of the system embodied by its components, their
      relationships to each other, and their relationship to the environment.
          a. Model
          b. Stock & Flow diagram
          c. Architecture
          d. Methodology

   2. A methodology in which each phase corresponds to an activity and is conducted
      sequentially is described as the:
         a. Waterfall methodology
         b. Spiral methodology
         c. Controlled-iteration methodology
         d. ‘V’ methodology

   3. A property of a system that cannot be attributed to any of the system components is
      _____________________.
         a. Holistic property -- > give half credit for this answer
         b. Purposeful property
         c. Latent property
         d. Emergent property

   4. A primary difference between a wicked problem and a merely complex problem is:
         a. Wicked problems have multiple stakeholders
         b. Wicked problems are intractable
         c. Wicked problems are very difficult to formulate, whereas complex problems can be
             formulated
         d. Both A and B
         e. Both A and C

   5. Analytical, mathematical models are always preferable to non-analytical models such as
      flowcharts (True or False).

   6. The more detail a model shows then the better the model (True or False).

   7. Model ________________ is when you check whether the model is correct and functions as
      intended. Model __________________ is when you check whether the model adequately
      represents reality for the model’s given purpose.
          a. Verification, validation
          b. Validation, verification
          c. Face validity, statistical validity
          d. External validity, internal validity

   8. The ____________ movement emphasized efficiency of resources.
         a. Scientific management
         b. Humanist school
         c. Systems theory
       d. Globalization

1. A primary difference between a wicked problem and a merely complex problem is:
      a. Wicked problems have multiple stakeholders
      b. Wicked problems are intractable
      c. Wicked problems are very difficult to formulate, whereas complex problems can
         be formulated
      d. Both A and B
      e. Both A and C

2. Another name for creative thinking is
      a. Convergent thinking
      b. Divergent thinking
      c. Non-scientific thinking
      d. Morphological thinking

3. If a project is expected to take 2-years to complete, then each work breakdown element should
   have a duration measured in:
        a. hours
        b. days
        c. weeks
        d. years

4. A reason why it is important to understand the enterprise’s environment is:
      a. Enterprise systems adhere to equifinality, so we need to know the environment to
          specify the paths to the enterprise goals.
      b. Enterprise systems are complex, so we need to understand also the complexity of
          the environment.
      c. Enterprise systems are open, so they exchange material, information, and other
          resources with the environment.
      d. All of the above are reasons to understand the environment.

5. A standardized development process governed by a set of principles and common
   philosophy is called a:
       a. Methodology
       b. Activity
       c. Technique
       d. Life-cycle

6. A critical project event that signifies the end of a phase is a:
      a. deliverable
      b. milestone
      c. objective
      d. activity

7. The design methodology in which all phases are done sequentially is called the
   _________________ .
   A. CMM method
    B. waterfall method
    C. spiral method
    D. controlled iteration

9. The project scope defines the:
      a. Functions the system should have
      b. The information the system should contain
      c. The organization units the system will affect
      d. All of the above

10. A person whose job it is to identify and analyze business problems, and then to generate system
    requirements is a:
        a. System architect
        b. Business systems analyst
        c. Project manager
        d. System engineer

11. The enterprise development methodology is one part of the overall system life-cycle (True or
    False).

12. A reason why it is important to understand the enterprise’s environment is:
        a. Enterprise systems adhere to equifinality, so we need to know the environment to specify
           the paths to the enterprise goals.
        b. Enterprise systems are complex, so we need to understand also the complexity of the
           environment.
        c. Enterprise systems are open, so they exchange material, information, and other resources
           with the environment.
        d. All of the above are reasons to understand the environment.

13. A waterfall methodology cannot be CMMI level 3 or higher (True or False).
14. The three components of a design optimization problem are:
       a. Objective, constraints, and decision variable
       b. Objective, fixed parameters, and variable parameters
       c. Alternatives, constraints, and objective
       d. All of the above could be used to formulate a design optimization problem
15. A design problem in which the problem is ill-formulated, where the information is confusing,
    where there are many clients and decision-makers with conflicting values, and where the
    ramifications of design decisions are unclear, is a __________ design problem.
       a. Well-defined
       b. Ill-defined
       c. Wicked
       d. Intractable
16. The architecture that has two dimensions of enterprise views and stakeholder views is
       a. TOGAF
       b. Zachman’s Framework
       c. CIMOSA
       d. ARIS

17. A property of a system that cannot be attributed to any of the system components is
    _____________________.
       a. Holistic property
       b. Purposeful property
        c. Latent property
        d. Emergent property

18. All of the following activities are considered cross life-cycle activities except:
         a. Requirements management
         b. Risk management
         c. Quality assurance
         d. Problem analysis

19. All of the following would likely be configuration items except:
         a. Project Charter
         b. Requirements specification
         c. Project team list
         d. Test scripts

20. The project scope defines the:
       a. Functions the system should have
       b. The information the system should contain
       c. The organization units the system will affect
       d. All of the above

21. Holism is the idea that
       a. A system cannot be entirely represented, there will be ‘holes’ in our
          understanding
       b. A system exhibits properties and behavior that can only be attributed to the
          system as a whole
       c. A system is always part of another system, which is part of a system, and so on
       d. A system can only be understood in its environment

22. Suppose whenever variable A increases, then variable B also increases. If variable A
    decreases, then variable B also decreases. This is a
       a. Positive relationship
       b. Negative relationship
       c. Feedback relationship
       d. Delayed relationship

23. The relationship between a reference architecture and an enterprise architecture is:
       a. One reference architecture can be used to generate many enterprise architectures
       b. One reference architecture is used to generate only one enterprise architecture
       c. Many reference architectures are used to generate only one enterprise architecture
       d. A reference architecture has no relationship with an enterprise architecture
Short Answer

   1. We discussed and the textbook described several design methodologies. In fact, there are
      hundreds of design methodologies. What has emerged is a set of best practices that most
      design methodologies adhere to.
          e. Name one best practice
          f. describe what the best practice is, and
          g. explain why it is considered a best practices.

   Section 4.3 lists many best practices. A best practice, in general, simply means it has been
   shown repeatedly to lead to better projects and/or final deliverables.

   2. As the order backlog increases then there is greater pressure to increase production. So
      the production manager uses more overtime. As the production increases then the order
      backlog decreases. Draw the causal loop diagram for this scenario. Show variables,
      whether the relationships are positive or negative, and the polarity of the loop.

   3. Name a system property and describe how it applies to an enterprise.

   Section 2.1 lists many system properties.

   4. Describe the iterative problem-solving method. Explain why it is naturally iterative.

   The iterative problem-solving method is described in Section 4.1.1. It is iterative because the
   first step is to understand the problem; for all but the simplest problems the understanding
   will be incomplete. Only by designing a solution and evaluating it will you add to your
   understanding, in which case you revise your design. These iterations continue until the
   design is satisfactory (or you run out of time or budget).

   5. What is the purpose of the Project Charter?

   The purpose of the Project Charter is to define the project. It lists the project vision, scope,
   schedule, and budget. Neither the schedule nor budget are detailed because the project
   charter is first to see if the project is worthwhile to do. If yes, then a more detailed project
   plan is developed.

   6. Explain why the waterfall methodology has largely fallen out of favor with most
      companies?

   The waterfall model assumes a sequential process that does not support the iteration natural
   to problem-solving and also leads to very long projects. Moreover, the waterfall makes
   unrealistic assumptions such as the ability to completely define all requirements in the
   beginning of the project.
7. What is the purpose of the CMMI model? What does it tell us about a companies
   methodology?

The purpose of the CMMI is to define an improvement process for the system development
methodology, under the premise that a better methodology leads to better systems and project
success.

8. Name one benefit that an enterprise gains from having an enterprise architecture.

9. Why do enterprise architectures have multiple views?

Enterprises are complex, consequently a single view would be insufficient to show
everything.

10. Describe a cross life-cycle activity that must be done throughout the enterprise project?

Section 6.3 lists cross life-cycle activities.

11. A basic project management principle is the relationship between scope, schedule, and
    budget. Explain what this relationship is and why it is important for project managers to
    understand.

The triple constraint of scope, schedule, and budget is that all these are interdependent, so if
you change one, then one of the other two will need to change. This is important because in
many projects ‘scope creep’ occurs where the scope changes but no changes are made to
budget or schedule.

12. Pick a phase of the enterprise development methodology and state:
       h. What the phase does
       i. Its main inputs
       j. Its main outputs

				
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posted:1/15/2013
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