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					  Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld




Steels for plastic moulding
                                                                 Plastics – an ever                                                        Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld – the experts
                                                                 growing market                                                            in steels for plastic moulding

                                                                 Although plastics have only          The valency of a plastic surface     The Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld        Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld delivers
                                                                 been in existence for about 100      – whether perfectly textured,        steels for plastic moulding are     individual sizes ex-warehouse.
                                                                 years, their contemporary uses       photo-etched or immaculately         characterized by two factors.       Our clients are given the chance
                                                                 reach into virtually every area      mirror-finished – can only be as     On the one hand the use of the      to be integrated in decision
                                                                 of our lives. Applications span      good as the finish of the mould      highest steel quality and on the    making from the extent to
                                                                 from bulk commodities such as        the plastic product has been         other the steel's properties        which pre-machining should
                                                                 packaging and reusable bottles,      moulded with.                        which in each individual case       take place, via the manufacture
                                                                 to high-quality articles and         The better a tool steel is matched   can be ideally adjusted to the      of components right through to
                                                                 accessories manufactured for         to the demands of the plastic        most diverse requirements of        the perfectly fitting moulded
                                                                 the consumer goods, leisure,         product, the better the final        different dies or to those of the   article. In addition to a broad
                                                                 automotive and construction          product quality.                     plastic product itself.             spectrum of conventional
                                                                 industries. High-tech applications                                                                            steels, Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld
                                                                 have found their way into the                                             The use of the most modern          also supplies specialty materials
                                                                 aerospace industry too – life                                             technology for Edelstahl            such as Ferro-Titanit®.
                                                                 today has become unimaginable                                             Witten-Krefeld's plastic
                                                                 without plastics.                                                         mould steels meet the most
                                                                                                                                           rigorous demands regarding:
Plastic as a design material for household appliances ...
                                                                 In 2003 global plastics production
                                                                 exceeded the 200 million-ton                                              • purity
                                                                 threshold. The steadily increasing                                        • polishability
                                                                 use of plastics requires ever                                             • consistent hardness
                                                                 more efficient and reliable                                                 and microstructure
                                                                 processing to trim production                                             • wear resistance
                                                                 costs. This also applies to the                                           • temperature resistance
                                                                 optimization of tool steels.                                              • machinability
                                                                                                                                           • toughness and degree of
                                                                 When considering the entire                                                 hardness
                                                                 plastic-manufacturing process                                             • thermal conductivity
                                                                 chain, it becomes evident that
                                                                 mould design and engineering                                              So as to offer optimal conditions
                                                                 are of outstanding importance.                                            to mould manufacturers, the
                                                                 For this reason plastic mould                                             plastic-processing industry and
                                                                 steels are of key significance,                                           other industrial users, Edelstahl
                                                                 as they serve as a basis for the                                          Witten-Krefeld extends its
                                                                 ultimate quality of the ready-                                            services into customer and
                                                                 to-use plastic product.                                                   application-specific consultation
                                                                                                                                           as well as advice on product
                                                                 Each plastic product has to                                               development.
                                                                 fulfil completely individual                                              Deciding on the perfect tool
                                                                 requirements when it comes                                                steel at Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld
                                                                 to quality, optical and tactile                                           begins by consulting our plastic
                                                                 appearance, surface finish and                                            mould steel specialists. The
                                                                 strain limits. To ensure these                                            demands on the final product
                                                                 demands are met, high-quality                                             are defined by the plastic-mould
                                                                 and special steels are essential                                          strain and the demands on the
                                                                 for the construction of a mould.                                          required steel grade.




... and for the furniture industry                                                                                                                                                  Plastic mould, Coko-Werk factory, Bad Salzuflen




                                                            02                                                                                        03
                                Process reliabilty from consultation                                     Precision for mould                Profitability for the plastic-       Dependability for the
                                through to the final product                                             manufacturers                      processing industry                  plastic user

                                The moulds used for plastic          profile demands as characterized    Our competence begins with         Long exposure times and high-        Because the quality of the steel
                                processing are very diverse          by the final plastic product.       advice on the choice of the        quality continuity for every         used for plastic moulding is
                                in their functionality and the                                           most suitable steel and extends    plastic product are generelly        crucial for the processing quality
                                demands made on them.                To complement the know-how          to the development of new          expected from the mould in           of the final plastic product, it is
                                                                     of our steel specialists , we are   specific tool-steel grades. Not    plastic processing.                  highly recommended to consult
                                The correct choice and treatment     able to rely on the most modern     only do you have the choice                                             with our specialists at an early
                                of the steel grade are decisively    production facilities backed up     between the various forms          In order to achieve this, the dies   stage – optimally at the plan-
                                influential on the quality and       by decades of experience in         delivered from our extensive       have to be exceptionally finely      ning stage. Our know-how and
                                resulting profitability of plastic   every area dealing with heat        stock and product range, but       tuned to the specific properties     technical advice mean
                                production.                          treatment.                          you also determine whether         of the plastic used and to the       production security right from
                                                                     Furthermore, our active and         the mould is to be delivered in    demands of the final plastic         the start. The advantage of fine
                                So as to ensure the client's         certified quality assurance         a pre-machined or ready-to-        product.                             tuning at preliminary stages
                                demands are met, we rely on          system (DIN EN 14001, DIN EN        install state.                                                          results in minimization of
                                a highly experienced group of        ISO 9001, QS 9000, VDA 6.1 TS                                          Many years of experience,            production costs.
                                specialists in the steels-for-       16949 and KTA 1401) warrants        Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld then      coupled with innovative material
                                plastic-moulding area. Together      the production of an individually   reliably delivers the chosen       technology in production             Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld supplies
                                with the mould manufacturers,        defined steel grade with            steel grade fast and in any        together with treatment of           the chosen steel grade or the
                                they constitute a perfectly          continuous quality consistence.     quantity desired – and always      long products – made of quality      pre-machined moulds to mould
                                co-ordinated team to determine                                           with consistent quality. This      steels – have placed us              manufacturers throughout the
                                which steel grade and quality are                                        applies to all important markets   in a position to deliver tailor-     world. They then produce the
                                most appropriate to the individual                                       worldwide.                         made steel grades to satisfy         mould. Our global supply
                                                                                                                                            mechanical, thermal and              network concurrently guarantees
                                                                                                         We guarantee our clients           chemical demands of the plastic      dependable delivery and highest
                                                                                                         customized precision from the      products.                            quality on-site.
                                                                                                         steel production stage right
                                                                                                         through to machining – and         Our technicians provide advice       The resulting benefits for the
                                                                                                         this mould after mould.            and support even when problems       plastic user are:
                                                                                                                                            with the exposure time for the
                                                                                                         Benefits for the mould             moulds occur. They are able          • technical consultation
                                                                                                         manufacturers are:                 to produce findings for rapid        • shorter delivery times
                                                                                                                                            and long-term damage repair          • long-term know-how
                                                                                                         • high degree of purity            through assessment and               • plastic surfaces
                                                                                                         • excellent polishability          material testing.                      reproducible at any time
                                                                                                         • exceptional texturing                                                 • consistent quality
                                                                                                           properties                       The ensuing benefits for the
                                                                                                         • consistent microstructure        plastic mould manufacturer
                                                                                                         • optimal machinability            are:
                                                                                                         • reproducible heat
                                                                                                           treatment                        • excellent thermal
                                                                                                         • very short delivery times          conductivity
                                                                                                         • competent advisors               • optimal wear resistance
                                                                                                         • development of new steel         • unique compression strength,
                                                                                                           grades                             hardness and toughness
                                                                                                                                            • corrosion resistance
                                                                                                                                            • low maintenance costs
                                                                                                                                            • minimum mould maintenance
                                                                                                                                            • extraordinary dimensional
                                                                                                                                              stability
                                                                                                                                            • good repair weldability


Pre-machining a plastic mould




                                                   04                                                                                                   05
                                      Our technology and experience –       Custom remelting                      Tailor-made hardening
                                      your guarantors for premium quality                                         and tempering

                                      The basis for the purity and          For tool steel grades having to       The integration of the previous      Thanks to computer-controlled
                                      homogeneity of our plastic            meet especially high standards        Thyssen hardening shops into         process flows, starting with the
                                      mould steels is the fact that we      in toughness, homogeneity and         the Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld         inspection of incoming
                                      produce them ourselves in our         purity, Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld      group enables us to build on         shipments to the final heat-
                                      modern steelworks in Witten.          has three electroslag remelting       decades of tradition in all fields   treated product, the
                                      We achieve the clients’               furnaces (ESR) and one vacuum-        of heat treatment. From a            reproducibility of the heat
                                      predefined demands by means           arc remelting furnace (VAR) at        practical point of view, we can      treatment is guaranteed at
                                      of precise alloying and process       its disposal.                         now manufacture products             any time.
                                      specifications for melting,                                                 using the complete production
                                      shaping and heat treatment.           Deciding which method is most         chain – starting with the steel
                                                                            suitable is predetermined by          production, via pre-machining        An extra for our clients
                                      Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld's tool       the desired quality the remelted      to refining through to heat          Through the use of a precision-
                                      steels are melted in a 130 ton        steel is to have. A considerably      treatment. We therefore offer        hardening process – an
                                      electric arc furnace. After the       higher degree of purity is attained   a one-stop solution for the          Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld
                                      smelting process, secondary           by utilizing electroslag remelting    world's most important markets,      development – the deformation
                                      metallurgy is carried out in a        than if the steel is not remelted.    fulfilling the most discerning       of thin components, such as
                                      special unit.                         For the most demanding                prerequisites for moulds.            guide strips, is reduced to a
                                                                            requirements, the vacuum-arc                                               minimum.
                                      In order to cast the                  remelting process is used.            In our hardening shops across
                                      metallurgically treated molten                                              the continents, we have vacuum-
                                      metal, two processes can be                                                 hardening furnaces, inert gas
                                      applied – depending on the                                                  plants and plasma-nitriding
                                      required size of the final                                                  plants for thermo-chemical
                                      product. Usually an optimized                                               treatments at our disposal.
                                      vertical continuous casting
                                      method is used, but for large
                                      forging sizes, ingot casting is
                                      employed.




ESR furnace at Krefeld factory                                                                                                                                                      Plasma nitriding




                                 06                                                                                           07
                                               Processes and steels for           Overview of
                                               plastics processing                plastic mould steels


                                               As the processing methods for      Steels for plastic moulding   Injection Compression Extrusion Blow      Large    Mould    Extruders
                                               plastics vary to a great extent,                                 moulding moulding              moulding   moulds   frames
                                               the demand profile of the steel
                                               moulds for plastic moulding        THYROPLAST® 2083                 •         •
                                               may show very considerable
                                               differences.
                                                                                  THYROPLAST® 2083 SUPRA           •         •          •
                                               Consequently different steel       THYROPLAST® 2085                 •         •          •                           •
                                               grades are inevitable to attain
                                               a perfect final plastic product.
                                                                                  THYROPLAST® 2162                 •         •
                                               Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld
                                                                                  THYROPLAST® 2190 SUPRA           •         •
                                               supplies superlative tool steels   THYROPLAST® 2311                 •         •                   •          •
                                               for each type of application and
                                               every stage related to plastic
                                                                                  THYROPLAST® 2312                 •         •                              •       •
                                               processing.                        THYROPLAST® 2316                 •         •                   •          •                  •
Plastic rear-lighting unit for vehicles
                                               The most important Edelstahl       THYROPLAST® 2316 SUPRA           •         •          •        •          •                  •
                                               Witten-Krefeld steel grades for
                                               moulds used in different
                                                                                  THYROTHERM® 2343 EFS             •         •          •                                      •
                                               processing methods are referred    THYROTHERM® 2343 EFS SUPRA       •         •                                                 •
                                               to in detail on the following
                                               pages.
                                                                                  THYROTHERM® 2344 EFS             •         •                                                 •
                                               Steels for plastic moulding are
                                                                                  THYROTHERM® 2344 EFS SUPRA       •         •                                                 •
                                               used for:                          THYROPLAST® 2361                 •         •                                                 •
                                               • injection moulding
                                                                                  THYRODUR® 2363                   •         •
                                               • compression moulding             THYRODUR® 2379                   •         •                                                 •
                                               • plastic extrusion
                                               • blow moulding
                                                                                  THYRODUR® 2709                   •         •
                                               • large moulds
                                               • mould frames
                                                                                  THYROPLAST® 2711                 •         •                              •
                                               • extruders                        THYROPLAST® 2738                 •         •                   •          •
PET bottles made using blow moulding                                              THYROPLAST® 2738 EHT PLUS        •         •                   •          •       •
                                                                                  THYROPLAST® 2764                 •         •
                                                                                  THYRODUR® 2767                   •         •
                                                                                  THYRODUR® 2842                   •         •
                                                                                  THYROPLAST® 2891                                                                             •
                                                                                  THYRODUR® 2990                   •         •                                                 •
                                                                                  THYROPLAST® PH X SUPRA           •         •                   •                             •
                                                                                  THYROPLAST® PH 42 SUPRA          •         •          •        •
                                                                                  CorroPlast®                      •         •          •        •                  •
                                                                                  THYRAPID® 3343                   •         •
Highly polished plastic-goggle surface




                                          08                                                                                  09
                                                                          Injection moulding                   High-performance steels
                                                                                                               for injection moulds

                                                                          Injection moulding is the most       Additionally to a broad range of     and texturing properties.
                                                                          significant method employed          globally established high-quality    This steel grade is ideal for
                                                                          to produce moulded parts for         standard steel grades, Edelstahl     extensively used injection
                                                                          thermoplastics. It is also used      Witten-Krefeld provides further      moulds.
                                                                          for the processing of thermo-        steels with specific qualities for
                                                                          setting plastics and elastomers.     injection moulds. Please see the     CorroPlast® is a low-carbon
                                                                          Injection moulding is ideal for      product table below for property     stainless steel which machines
                                                                          the plastics manufacturer            comparisons. We have highligted      more easily than any other
                                                                          producing such products as           the following steel grades as        stainless steel for plastic
                                                                          cogwheels for watches, or            most representative of our           moulding known to date. Since
                                                                          bumpers and mudguards for            complete range.                      CorroPlast® is supplied at an
                                                                          automobiles.                                                              approximate hardness of
                                                                          During the moulding process          THYROPLAST® PH X SUPRA is an         320 HB, this steel grade does
                                                                          the smelted plastic is injected      extremely corrosion-resistant,       not necessitate any additional
                                                                          into a die which then forms the      precipitation-hardenable and         heat treatment. CorroPlast® is
                                                                          mould cavity. Here the plastic       remelted steel grade exhibiting      suitable for mould frames and
                                                                          develops the desired shape and       outstanding polishability.           plastic moulds with standard
                                                                          cools. The finish of the final       Typical operational applications     demands on polishability and
                                                                          product is characterized by three    of this very pure steel include      resistance to condensation and
                                                                          factors: the type of plastic used,   spectacle lenses, headlight          cooling water.
                                                                          the processing parameters and        moulds for the automobile
                                                                          the injection mould itself.          industry and components for          THYRODUR® 2709 is
                                                                                                               the aeronautics and chemical         characterized by the following
                                                                          The basic tasks of an injection      industries.                          properties – extreme toughness,
                                                                          mould are to intake the melt,                                             polishability, good texturing
                                                                          distribute and form it and to        THYROPLAST® PH 42 SUPRA              properties and weldability. The
                                                                          cool it rendering a solid state      is a precipitation-hardenable        martensitic-hardenable cold-
                                                                          object. Finally the finished         remelted steel for plastic           work steel is employed for
                                                                          product is ejected. For this         moulding, exhibiting excellent       moulds and mould cores with
                                                                          reason an appropriate                polishability and weldability as     complex geometry used under
                                                                          steel grade is of paramount          well as outstanding toughness        extreme flexural stress.
                                                                          importance for the thermal
                                                                          design of a mould, since                                                                                    Spectacle lenses. Photo: Rodenstock
                                                                          differences in the die's surface
                                                                          temperature or wall thickness
                                                                          bring about varying cooling
                                                                          conditions and thereby influence
                                                                          the properties of the moulded
                                                                          part.




Injection mould with hot-runner system. Photo: Buhr Stahlformenbau                                                                                                                                    Plastic headlights




                                                                     10                                                                                         11
                                                                                     Compression moulding                High-performance steels
                                                                                                                         for compression moulds

                                                                                     For compression moulding a          When it comes to moulds,          THYROPLAST® 2738 EHT PLUS is a     moulds, such as those needed
                                                                                     compression-moulding material,      Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld does     pre-hardened high-performance      for bumpers, sinks and cladding
                                                                                     usually pre-heated and in the       not only supply an extensive      steel for the production of very   for automobile and plane
                                                                                     form of powder, grain or pellets,   range of high-quality quenched    large-sized moulds and dies.       interiors.
                                                                                     is poured into the mould. The       and tempered, annealed and        This steel grade is supplied at
                                                                                                                         solution-annealed steel grades,
                                                                                     moulding material is plastified                                       a hardness of 310 to 350 HB        THYRODUR® 2990 is a newly
                                                                                                                         but other steels with special
                                                                                     using pressure and heat and                                           achieved by quenching and          developed, ledeburitic cold-tool
                                                                                                                         properties. We have chosen
                                                                                     formed in such a way that the                                         tempering. It exhibits very        steel with high hardness, good
                                                                                                                         two steel grades to represent
                                                                                     plastic to be manufactured          a larger selection.               good texturing properties,         toughness and high
                                                                                     completely fills the mould                                            machinability, weldability and     tempering strength which
                                                                                     cavity.                                                               nitridability. In comparison to    simultaneously displays a high
                                                                                                                                                           steel grades used to date,         wear resistance. Its excellent
                                                                                     Decisive process parameters for                                       THYROPLAST® 2738 EHT PLUS          compression strength, high
                                                                                     a mould are pressure and                                              features increased thermal         abrasion and adhesion
                                                                                     temperature. When                                                     conductivity as well as enhanced   resistance create a property
                                                                                     manufacturing the mould                                               quenching and tempering            profile ideal for pressure pads
                                                                                     plates and all shaping elements                                       properties. Due to its improved    and plastic moulds.
                                                                                     of the mould, it is important to                                      toughness and a hardness
                                                                                     bear in mind that the working                                         symmetrically distributed over
                                                                                     temperature should not exceed                                         the entire cross section, this
                                                                                     the tempering strength of the                                         high-tech steel grade is
                                                                                     steel. Wear resistance is a                                           recommended for the
                                                                                     further but important criterium                                       construction of more complicated
                                                                                     made on a mould, since the
                                                                                     fillers contained in the
                                                                                     compression-moulding material
                                                                                     have the capacity to create
                                                                                     extreme wear and tear. This is
                                                                                     the case, for example, with
                                                                                     fibreglass-containing plastics.




Interior design by Fiona McLean. www.mcleanquinlan.com, Photo: DuPont Corian.                                                                                                                            Automobile interior study. Photo: Skoda




                                                                                12                                                                                    13
                                      Plastic extrusion                      High-performance steels
                                                                             for plastic extruders

                                      Extrusion is a shaping process,        Besides their established       THYROPLAST® 2316 is a standard         THYROPLAST® PH X SUPRA is an
                                      the result of which are strand-        high-quality standard steels    steel grade, which is supplied         extremely corrosion-resistant,
                                      like plastic semi-finished or          (quenched and tempered or       quenched and tempered at a             precipitation-hardenable and
                                      continuous products. Product           annealed), Edelstahl Witten-    working hardness of                    remelted steel grade exhibiting
                                      examples include plastic profiles      Krefeld supplies steel grades   approximately 300 HB. Due to           outstanding polishability. A
                                      or continuous-strand pipes. In         with special qualities for      its increased chromium content,        derivative of THYROPLAST® 2316,
                                      this process, the plastified plastic   extruders. We would like to     this grade is endowed with             this exceptionally pure premium
                                      to be processed is pressed by          highlight the following steel   greater corrosion resistance.          steel grade features better wear
                                      means of an extruder from a            grades from our complete        The steel shows an appropriate         resistance and high dimensional
                                      pressure chamber through a             product range. Please see       polishability, weldability and         stability after machining.
                                      mould orifice. The profiles of         the product table below for     machinability.                         THYROPLAST® PH X SUPRA is,
                                      the female mould have to be            a comparison of properties.     THYROPLAST® 2316 is mainly             amongst other purposes, used
                                      purpose shaped to enable the                                           used for moulds to process             for heavily strained female
                                      extrusion of complicated cross                                         corrosive plastics as well as for      moulds and for continuous or
                                      sections of the strand.                                                mould inserts, slot dies, profile      hollow profiles such as window
                                                                                                             moulds and sizing dies.                frames.
                                      Decisive factors for the success
                                      of an extrusion process are
                                      shape retention and dimensional
                                      stability of the female mould,
                                      which ensure the manufacture
                                      of precise profiles and the
                                      ensuing products necessitating
                                      standardized high quality.
                                      Resistance to mechanical wear
                                      and corrosion are prerequisites
                                      the steel used to produce the
                                      mould also has to meet.




Plastic profiled window frames                                                                                                       Greiner Extrusion PowerTooling extrusion die for PVC window profiles




                                 14                                                                                      15
                                                    The blow-moulding process                                              High-performance steels for
                                                                                                                           blow-moulding moulds

                                                    Blow moulding is the usual            In PET processing for example,   For blow moulding Edelstahl         CorroPlast® is a low-carbon         THYROPLAST® PH X SUPRA
                                                    production process for hollow         cooling is important for the     Witten-Krefeld supplies a broad     stainless tool steel which is       is an extremely corrosion-
                                                    plastic objects such as bottles,      quality and performance of a     assortment of high-quality          more easily machined than any       resistant, precipitation-
                                                    canisters and similar containers.     blow mould. For this reason      quenched and tempered steel         other stainless steel for plastic   hardenable and remelted
                                                    This process is also used for the     steel grades with particularly   grades with highly minimized        moulding known to-date. Since       steel grade with outstanding
                                                    making of flat and tubular films.     good thermal conductivity        distortion. Regardless whether      CorroPlast® is supplied at an       polishability. This exceptionally
                                                    A blow mould is constructed           should be taken into             intended for use as a slot          approximate hardness of             pure premium steel grade is a
                                                    from several parts.                   consideration when choosing      mould, blow head or for a hollow    320 HB, this steel grade does       derivative of THYROPLAST® 2316,
                                                                                          materials.                       article mould (for products such    not necessitate any additional      featuring better wear resistance
                                                    In the production of hollow                                            as bottles or canisters), every     heat treatment. CorroPlast®         and greater dimensional
                                                    articles such as bottles, a preform                                    listed steel grade is perfectly     is suitable for mould frames        stability after machining.
                                                    is moulded by means of a blowing                                       designed for different blow         and plastic moulds, meeting
                                                    mandrel and compressed air.                                            moulds.                             standard demands on
                                                    The manufacture of flat films                                          The blow mould product range        polishability and resistance        THYROPLAST® 2738 is a
                                                    using this method is carried out                                       consists of the following           to condensation and cooling         quenched and tempered steel
                                                    by means of slot dies. Tubular                                         steel grades. Please refer to the   water.                              for plastic moulding and comes
                                                    films are produced with blow                                           product table for property                                              at a hardness of 280 to 325 HB.
                                                    heads.                                                                 comparisons.                        THYROPLAST® 2311 is a quenched      This steel grade is a derivative
                                                    Blow moulds are particularly                                                                               and tempered standard steel         of THYROPLAST® 2311 and
                                                    subjected to increased wear                                                                                grade, supplied at a hardness       is characterized by good
                                                    and tear at the parting lines.                                                                             of 280 to 325 HB. It comes with     machinability and polishability.
                                                    These mechanically heavily                                                                                 a minimal sulphur content           In comparison to THYROPLAST®
                                                    stressed parts should, therefore,                                                                          and is characterized by its good    2311 it is quenched and
                                                    be replaceable and made from                                                                               machinability, weldability and      tempered more easily when
                                                    high tensile steel.                                                                                        suitability for nitriding. It       thicker than 400 mm.
                                                                                                                                                               displays sufficient high
                                                                                                                                                               robustness for standard
Hollow plastic bottles for the cosmetics branch …                                                                                                              applications. Quenching and
                                                                                                                                                               tempering is limited to a
                                                                                                                                                               thickness of approximately
                                                                                                                                                               400 mm.


                                                                                                                                                               THYROPLAST® 2316 and
                                                                                                                                                               THYROPLAST® 2316 SUPRA
                                                                                                                                                               are standard steel grades and
                                                                                                                                                               are supplied quenched and
                                                                                                                                                               tempered at a working
                                                                                                                                                               hardness of approximately
                                                                                                                                                               300 HB. Due to their increased
                                                                                                                                                               chromium content these
                                                                                                                                                               grades display a higher corrosion
                                                                                                                                                               resistance. The steels'
                                                                                                                                                               polishability and weldability
                                                                                                                                                               properties are good – likewise
                                                                                                                                                               their machinability. These
                                                                                                                                                               corrosion-resistant steel grades
                                                                                                                                                               are mainly used for the
                                                                                                                                                               processing of chemically
                                                                                                                                                               aggressive plastics like PVC.

.. and for the beverage industry
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX




                                                                       16                                                                                                  17
Plastic moulding of                                              High-performance steels
large moulds                                                     for large moulds

The percentage of plastic parts                                  The range of high-quality steel   THYROPLAST® 2311 is a               THYROPLAST® 2738 is a
used in the construction of                                      grades for plastic moulding       quenched and tempered               quenched and tempered steel
automobiles and other vehicles                                   designed for large moulds at      standard steel grade supplied       for plastic moulding, is supplied
is steadily rising. The size of the                              Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld covers   at a hardness of 280 to 325 HB.     at a hardness of 280 to 325 HB,
required moulds is likewise                                      quenched and tempered steel       The grade is produced with          appropriate for texturing and
increasing, to the extent that the                               grades, which are characterized   minimum sulphur content and         is a derivative of THYROPLAST®
steel ingots now need to have                                    by high hardenability and         is characterized by its good        2311. It exhibits high
cross sections up to 2 metres                                    machinability as well as by       machinability, weldability and      machinability and polishability
and can weigh up to 100 tons.                                    excellent polishability and       nitriding suitability. It is wear   and is more easily quenched
The demands made on the                                          texturing properties. The         resistant and displays              and tempered than THYROPLAST®
moulds used to produce the                                       product range consists of the     sufficiently high robustness.       2311. THYROPLAST® 2738 is used
pre-machined plastic moulds                                      following steel grades. Please    Quenching and tempering is          for large plastic moulds with
are determined on the one                                        see the product table below       limited to a thickness of           deep engraving where there is
hand by the large plastic product                                for property comparisons.         around 400 mm.                      intensive impact on the core.
dimensions and on the other by
the required surface quality of                                                                    THYROPLAST® 2312 is a pre-          THYROPLAST® 2738 EHT PLUS is
the parts (e.g. bumpers,                                                                           hardened plastic-moulding           a pre-hardened steel for plastic
mudguards or bonnets) which                                                                        steel grade supplied at a           moulding, being supplied at a
have to be supplied ready-to-                                                                      hardness of 280 to 325 HB. With     hardness of 310 to 355 HB. It is
install.                                                                                           an increased sulphur content        extremely easily textured and
                                                                                                   this grade shows very good          machined as well as being
The moulds used in the                                                                             machinabilty and is well suited     unproblematic when polished
manufacturing of large plastic                                                                     for nitriding. However              and welded. In comparison
parts have to have good                                                                            polishability and texturing         to THYROPLAST® 2738 the
machinability and high                                                                             properties are limited.             quenching and tempering
dimensional stability to be                                                                                                            properties have been further
able to guarantee distortion-                                                                      THYROPLAST® 2711 is a tough         improved. THYROPLAST® 2738
minimized finishes.                                                                                quenched and tempered steel         EHT PLUS is recommended for
                                                                                                   grade for plastic moulding with     dies and moulds of very large
                                                                                                   a high degree of purity. This       dimensions for products such
Another client extra                                                                               grade is supplied at a hardness     as bumpers, plastic containers,
As a special service Edelstahl                                                                     of 355 to 400 HB (square, flat)     TV cases and dashboards.
Witten-Krefeld offers its clients                                                                  and 370 to 410 HB (round).
the pre-machining of large                                                                         It has excellent texturing
moulds. The electronic transfer                                                                    properties, is well suited to
of CAD data enables us to                                                                          mirror polishing and can be
manufacture large moulds with                                                                      hard chromium plated.
very short delivery times.                                                                         It has a higher compression
                                                                                                   strength than THYROPLAST®
                                                                                                   2738. THYROPLAST® 2711 is
                                                                                                   preferential for plastic moulds
                                                                                                   with increased demands on
                                                                                                   compression strength and wear
                                                                                                   resistance.




                                      Pre-machined large mould




                                                       18                                                      19
                                             Mould frames                       High-performance steels
                                                                                for mould frames

                                             Following the two-piece            The range of high-quality steel
                                             construction principle, these      grades for mould frames at
                                             dies consist of a mould frame      Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld include
                                             and respective mould inserts.      pre-hardened steel grades with
                                             Depending on the size of the       excellent machinability. Other
                                             plastic product to be              grades are available which are
                                             manufactured, up to 192 mould      corrosion resistant with
                                             inserts (so-called cavities) can   particularly low distortion
                                             be integrated into a single        whereas other steels exhibit
                                             mould frame.                       increased compression strength.
                                                                                Please see the product table
                                             Typical end products for this      for property comparisons.
                                             technology include screw caps
                                             for beverage bottles and PET       THYROPLAST® 2085 combines
                                             preforms.                          excellent corrosion resistance
                                                                                with economical machinability
                                                                                for sulphurized plastic moulding
                                                                                steels. This is why this quenched
                                                                                and tempered steel grade is
                                                                                the perfect fit for mould frames.
                                                                                THYROPLAST® 2085 is supplied
                                                                                at a hardness of 280 to 325 HB.

                                                                                THYROPLAST® 2312 is a pre-
                                                                                hardened steel grade for plastic
                                                                                moulding supplied at a hardness
                                                                                of 280 to 325 HB. This grade
                                                                                shows very good machinabilty
                                                                                and is well suited for nitriding.
                                                                                Texturing properties and
                                                                                polishability are restricted by its
                                                                                high sulphur content.

                                                                                CorroPlast® is a low-carbon
                                                                                stainless steel which machines
                                                                                more easily than any other
                                                                                stainless steel for plastic
                                                                                moulding known to date. Since
                                                                                CorroPlast® is supplied at an
                                                                                approximate hardness of
                                                                                320 HB, this steel grade does
                                                                                not necessitate any additional
                                                                                heat treatment. Corroplast®
                                                                                is particularly suitable where
                                                                                there is a high corrosion
                                                                                potential. Further advantages
                                                                                are exceptional toughness,
                                                                                particularly low stress and
                                                                                good weldability.


Mould frames. Photo: Erwes-Reifenberg                                                                                      Mould frames. Photo: Erwes-Reifenberg




                                        20                                                                            21
                              Moulds for plastic-extrusion lines   High-performance steel grades
                                                                   for plastic extruders

                              The plastification, transport and    As well as steel grades such as     THYRODUR® 2990 is a newly              plasticizing devices, screw
                              compression of the melted            THYROPLAST® 2891, which are         developed, ledeburitic cold-tool       cylinders and extruder screws.
                              plastic necessitates an extrusion    supplied for normal applications    steel with great hardness, good
                              line.                                and usually in a quenched and       toughness and a high                   THYROTHERM® 2343 EFS and
                                                                   tempered condition, Edelstahl       tempering strength. At the             THYROTHERM® 2343 EFS SUPRA
                              The different elements of the        Witten-Krefeld produces other       same time it also exhibits very        are the first choice when it
                              extrusion line include cylinders,    high-performance steels that        high wear resistance. Its high         comes to torsion resistance
                              screws, screw tips, retaining        meet special demands. These         compression strength and               and toughness. Surface-treated
                              valve and other components.          include excellent wear              resistance to abrasive and             screws made of these high-
                              Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld supplies    resistance accompanied by           adhesive wear lend this special        performance steel grades
                              a product range especially           exceptional toughness as well       steel an ideal property profile        are ideal even for the most
                              adapted to these needs,              as torsion resistance. All of the   for use with pressure pads and         demanding purposes.
                              consisting of either distortion-     grades listed meet these            plastic moulds.
                              minimized, quenched and              requirements. Please see the
                              tempered steel grades with a         product table for property          THYROPLAST® 2891 is an
                              high wear resistance, or steel       comparisons.                        aluminium-alloyed nitriding
                              grades which are to be hardened                                          steel specially designed for
                              at a later stage.                                                        extruders. It is used for




Extruded plastic pipes                                                                                                                    Battenfeld Injection Molding GmbH, Kottingbrunn, Austria




                         22                                                                                       23
Steels for plastic moulding
and their properties

Brand                         Reference number          EWK            AISI        Wear       Corrosion    Toughness   Polishability   Texturing     Weldability   Machinability   Nitridability
                              DIN EN ISO 4957*      Material Code                resistance   resistance                               properties


THYROPLAST® 2083              X40Cr14                   2083           420          ++           ++           +             ++            ++              +             ++              +

THYROPLAST® 2083 SUPRA        X40Cr14                   2083           420          ++           ++           ++            ++            ++              +             ++              +

THYROPLAST® 2085              (X33CrS16)                2085         ~420 FM         +           ++           +             o              o              +            +++              +

THYROPLAST® 2162              21MnCr5                   2162           ~P2          ++            +           +            +++            +++             ++           +++              +

THYROPLAST® 2190 SUPRA        (X37Cr13)                 2190         420 mod        ++           ++           +            +++            ++              +             ++              ++

THYROPLAST® 2311              (40CrMnMo7)               2311           P20           +            +           +             +             ++              ++            ++              ++

THYROPLAST® 2312              40CrMnNiMo8-6-4           2312         P20 + S         +            +           +             o              o              +            +++              ++

THYROPLAST® 2316              X38CrMo16                 2316         420 mod         +           ++           +             ++            ++              ++            ++              +

THYROPLAST® 2316 SUPRA        X38CrMo16                 2316         420 mod         +           ++           +             ++            ++              ++            ++              +

THYROTHERM® 2343 EFS          X37CrMoV5-1               2343           H11          ++            +           ++            ++            ++              ++            ++              ++

THYROTHERM® 2343 EFS SUPRA    X37CrMoV5-1               2343           H11          ++            +          +++           +++            ++              ++            ++              ++

THYROTHERM® 2344 EFS          X40CrMoV5-1               2344           H13          ++            +           ++            +             ++              ++            ++              ++

THYROTHERM® 2344 EFS SUPRA    X40CrMoV5-1               2344           H13          ++            +           ++            ++            ++              ++            ++              ++

THYROPLAST® 2361              (X91CrMoV18)              2361            –          +++          +++           +             +              o              o             +              +++

THYRODUR® 2363                (X100CrMoV5-1)            2363           A2           ++            +           +             +              +              o             ++              +

THYRODUR® 2379                X153CrMoV12               2379           D2          +++            +           o             o              o              o             +               +

THYRODUR® 2709                (X3NiCoMoTi18-9-5)        2709        18 MAR 300      ++            +          +++           +++            +++            +++            ++              ++

THYROPLAST® 2711              (55NiCrMoV7)              2711         P20HH           +            +           +             +             ++              ++            ++              ++

THYROPLAST® 2738              40CrMnNiMo8-6-4           2738         P20 + Ni        +            +           +             +             ++              ++            ++              ++

THYROPLAST® 2738 EHT PLUS     (28MnCrNiMo6-5-4)         2798         P20 mod         +            +           +             +             +++             ++            ++              ++

THYROPLAST® 2764              (X19NiCrMo4)              2764           ~P21         ++            +           ++           +++            +++             ++            ++              –

THYRODUR® 2767                45NiCrMo16                2767           6F7          ++            +           ++            ++            ++              ++            ++              –

THYRODUR® 2842                90MnCrV8                  2842           O2           ++            +           +             ++            ++              o             ++               –

THYROPLAST® 2891              (34CrAlNi7)               2891            –          +++            +           ++            o              o              o             ++             +++

THYRODUR® 2990                (X100CrMoV8-1-1)          2990            –          +++            +           +             +              o              o             ++              +

THYROPLAST® PH X SUPRA        (X5CrNiCuNb15-5)          2892            –            +          ++++         +++          ++++            +++            ++++           ++              ++

THYROPLAST® PH 42 SUPRA       (15NiCuAl12-10-10)        2796            –            +            +           ++          ++++            +++            ++++           ++              ++

CorroPlast®                   –                         2294            –            +           ++           ++            +              +             ++++         ++++              ++

THYRAPID® 3343                HS6-5-2C                  3343           M2          +++            +           +             o              +              o             +               +

* for your convenience




                                                   24                                                                                               25
THYROPLAST® 2083 / 2083 SUPRA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       THYROPLAST® 2085
                                    Chemical composition Typical analysis in %                                                                                                                                                                               Chemical composition Typical analysis in %
                                      C                                                                                                                  Cr                                                                                                   C                                                  Cr                                                        S                                                           Ni
                                      0.42                                                                                                               13.0                                                                                                 0.33                                               16.0                                                      0.050                                                       0.50


                                    Steel properties                                                                                                                                                                                                         Steel properties
                                    Corrosion resistant with good polishability. We recommend the use of vacuum-remelted THYROPLAST® 2083 for the highest demands                                                                                            Pre-hardened corrosion-resistant mould frame steel, hardness in as-delivered condition of 280 to 325 HB. Improved machinability in
                                    on polishability.                                                                                                                                                                                                        comparison to THYROPLAST® 2316.


                                    Physical properties                                                                                                                                                                                                      Applications
                                      Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                                                        20 – 100 °C                                  20 – 200 °C                                 20 – 300 °C            Mould frames, components, plastic moulds.
                                      Annealed                                                                                               11.1                                         11.4                                        11.8
                                      Quenched and tempered                                                                                  11.1                                         11.5                                        11.6                   Heat treatment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Soft annealing °C                                                    Cooling                                                                      Hardness HB
                                      Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                        100 °C                                    150 °C                             200 °C                                        250 °C             300 °C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              850 – 880                                                            Furnace                                                                      max. 230
                                      Annealed                                              28.4                                      28.6                               28.8                                          29.2               29.6
                                      Quenched and tempered                                 22.5                                      23.1                               23.5                                          24.4               25.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hardening °C                                                         Quenching                                                                    Hardness after quenching HRC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1000 – 1050                                                          Oil                                                                          48
                                    Applications
                                    Moulds for processing plastics with corrosive reactions.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Tempering °C                                                         100                  200                300               400                450                    500       550       600
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         HRC                                                       48                   48                 47                46                 47                     47        36        30
                                    Heat treatment
                                      Soft annealing °C                                                 Cooling                                                                                        Hardness HB
                                      760 – 800                                                         Furnace                                                                                        max. 230


                                      Hardening °C                                                      Quenching                                                                                      Hardness after quenching HRC
                                      1000 – 1050                                                       Oil or saltbath, 500 – 550 °C                                                                  56


                                      Tempering °C                                                      100                                 200                        300                            400                       500            600
                                                 HRC                                                    56                                  55                         52                             51                        52             40




                                       Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                                             Tempering diagram                                                    Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                                  Tempering diagram

                                                    1200                                                                                                                                                      70                                                              1200                                                                                                                                          70

                                                    1100                                                                                                                                                      66                                                              1100                                                                                                                                          66
                                                    1000                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1000
                                                                                                                                                                                                              62                                                                                                                                                                                                            62
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ac1e
                                                    900                                                                                                             Ac1e = 845 °C                                                                                             900
                                                                                                                                                                                                              58                                                                                                                                                                                                            58
                                                    800                                                                                                                                                                                                                       800
                                                                                                                                        5                       Ac1b = 790 °C




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Temperature in °C
                                Temperature in °C




                                                                                                                                                                                            Hardness in HRC




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hardness in HRC
                                                                                                                          35
                                                                                                                                 25
                                                                                                                                             95
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ac1b
                                                                                            K                      35                                                                                         54                                                                                                                                                                                                            54
                                                    700           A+C                                                                 75                                                                                                                                      700                                                                             P
                                                                                                        P               F+C                                                                                                                                                                A+K                                                                      3
                                                                                                        15              5 40                                                                                                                                                                                                         K                     1 3
                                                    600                                                                                                                                                       50                                                              600                                                                                                                                           50

                                                    500                                                                                                                                                       46                                                              500                                                                                                                                           46
                                                    400                                                                                                                                                                                                                       400
                                                                                                                                                                                                              42                                                                                                                                                                                                            42
                                                    300                                                                                                                                                                                                                       300
                                                                                                                                                                                                              38                                                                          MS                                                                                                                                38
                                                    200           MS                                                                                                                                                                                                          200
                                                                                                                    579
                                                                                                                                                                                                              34                                                                                                                                                                                                            34
                                                    100      Hardness           M                                                                                                                                                                                             100      Hardness
                                                                                                672          657           456        244   220         193                                                                                                                                        M     585         566 585 585         579     572    542      450 380 279
                                                                HV 10                                                                                                                                         30                                                                          HV 10                                                                                                                             30
                                                      0                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0
                                                           100          101         102                 103                       104                         105                   106                            0    100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800                              100          101          102                 103                  104                    105                 106                           0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
                                                           Time in s                                                                                                                                                        Tempering temperature in °C                              Time in s                                                                                                                                           Tempering temperature in °C
                                                                              100                 101                     102                       103                       104                                                                                                                       100                 101                   102                   103                  104
                                                                              Time in min                                                                                                                                                                                                               Time in min
                                                                                                                    100                           101                   102                                                                                                                                                                    100                   101               102
                                                                                                                    Time in h                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Time in h




                                                                                                                                       26                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       27
THYROPLAST® 2162




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     THYROPLAST® 2190 SUPRA
                      Chemical composition Typical analysis in %                                                                                                                                                                                  Chemical composition Typical analysis in %
                       C                                                                                               Mn                                                                      Cr                                                 C                                         Si                           Mn                          Cr                       V
                       0.21                                                                                            1.3                                                                     1.2                                                0.37                                      0.9                          0.5                         13.6                     0.3


                      Steel properties                                                                                                                                                                                                            Steel properties
                      Case hardening steel, good polishability, suitable for cold hobbing.                                                                                                                                                        Corrosion-resistant, very good polishability.


                      Physical properties                                                                                                                                                                                                         Physical properties
                       Coefficient of thermal expansion 10 m/(m • K)                              -6
                                                                                                                              20 – 100 °C 20 – 200 °C 20 – 300 °C 20 – 400 °C 20 – 500 °C 20 – 600 °C 20 – 700 °C                                 Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                                                    20 – 200 °C              20 – 400 °C
                                                                                                                              12.2        12.9        13.5        13.9        14.2        14.5        14.8                                                                                                                                           11.0                     11.4


                       Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                                         20 °C                                 350 °C                                             700 °C                     Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                         20 °C                       200 °C                   400 °C
                                                                                                                              39.5                                  36.5                                               33.5                                                                                              16.0                        20.0                     33.5


                      Applications                                                                                                                                                                                                                Applications
                      Mirror-finished plastic moulds and guide pins.                                                                                                                                                                              Moulds for processing corrosive plastics.


                      Heat treatment                                                                                                                                                                                                              Heat treatment
                       Soft annealing °C                                                                               Cooling                                                                 Hardness HB                                        Soft annealing °C                                            Cooling                                        Hardness HB
                       670 – 710                                                                                       Furnace                                                                 max. 210                                           760 – 800                                                    Furnace                                        max. 230


                       Carburizing °C                                            Intermediate                                         Hardening °C                         Quenching                                     Surface hardness         Hardening °C                                                 Quenching                                      Surface hardness after quenching HRC
                                                                                 annealing °C                                                                                                                            after quenching HRC      1000 – 1050                                                  Oil or saltbath, 500 – 550 °C                  56
                                                                                                                                                                           Oil or saltbath,
                       870 – 900                                                 620 – 650                                            810 – 840                            180 – 220 °C                                  62
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tempering °C                                                 100               200           300            400           500             600
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             HRC                                               56                55            52             51            52              40
                       Tempering °C                                          100                                       200                         300                     400                                   500             600
                                  HRC                                        61                                        60                          57                      54                                    50              48




                         Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                                                     Tempering diagram                                            Tempering diagram
                                       1200                                                                                                                                                            70                                                           70

                                       1100                                                                                                                                                            66                                                           66
                                       1000
                                                                                                                                                                                                       62                                                           62
                                       900
                                                                                                                                                             Ac3
                                                                                                                                                                                                       58                                                           58
                                       800
                                                                                                                                                             Ac1
                   Temperature in °C




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hardness in HRC
                                                                                                                                                                                     Hardness in HRC




                                                                                                      60          60          65                                                                       54                                                           54
                                       700                                                   60 60 60
                                                                             F                                         40      35
                                                                   10 25                               4040 40
                                                                         35
                                       600                                         40                  P                                                                                               50                                                           50
                                                    A                                        50

                                       500                                                                                                                                                             46                                                           46
                                               MS                      B
                                                            50         87
                                       400                                   80 65
                                                                                        60
                                                                                                  55                                                                                                   42                                                           42
                                                                                                           45
                                       300                                                                      15
                                                    M
                                                                                                                                                                                                       38                                                           38
                                       200
                                                                                                                            171                                                                        34                                                           34
                                       100      Hardness
                                                                       405        342 302 274 253 238 212 187 160 182 162 153
                                                    HV 10                                                                                                                                              30                                                           30
                                         0
                                              100                101                    102                           103                   104            105                 106                          0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800                          0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
                                              Time in s                                                                                                                                                             Tempering temperature in °C                                  Tempering temperature in °C
                                                                                 100                            101                   102            103                 104
                                                                                 Time in min
                                                                                                                                  100              101             102
                                                                                                                                  Time in h




                                                                                                                                              28                                                                                                                                                                                          29
THYROPLAST® 2311




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               THYROPLAST® 2312
                      Chemical composition Typical analysis in %                                                                                                                                                                            Chemical composition Typical analysis in %
                        C                                                 Mn                                                            Cr                                                                  Mo                                C                                         Mn                                            Cr                                            Mo                                                S
                        0.40                                              1.5                                                           1.9                                                                 0.2                               0.40                                      1.5                                           1.9                                           0.2                                               0.05


                      Steel properties                                                                                                                                                                                                      Steel properties
                      Pre-hardened plastic mould steel, hardness in as-delivered condition 280 to 325 HB. Good machinability, suitable for texturing, better                                                                             Pre-hardened plastic mould steel, hardness in as-delivered condition 280 to 325 HB. Improved machinability in comparison with
                      polishability than THYROPLAST® 2312.                                                                                                                                                                               THYROPLAST® 2311.


                      Physical properties                                                                                                                                                                                                   Physical properties

                        Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                                                       20 – 100 °C                               20 – 200 °C                               20 – 300 °C                 Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                                                       20 – 100 °C                               20 – 200 °C                               20 – 300 °C
                        Annealed                                                                                              12.8                                      13.2                                      13.8                        Annealed                                                                                              12.5                                      13.4                                      13.9
                        Quenched and tempered                                                                                 12.4                                      13.0                                      13.4                        Quenched and tempered                                                                                 12.3                                      13.0                                      13.7


                        Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                           100 °C                                150 °C                          200 °C                                         250 °C            300 °C                Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                           100 °C                                150 °C                          200 °C                                         250 °C           300 °C
                        Annealed                                                 39.7                                  40.6                            41.5                                           41.8              42.0                  Annealed                                                 40.2                                  40.9                            40.3                                           40.0             39.0
                        Quenched and tempered                                    34.0                                  34.0                            33.6                                           32.9              31.9                  Quenched and tempered                                    39.8                                  40.4                            40.4                                           39.9             39.0


                      Applications                                                                                                                                                                                                          Applications
                      Plastic moulds, mould frames for plastic moulds and pressure casting moulds and recipient sleeves.                                                                                                                    Plastic moulds, mould frames for plastic moulds and pressure casting moulds and recipient sleeves.


                      Heat treatment                                                                                                                                                                                                        Heat treatment
                        Soft annealing °C                                                   Cooling                                                                              Hardness HB                                                  Soft annealing °C                                                   Cooling                                                                                 Hardness HB
                        710 – 740                                                           Furnace                                                                              max. 235                                                     710 – 740                                                           Furnace                                                                                 max. 235


                        Hardening °C                                                        Quenching                                                                            Hardness after quenching HRC                                 Hardening °C                                                        Quenching                                                                               Hardness after quenching HRC
                        840 – 870                                                           Oil or saltbath, 180 – 220 °C                                                        51                                                           840 – 870                                                           Oil or saltbath, 180 – 220 °C                                                           51


                        Tempering °C                                                        100                        200                     300                 400                                500         600            700          Tempering °C                                                        100                        200                     300                 400                                500        600            700
                                   HRC                                                      51                         50                      48                  46                                 42          36             28                      HRC                                                      51                         50                      48                  46                                 42         36             28




                         Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                                         Tempering diagram                                                     Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                                         Tempering diagram

                                       1200                                                                                                                                                  70                                                              1200                                                                                                                                                  70

                                       1100                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1100                                                                                                                                                  66
                                                                                                                                                                                             66
                                       1000                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1000
                                                                                                                                                                                             62                                                                                                                                                                                                                    62
                                       900                                                                                                                                                                                                                   900
                                                                                                                                               Ac1e                                          58                                                                                                                                                                      Ac1e                                          58
                                       800                                                                                                                                                                                                                   800




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Temperature in °C




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hardness in HRC
                   Temperature in °C




                                                                                                                                                                           Hardness in HRC




                                                                                                                                               Ac1b                                          54                                                                                                                                                                      Ac1b                                          54
                                       700                                                                               100                                                                                                                                 700                                                                               100
                                                     A+C                                                        100                                                                                                                                                        A+C                                                        100
                                                                                                      P    20                                                                                                                                                                                                               P    20                                                                                50
                                       600                                                        3                                                                                          50                                                              600                                                        3

                                       500                                                                                                                                                                                                                   500                                                                                                                                                   46
                                                                                                                                                                                             46
                                       400                                                                                                                                                                                                                   400
                                                                                                                                                                                             42                                                                      MS                                                                                                                                            42
                                               MS                                                     B                                                                                                                                                                                                                     B
                                       300                                                            3                                                                                                                                                      300                                                            3
                                                                                                                  45                                                                         38                                                                                                                                         45                                                                         38
                                       200                                                                 60
                                                                                                                             95                                                                                                                              200                                                                 60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   95
                                                             M                                                                                                                                                                                                                     M
                                                                                                                                                                                             34                                                                                                                                                                                                                    34
                                       100      Hardness                                                                                                                                                                                                     100      Hardness
                                                                                681   673 673 642 642 572 572 442 274                   236                                                                                                                                                           681   673 673 642 642 572 572 442 274                   236
                                                    HV 10                                                                                                                                                                                                                 HV 10                                                                                                                                    30
                                         0                                                                                                                                                   30                                                                0
                                              100           101         102                 103                        104                    105                 106                             0    100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800                              100           101         102                 103                        104                    105                 106                             0    100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
                                              Time in s                                                                                                                                                    Tempering temperature in °C                              Time in s                                                                                                                                                    Tempering temperature in °C
                                                                  100                 101                       102                 103                     104                                                                                                                         100                 101                       102                 103                     104
                                                                  Time in min                                                                                                                                                                                                           Time in min
                                                                                                          100                     101                 102                                                                                                                                                                       100                     101                 102
                                                                                                          Time in h                                                                                                                                                                                                             Time in h




                                                                                                                        30                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            31
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             THYROTHERM® 2343 EFS / 2343 EFS SUPRA
THYROPLAST® 2316 / 2316 SUPRA

                                   Chemical composition Typical analysis in %                                                                                                                                                                Chemical composition Typical analysis in %
                                     C                                                                 Cr                                                                             Mo                                                      C                                          Si                                         Cr                                          Mo                                                 V
                                     0.36                                                              16.0                                                                           1.2                                                     0.38                                       1.0                                        5.3                                         1.3                                                0.4


                                   Steel properties                                                                                                                                                                                          Steel properties
                                   Increased corrosion resistance in comparison to THYROPLAST® 2083, good polishability. Usually this steel grade is supplied in a                                                                           High hot-tensile strength and toughness. Good thermal conductivity and insusceptibility to hot cracking. Can be water-cooled to a
                                   quenched and tempered condition at a working hardness of approx. 300 HB.                                                                                                                                  limited extent.


                                   Physical properties                                                                                                                                                                                       Physical properties
                                     Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                              20 – 100 °C                        20 – 200 °C                                    20 – 300 °C            20 – 400 °C        Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                             20 – 100 °C 20 – 200 °C 20 – 300 °C 20 – 400 °C 20 – 500 °C 20 – 600 °C 20 – 700 °C
                                                                                                                  10.5                               11.0                                           11.0                   12.0                                                                                           11.8        12.4        12.6        12.7        12.8        12.9        12.9


                                     Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                               20 °C                                         350 °C                                            700 °C                      Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                                    20 °C                                     350 °C                                       700 °C
                                                                                                                  17.2                                          21.0                                              24.7                        Annealed                                                                                          29.8                                      30.0                                         33.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Quenched and tempered                                                                             26.8                                      27.3                                         30.3
                                   Applications
                                   Moulds for processing plastics with corrosive reactions.                                                                                                                                                  Applications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Hot-work steel for universal use. Pressure casting moulds, metal extrusion tools for processing light metals, forging dies, moulds,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             screws and barrels for plastic processing, shrink rings and hot-shear blades.
                                   Heat treatment                                                                                                                                                                                            We recommend the use of THYROTHERM® 2343 EFS SUPRA (ESR) for the highest demands.
                                     Soft annealing °C                                                 Cooling                                                                        Hardness HB
                                     760 – 800                                                         Furnace                                                                        max. 230
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Heat treatment

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Soft annealing °C                                                     Cooling                                                                            Hardness HB
                                     Hardening °C                                                      Quenching                                                                      Hardness after quenching HRC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              750 – 800                                                             Furnace                                                                            max. 230
                                     1020 – 1050                                                       Oil or saltbath, 500 – 550 °C                                                  49

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hardening °C                                                          Quenching                                                                          Hardness after quenching HRC
                                     Tempering °C                                                      100                      200                       300                        400                          500           600
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1000 – 1030                                                           Air, oil or saltbath, 500 – 550 °C                                                 54
                                                HRC                                                    49                       47                        46                         46                           47            32

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Tempering °C                                                          100              200                 300            400               500                          525       550       600    700
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         HRC                                                        52               52                  52             52                54                           52        48        38     31




                                      Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                               Tempering diagram                                                   Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                                     Tempering diagram
                                                    1200                                                                                                                                       70                                                             1200                                                                                                                                                70

                                                    1100                                                                                                                                       66                                                             1100                                                                                                                                                66
                                                    1000                                                                                                                                                                                                      1000
                                                                                                                                                   Ac1e                                        62                                                                                                                                                                                                                 62
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ac1e
                                                    900                                                                                                                                                                                                       900
                                                                                                                                                   Ac1b                                        58                                                                                                                                                                                                                 58
                                                    800                                                                                                                                                                                                       800                                                                               95               Ac1b




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Temperature in °C
                                Temperature in °C




                                                                                                                                                                             Hardness in HRC




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hardness in HRC
                                                    700                                                            F+C                                                                         54                                                             700                                                                          F+C                                                                    54
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     5 20 30
                                                                         A+C                                                                                                                                                                                            A+C
                                                    600                                                                                                                                        50                                                             600                                                                                                                                                 50

                                                    500                                                                                                                                        46                                                             500                                                                                                                                                 46
                                                    400                                                                                                                                                                                                       400
                                                                                                                                                                                               42                                                                                                                                                    B                                                            42
                                                    300                                                                                                                                                                                                       300     MS                                                    2       10 80 25
                                                            MS                                                                                                                                 38                                                                                                                               5               60                                                                38
                                                    200                                                                                                                                                                                                       200                                                                                    65
                                                                          M                                                                                                                                                                                            M                                                                                    2
                                                                                                                                 199
                                                    100
                                                                                                                          468                                                                  34                                                             100      Hardness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      665 813                                                                     34
                                                             Hardness
                                                                                         620   620     627 634    530 542 514   317    180   182                                                                                                                                                        707   698   690   681 649 665 642 483 446 276
                                                                 HV 10                                                                                                                         30                                                                          HV 10                                                                                                                                  30
                                                      0                                                                                                                                                                                                         0
                                                           100           101       102                 103                104                  105                    106                           0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800                              100           101         102                  103                   104                   105                 106                                0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
                                                           Time in s                                                                                                                                        Tempering temperature in °C                              Time in s                                                                                                                                                 Tempering temperature in °C
                                                                               100               101                102                  103                    104                                                                                                                       100                 101                   102                   103                 104
                                                                               Time in min                                                                                                                                                                                                Time in min
                                                                                                                 100                   101                102                                                                                                                                                               100                      101                102
                                                                                                                 Time in h                                                                                                                                                                                                  Time in h




                                                                                                                             32                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  33
THYROTHERM® 2344 EFS / 2344 EFS SUPRA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  THYROPLAST® 2361
                                         Chemical composition Typical analysis in %                                                                                                                                                                            Chemical composition Typical analysis in %
                                          C                                            Si                                           Cr                                            Mo                                                 V                         C                                         Si                          Cr                         Mo                           V
                                          0.40                                         1.0                                          5.3                                           1.4                                                1.0                       0.90                                      < 1.00                      18.0                       1.00                         0.10


                                         Steel properties                                                                                                                                                                                                      Steel properties
                                         High hot-wear resistance, high hot-tensile strength and toughness. Good thermal conductivity and insusceptibility to hot cracking.                                                                                    Corrosion-resistant steel for plastic moulding characterized by a very good wear resistance.
                                         Can be water-cooled to a limited extent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Physical properties
                                         Physical properties
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                          20 – 100 °C         20 – 200 °C        20 – 300 °C          20 – 400 °C
                                          Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                               20 – 100 °C 20 – 200 °C 20 – 300 °C 20 – 400 °C 20 – 500 °C 20 – 600 °C 20 – 700 °C                                                                                                                             10.5                11.0               11.0                 12.0
                                                                                                                        10.9        11.9        12.3        12.7        13.0        13.3        13.5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                               20 °C
                                          Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                                          20 °C                                     350 °C                                       700 °C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            29
                                          Annealed                                                                                                27.2                                      30.5                                         33.4
                                          Quenched and tempered                                                                                   25.5                                      27.6                                         30.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Applications

                                         Applications                                                                                                                                                                                                          Plastic moulds, injection nozzles, valve components and ball bearings.

                                         Hot-work steel for universal use. Pressure casting moulds and metal extrusion tools for processing light metals, forging moulds,
                                         moulds, screws and barrels for plastic processing, nitrided ejectors and hot-shear blades.                                                                                                                            Heat treatment
                                         We recommend the use of THYROTHERM® 2344 EFS SUPRA (ESR) for the highest demands.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Soft annealing °C                                            Cooling                                       Hardness HB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               800 – 850                                                    Slow, e.g. furnace                            max. 265
                                         Heat treatment
                                          Soft annealing °C                                                      Cooling                                                                                 Hardness HB                                           Hardening °C                                                 Quenching                                     Hardness after quenching HRC
                                          750 – 800                                                              Furnace                                                                                 max. 230                                              1000 – 1050                                                  Oil                                           59


                                          Hardening °C                                                           Quenching                                                                               Hardness after quenching HRC                          Tempering °C                                                 100          200          300           400        500            550         600
                                          1020 – 1050                                                            Air, oil or saltbath, 500 – 550 °C                                                      54                                                               HRC                                               58           56           54            54         54             50          40


                                          Tempering °C                                                           100                 200                300               400               500                          525       550       600    700
                                                     HRC                                                         53                  52                 52                54                56                           54        50        42     32




                                           Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                                            Tempering diagram                                                Tempering diagram

                                                            1200                                                                                                                                                    70                                                           70

                                                            1100                                                                                                                                                    66                                                           66
                                                            1000
                                                                                                                                                                   Ac1e                                             62                                                           62
                                                            900
                                                                                                                                                                   Ac1b                                             58                                                           58
                                                            800
                                        Temperature in °C




                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hardness in HRC




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Hardness in HRC
                                                                                                                                            100
                                                                                                                                      100
                                                            700                                                                F+C                                                                                  54                                                           54
                                                                                                                              3 20
                                                                     A+C
                                                            600                                                                                                                                                     50                                                           50

                                                            500                                                                                                                                                     46                                                           46
                                                            400
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    42                                                           42
                                                                    MS
                                                            300                                                                    10 15 B
                                                                                                                                         3055
                                                                     M                                                                                                                                              38                                                           38
                                                            200

                                                            100      Hardness
                                                                                                                                       599        236                                                               34                                                           34
                                                                                                      707 681 673      657   642    634 572       488 219
                                                                         HV 10                                                                                                                                      30
                                                              0                                                                                                                                                                                                                  30
                                                                   100           101          102                103                        104                   105                 106                                0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800                          0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
                                                                   Time in s                                                                                                                                                     Tempering temperature in °C                                  Tempering temperature in °C
                                                                                        100                101                     102                      103                 104
                                                                                        Time in min
                                                                                                                             100                        101               102
                                                                                                                             Time in h




                                                                                                                                             34                                                                                                                                                                                                       35
THYRODUR® 2363




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              THYRODUR® 2379
                    Chemical composition Typical analysis in %                                                                                                                                                                   Chemical composition Typical analysis in %
                      C                                                 Cr                                                         Mo                                                            V                               C                                 Cr                                  Mo                                      V
                     1.0                                                5.3                                                        1.1                                                           0.2                             1.55                              12.0                                0.7                                     1.0


                    Steel properties                                                                                                                                                                                             Steel properties
                    High dimensional stability during heat treatment. High wear resistance and toughness.                                                                                                                        12% ledeburitic chromium steel. Maximum wear resistance, sufficient toughness. Best cutting-edge endurance and resistance to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 tempering, can be nitrided after special heat treatment.

                    Physical properties
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Physical properties
                     Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                   20 °C                                              350 °C                                          700 °C
                                                                                                      15.8                                               26.7                                            29.1                    Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)            20 – 100 °C             20 – 200 °C            20 – 300 °C        20 – 400 °C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.5                    11.5                   11.9               12.2

                    Applications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                             20 °C                           350 °C                       700 °C
                    Cutting tools, rolls, shear blades, cold pilger mandrels, cold stamping tools and moulds for processing plastics.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16.7                            20.5                         24.2

                    Heat treatment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Applications
                     Soft annealing °C                                                  Cooling                                                                            Hardness HB                                           Thread rolling rolls and thread rolling dies, cold extrusion tools, cutting and stamping tools for sheet thicknesses up to 6 mm, precision
                     800 – 840                                                          Furnace                                                                            max. 231                                              cutting tools up to 12 mm. Cold pilger mandrels, circular shear blades, deep-drawing tools, pressure pads and highly wear-resistant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 plastic moulds.
                     Hardening °C                                                       Quenching                                                                          Hardness after quenching HRC
                     930 – 970                                                          Air, oil or saltbath, 500 – 550 °C                                                 63                                                    Heat treatment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Soft annealing °C                             Cooling                                               Hardness HB
                     Tempering °C                                                       100                       200                            300                       400                         500        600            830 – 860                                     Furnace                                               max. 250
                                HRC                                                     63                        62                             59                        57                          59         52

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hardening °C                                  Quenching                                             Hardness after quenching HRC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1000 – 1050                                   Air, oil or saltbath, 500 – 550 °C                    63


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Tempering °C                                  100         200         300            400            500        525         550       600
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            HRC                                63          61          58             58             58         60          56        50


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Special heat treatment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hardening °C                                  Quenching                                             Hardness after quenching HRC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1050 – 1080                                   Air, oil or saltbath, 500 – 550 °C                    61
                       Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                                     Tempering diagram

                                     1200                                                                                                                                             70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Tempering °C                                  100         200         300            400            500        525         550       600
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (three times) HRC                             61          60          58             59             62         62          57        50
                                     1100                                                                                                                                             66
                                     1000
                                                                                                                                                                                      62
                                     900
                                                                                                                                          Ac1e                                        58
                                     800
                 Temperature in °C




                                                                                                                                                                    Hardness in HRC




                                                                                                                                          Ac1b                                        54
                                     700
                                                                                                3 5     15 30P 100
                                                          A+C
                                     600                                                                                                                                              50

                                     500                                                                                                                                              46
                                     400
                                                                                                                                                                                      42
                                     300
                                                                                                              B
                                                                                                                                                                                      38
                                     200     MS                                                         15
                                                                                                             90             70
                                                                                                      724         95        376                                                       34
                                     100      Hardness                                                                 25
                                                  HV 10    M                  882 870 870 870     847    606 542            442    254
                                       0                                                                                                                                              30
                                            100           101         102               103                  104                         105                 106                           0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
                                            Time in s                                                                                                                                              Tempering temperature in °C
                                                                100               101              102                            103                  104
                                                                Time in min
                                                                                                100                          101                 102
                                                                                                Time in h




                                                                                                              36                                                                                                                                                                                             37
THYRODUR® 2379




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     THYRODUR® 2709
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Chemical composition Typical analysis in %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     C                                                                                  Mo                           Ni                      Co                         Ti
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ≤ 0.03                                                                             5.0                          18.0                    10.0                       1.0


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Steel properties
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Low susceptibility to distortion, precipitation hardening, high yield point and tensile strength combined with good toughness.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Physical properties
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                                                          20 – 100 °C   20 – 200 °C   20 – 300 °C    20 – 400 °C   20 – 500 °C     20 – 600 °C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10.3          11.0          11.2           11.5          11.8            11.6


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                                                             20 °C                     350 °C                     700 °C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                14.2                      18.5                       22.5

                     Time-temperature-transformation diagram – hardening temperature: 1030 °C                                                                                       Tempering diagram
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Applications
                                     1200                                                                                                                                                                 70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Casings for cold extrusion tools, pressure casting moulds for light metals and plastic moulds of intricate design.
                                     1100                                                                                                                                                                 66
                                     1000
                                                                                                                                                                                                          62
                                        900                                                                                                                Ac1e (0.4° /min)                                                                          Heat treatment
                                                                                                                                                                                                          58
                                        800                                                                                                                                                                                                          Solution annealing °C                                                                                 Cooling                                      Hardness HB




                                                                                                                                                                                    Hardness in HRC
                 Temperature in °C




                                                                                                                                                   100     Ac1b (0.4° /min)
                                        700                                                                                      100 100                                                                  54                                         820 – 850                                                                                             Water                                        max. 340
                                                                                                                   5   P
                                                                                                                           30
                                        600                                                                                                                                                               50

                                        500
                                                      A+C              0.10   0.36 0.63 1.2   3.0         7.8   180/min 50/min 2.50/min 1.250/min 0.40/min                                                                                           Ageing temperature: 490 °C 6 h (air)
                                                                                                                                                                                                          46
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Attainable hardness: approx. 55 HRC
                                        400
                                                                                                                                                                                                          42
                                        300
                                                MS                                                                                                                                                        38
                                        200
                                                                                                                                                                                                          34
                                        100                 Hardness
                                                891                                 891       891     891 891 857 780 623 435 257                 249     230
                                                      M       HV 10                                                                                                                                       30
                                          0
                                               100                101               102                   103                    104                     105                  106                              0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
                                               Time in s                                                                                                                                                               Tempering temperature in °C
                                                                               100                  101                 102                        103                  104
                                                                               Time in min
                                                                                                                   100                        101                 102
                                                                                                                   Time in h




                     Time-temperature-transformation diagram – hardening temperature: 1080 °C                                                                                       Tempering diagram                                                Ageing diagram
                                        1200                                                                                                                                                              70                                                                                                 2000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Rm




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Tensile strength Rm and 0.2 yield stress Rp0.2 in MPa
                                        1100                                                                                                                                                              66                                                                                                 1800
                                        1000
                                                                                                                                                                                                          62                                                                                                 1600
                                        900                                                                                                                Ac1e                                                                                                                                                                       Rp0.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                          58                                                                                                 1400
                                        800
                                                                                                                                                           Ac1b
                    Temperature in °C




                                                                                                                                                                                        Hardness in HRC




                                                                                                                                      100
                                                                                                                                            100                                                           54                                                                                                 1200
                                        700                                                                                      95
                                                                                                                      10    20
                                                                  A+C                                              3P
                                                                                                                                                                                                          50                                                                                                 1000
                                        600

                                        500                                                                                                                                                               46                                                                                                 800

                                        400                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  600
                                                                                                                                                                                                          42
                                        300
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             400
                                                                                                                                                                                                          38
                                        200
                                                                   MS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        200
                                                                                                                                      488                                                                 34
                                        100      Hardness
                                                                       M                      782 772 772 782          772 724 592 297 272 245                                                                                                                                                                 0
                                                      HV 10                                                                                                                                               30
                                          0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         400       500        600         700
                                               100                101                102                  103                     104                    105                  106                              0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800                                                                        Ageing temperature in °C
                                               Time in s                                                                                                                                                               Tempering temperature in °C
                                                                               100                  101                    102                     103                  104
                                                                               Time in min
                                                                                                                    100                       101                 102
                                                                                                                    Time in h




                                                                                                                                   38                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              39
THYROPLAST® 2711




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       THYROPLAST® 2738
                    Chemical composition Typical analysis in %                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Chemical composition Typical analysis in %
                     C                                                           Cr                                                       Ni                                                        Mo                                                  V                             C                                          Mn                                         Cr                                              Ni                                               Mo
                     0.55                                                        1.1                                                      1.7                                                       0.5                                                 0.1                           0.40                                       1.5                                        1.9                                             1.0                                              0.2


                    Steel properties                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Steel properties
                    Pre-hardened plastic mould steel, hardness in as-delivered condition 355 to 400 HB (square, flat) and 370 to 410 HB (round). Increased                                                                                                                           Pre-hardened plastic mould steel, hardness in as-delivered condition 280 to 325 HB. Good machinability, suitable for texturing,
                    compression strength in comparison to THYROPLAST® 2738, good polishability.                                                                                                                                                                                      improved through-hardening in comparison to THYROPLAST® 2711, good polishability.


                    Physical properties                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Physical properties
                     Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                                                     20 – 100 °C                                20 – 200 °C                          20 – 300 °C                             20 – 400 °C        20 – 500 °C       Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                           20 – 100 °C 20 – 200 °C 20 – 300 °C 20 – 400 °C 20 – 500 °C 20 – 600 °C 20 – 700 °C
                                                                                                                         11.8                                       12.7                                 13.3                                    14.0               14.3                                                                                        11.1        12.9        13.4        13.8        14.2        14.6        14.9


                     Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                                                                        20 °C                                              350 °C                                       700 °C                     Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                                       20 °C                                      350 °C                                   700 °C
                                                                                                                                                           37.5                                               36.0                                         32.5                                                                                                                            34.5                                       33.5                                     32.0


                    Applications                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Applications
                    Plastic moulds with increased demands on compression strength and wear resistance.                                                                                                                                                                               Large plastic moulds with deep engravings and intensive impacts on the core. THYROPLAST® 2738 is the logical development
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     of THYROPLAST® 2311, a pre-hardened plastic mould steel for use in large moulds, which also have to display high core strength. The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     additional nickel content of 1 % increases the through-hardenability. THYROPLAST® 2738 ia a micro-alloyed, vacuum-degassed steel
                    Heat treatment                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   with the following excellent features: good machinability, outstanding polishability, good texturing properties.
                     Soft annealing °C                                                                            Cooling                                                                                                  Hardness HB
                     650 – 700                                                                                    Furnace                                                                                                  max. 240
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Heat treatment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Soft annealing °C                                                  Cooling                                                                                Hardness HB
                     Hardening °C                                                                                 Quenching                                                                                                Hardness after quenching HRC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      710 – 740                                                          Furnace                                                                                max. 235
                     830 – 870                                                                                    Air or oil                                                                                               57

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hardening °C                                                       Quenching                                                                              Hardness after quenching HRC
                     Tempering °C                                                                                 100                      200                    300                  400                    450                          500       550       600         650        840 – 870                                                          Polymer or oil                                                                         51
                                HRC                                                                               56                       54                     51                   47                     44                           42        39        36          30

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Tempering °C                                                       100                      200                        300                 400                                500       600         700
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 HRC                                                     51                       50                         48                  46                                 42        39          28




                      Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                                                                                   Tempering diagram                                                       Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                                         Tempering diagram
                                       1200                                                                                                                                                                                           70                                                              1200                                                                                                                                                 70

                                       1100                                                                                                                                                                                           66                                                              1100                                                                                                                                                 66
                                                      Cooling curves for the core of round bars with
                                                      50, 100 and 200 mm dia. on oil hardening
                                       1000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      62                                                                                                                                                                                                                   62
                                       900                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            900
                                                                                                                                                                        Ac1e (0.4 K/min)                                              58                                                                                                                                                                           Ac1e                                    58
                                       800                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            800




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Temperature in °C
                   Temperature in °C




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hardness in HRC




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Hardness in HRC
                                                                                                                                                                        Ac1b (0.4 K/min)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      54                                                              700                                                                                                                                                  54
                                       700                                                                                                                    100                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ac1b
                                                                                                                                           P
                                                                                                                                                      80                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         99
                                       600                                                                                        2        15                                                                                         50                                                              600                                                                             P    40                                                              50
                                                                                                                        20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 5
                                                                    A+C                                                               5         2.5        1.25         0.4 K/min                                                                                                                               A+C
                                                             0.10         0.38         1.1        2.2 3.1      6.2 s · 10-2
                                       500                                                                                                                                                                                            46                                                              500                                                                                                                                                  46
                                                                                       50             100         200 mm Dmr.
                                       400                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            400
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      42                                                                      MS                                                            B                                                                              42
                                               MS                                                                                 B
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     3                                94    93    59    1
                                       300                                                           2                   50                                                                                                                                                                           300                                                       10     70
                                                                                                               5 45
                                                                                                                             80                                                                                                       38                                                                           M                                                                                                                                       38
                                                                                                                                  98                                                                                                                                                                  200
                                       200      Hardness                                                                                              98     85     20              Bainit in %
                                                     HV 10           M                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Hardness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      34                                                              100                                                                                                                                                  34
                                       100
                                               795                                     815               766   766 715 613 430 366                354       323     257        232                                                                                                                                 HV 10               631     572             563    539       440 380 378       306       224
                                         0                                                                                                                                                                                            30                                                                0                                                                                                                                                  30
                                              100                   101                     102                   103                            104                        105                         106                                0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800                               100           101         102               103                      104                       105                 106                             0    100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
                                              Time in s                                                                                                                                                                                            Tempering temperature in °C                               Time in s                                                                                                                                                   Tempering temperature in °C
                                                                                  100                       101                           102                       103                           104                                                                                                                            100           101                      102                           103                 104
                                                                                  Time in min                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Time in min
                                                                                                                              100                                 101                     102                                                                                                                                                                        100                         101                102
                                                                                                                              Time in h                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Time in h




                                                                                                                                                      40                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      41
THYROPLAST® 2738 EHT PLUS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          THYROPLAST® 2764
                            Chemical composition Typical analysis in %                                                                                                               Chemical composition Typical analysis in %
                            C                                         Mn                            Cr                        Ni                         Mo                           C                                                                      Cr                                                                            Mo                                                           Ni
                            0.28                                      1.5                           1.3                       1.0                        +                            0.19                                                                   1.3                                                                           0.2                                                          4.1


                            Steel properties                                                                                                                                         Steel properties
                            Quenched and tempered steel for plastic moulding supplied at a hardness of 310 to 355 HB. Good through-hardenability, polishable                         Case-hardening steel, high core strength, good polishability.
                            for standard applications, weldable and appropriate for texturing.

                                                                                                                                                                                     Physical properties
                            Physical properties
                                                                                                                                                                                      Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                                                                                                      20 – 100 °C                20 – 200 °C                       20 – 300 °C         20 – 400 °C
                            Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                    20 – 100 °C 20 – 200 °C 20 – 300 °C 20 – 400 °C 20 – 500 °C 20 – 600 °C 20 – 700 °C                                                                                                                                                         12.2                       13.0                              13.1                13.5
                                                                                               11.8        12.5        13.1        13.5        13.8        14.1        14.3

                                                                                                                                                                                      Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                                                                                       20 °C                                  350 °C                              700 °C
                            Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                  20 °C                   350 °C                 700 °C                                                                                                                                                                          33.5                                   32.5                                32.0
                                                                                                            38.0                    37.4                   33.0

                                                                                                                                                                                     Applications
                            Applications
                                                                                                                                                                                     Highly stressed plastic moulds.
                            THYROPLAST® 2738 EHT PLUS is especially suitable for large-sized plastic injection and compression moulds with deep engravings and
                            intensive impacts on the core. Examples are moulds for bumpers, tailgates, mudguards, spoilers, dashboards, TV cases .
                                                                                                                                                                                     Heat treatment

                            Heat treatment                                                                                                                                            Soft annealing °C                                                                              Cooling                                                                                      Hardness HB
                                                                                                                                                                                      620 – 660                                                                                      Furnace                                                                                      max. 250
                            Soft annealing °C                                            Cooling                                        Hardness HB
                            710 – 730                                                    Furnace                                        max. 235
                                                                                                                                                                                      Carburizing °C                                            Intermediate                                                Hardening °C                                        Quenching                                       Surface hardness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                annealing °C                                                                                                                                                    after quenching HRC
                            Hardening °C                                                 Quenching                                      Hardness after quenching HRC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Oil or saltbath,
                            850 – 880                                                    Polymer or oil                                 50
                                                                                                                                                                                      860 – 890                                                 600 – 630                                                   780 – 810                                           180 – 220 °C                                    62
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            800 – 830                                           Air                                             56
                            Tempering °C                                                 100              200       300          400          500         600          700
                                       HRC                                               50               50        49           47           44          37           24
                                                                                                                                                                                      Tempering          °C                                                                                                 100                            200                  300                               400           500            600
                                                                                                                                                                                      After oil hardening HRC                                                                                               62                             60                   58                                56            52             49
                                                                                                                                                                                      After air hardening HRC                                                                                               56                             55                   53                                51            48             45




                            Tempering diagram                                                                                                                                          Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                                                                            Tempering diagram

                                              70                                                                                                                                                         1200                                                                                                                                                                                70

                                              66                                                                                                                                                         1100                                                                                                                                                                                66
                                                                                                                                                                                                         1000
                                              62                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             62
                                                                                                                                                                                                         900
                                              58                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             58                       Oil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ac3 (0.4 K/min)
                                                                                                                                                                                                         800




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Hardness in HRC
                            Hardness in HRC




                                                                                                                                                                                     Temperature in °C
                                              54                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ac1 (0.4 K/min)                             54
                                                                                                                                                                                                         700
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10    17   F        30      35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5                                                                                                         Air
                                              50                                                                                                                                                         600                                                                                   2                                P                                                            50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 23
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A                                                6.3                      1         3      6          15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0.14    0.38   1.0 1.5      2.3                  20       10       5
                                                                                                                                                                                                         500                                                                                                    2.5 K/min     0.4 K/min           0.2 K/min
                                              46                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.25 K/min                                                         46
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 MS                                                                  B              K/min
                                                                                                                                                                                                         400                                            2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   50 75
                                              42                                                                                                                                                                                    M                                                                                                                                                        42
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             50%                                               90
                                                                                                                                                                                                         300                                                                              95
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   96
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             95            84        75           53
                                              38                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     91                                40                                    38
                                                                                                                                                                                                         200                 90%                                                                                12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           RA =                            8               11                                   10                      8
                                              34                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             345                                                                             34
                                                                                                                                                                                                         100      Hardness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            480     465        420 405 390 365 355 340 335                           325          305 295
                                              30                                                                                                                                                                      HV 10                                                                                                                                                                  30
                                                                                                                                                                                                           0
                                                   0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800                                                                                                                          100                101                  102                         103                              104                       105                  106                           0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
                                                           Tempering temperature in °C                                                                                                                          Time in s                                                                                                                                                                                 Tempering temperature in °C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 100                       101                              102                          103                  104
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Time in min
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   100                          101                     102
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Time in h




                                                                                                          42                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     43
THYRODUR® 2767




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     THYRODUR® 2842
                    Chemical composition Typical analysis in %                                                                                                                                                                                                     Chemical composition Typical analysis in %
                     C                                                                   Cr                                                                 Mo                                                                   Ni                                 C                                                               Mn                                                                Cr                                                             V
                     0.45                                                                1.4                                                                0.3                                                                  4.0                                0.90                                                            2.0                                                               0.4                                                            0.1


                    Steel properties                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Steel properties
                    High hardenability and toughness, highly suitable for polishing, texturing and EDM machining.                                                                                                                                                  Good cutting-edge endurance, high hardenability, dimensionally stable during heat treatment.


                    Physical properties                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Physical properties
                     Coefficient of thermal expansion 10 m/(m • K)                             -6
                                                                                                                                                20 – 100 °C                                    20 – 200 °C                                   20 – 300 °C            Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                                                 20 – 100 °C 20 – 200 °C 20 – 300 °C 20 – 400 °C 20 – 500 °C 20 – 600 °C 20 – 700 °C
                     Annealed                                                                                                                   11.7                                           12.6                                          13.1                                                                                                                   12.2        13.2        13.8        14.3        14.7        15.0        15.3
                     Quenched and tempered                                                                                                      12.0                                           12.5                                          13.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                                                         20 °C                                    350 °C                                       700 °C
                     Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                   100 °C                            150 °C                                200 °C                                         250 °C              300 °C                                                                                                                                    33.0                                     32.0                                         31.3
                     Annealed                                                                         38.2                              38.6                                  38.9                                           39.1                39.6
                     Quenched and tempered                                                            27.7                              28.9                                  29.7                                           30.5                31.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Applications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Tool steel for universal use, cutting and stamping tools for sheet metal up to 6 mm thickness, thread-cutting tools, drills, reamers,
                    Applications                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   gauges, measuring tools, plastic moulds, shear blades, guide strips.
                    Cutlery moulds, cutting tools for thick material, billet shear blades, drawing jaws, solid embossing and bending tools, plastic moulds,
                    casings.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Heat treatment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Soft annealing °C                                                                         Cooling                                                                        Hardness HB
                    Heat treatment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    680 – 720                                                                                 Furnace                                                                        max. 220
                     Soft annealing °C                                                                          Cooling                                                                                    Hardness HB
                     610 – 650                                                                                  Furnace                                                                                    max. 260
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hardening °C                                                                              Quenching                                                                      Hardness after quenching HRC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    790 – 820                                                                                 Oil or saltbath, 180 – 220 °C                                                  64
                     Hardening °C                                                                               Quenching                                                                                  Hardness after quenching HRC
                     840 – 870                                                                                  Air, oil or saltbath, 180 – 220 °C                                                         56
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tempering °C                                                                              100                      200                       300                        400                            500            600
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               HRC                                                                            63                       60                        56                         50                             42             38
                     Tempering °C                                                                               100                        200                           300                              400                          500            600
                                HRC                                                                             56                         54                            50                               46                           42             38




                       Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                                                                  Tempering diagram                                                     Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                                                         Tempering diagram
                                      1200                                                                                                                                                                          70                                                              1200                                                                                                                                                                  70

                                      1100                                                                                                                                                                          66                                                              1100                                                                                                                                                                  66
                                      1000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    62                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    62
                                      900                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           900
                                                                                                                                                                 Ac1e (0.4 K/min)                                   58                                                                                                                                                                                      Ac1e (0.4 K/min)                              58
                                      800                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           800




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Temperature in °C
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hardness in HRC




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hardness in HRC
                 Temperature in ° C




                                                                                                                                                                 Ac1b (0.4 K/min)                                   54                                                              700                                                                                                                                                                   54
                                      700                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        100     100    100                         Ac1b (0.4 K/min)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               100 100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      P
                                      600                                                                                                                                                                           50                                                              600                                     2             95                                                                                                              50
                                               A + C (traces)                                                                                               P    20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A+C                     16 30
                                                                      0.14   0.4         1.1        2.1    5.6 20 K/min     5 K/min       1.25 K/min
                                      500                                                                                                                                                                           46                                                              500                                                                                                                                                                   46
                                                                                                                      10 K/min         2.5 K/min     0.4 K/min        0.2 K/min
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0.16   0.4   0.65      1.4 1.6       2.5 6.5 20 K/min           2.5 K/min
                                      400                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           400
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    42                                                                                                                    B                              5 K/min       1.25 K/min                                                         42
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               20   4
                                      300     MS                                                                                                            B                                                                                                                       300
                                                                                                                                                1      50                                                                                                                                                                                           45
                                                                                                                                                                 98     78                                          38                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    38
                                      200                M                                                                                                                                                                                                                          200     MS
                                                                 RA =                               2.2
                                                                                                                                 603
                                                                                                                                          5.1           4.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    34                                                                                         M                                        575                                                                                               34
                                      100      Hardness                                                                                                                                                                                                                             100      Hardness
                                                                                   623              613         613 613    613 613 603 584 532                  440    435
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 HV 10         RA = 15             785     780          780 473 330 293 293 275          257   240
                                                   HV 10                                                                                                                                                            30                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    30
                                        0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0
                                             100                101                 102                         103                    104                      105                      106                             0    100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800                              100                101               102                       103                      104                     105                106                              0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
                                             Time in s                                                                                                                                                                            Tempering temperature in °C                              Time in s                                                                                                                                                                   Tempering temperature in °C
                                                                             100                          101                102                       103                         104                                                                                                                                   100                        101                   102                        103                104
                                                                             Time in min                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Time in min
                                                                                                                          100                       101                      102                                                                                                                                                                                       100                     101                102
                                                                                                                          Time in h                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Time in h




                                                                                                                                         44                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 45
THYROPLAST® 2891




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 THYRODUR® 2990
                   Chemical composition Typical analysis in %                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Chemical composition Typical analysis in %
                   C                                               Si                                                    Al                                            Cr                                                                           Mo                                         Ni                                                                                                                              C                                            Si                                           Cr                              Mo                            V
                   0.35                                            0.4                                                   1.0                                           1.7                                                                          0.2                                        1.0                                                                                                                             1.0                                          0.9                                          8.0                             1.6                           1.6


                   Mechanical properties at different treatment stages Quenched and tempered QT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Steel properties

                   Heat treatment                                  Yield stress                                          Tensile strength                              Elongation at                                                                Reduction of area                          Notched impact                                                                                                                  Newly developed ledeburitic cold-work steel with a high hardness, good toughness and high tempering strength. At the same time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               exhibits high wear resistance.
                   diameter                                        in MPa                                                in MPa                                        fracture in %                                                                at fracture in %                           energy (ISO-V) in J
                   in mm Ø                                         Rp0.2 min.                                            Rm                                            A min.                                                                       Z min.                                     Av min.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Physical properties
                      16 –                        40               680                                                   900 – 1100                                    10                                                                           –                                          30
                   > 40 –                        100               650                                                   850 – 1050                                    12                                                                           –                                          30                                                                                                                              Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)
                   > 100 –                       160               600                                                   800 – 1000                                    13                                                                           –                                          35                                                                                                                              20 – 100 °C                    20 – 150 °C     20 – 200 °C      20 – 250 °C                        20 – 300 °C    20 – 350 °C      20 – 400 °C    20 – 450 °C       20 – 500 °C
                   > 160 –                       250               600                                                   800 – 1000                                    13                                                                           –                                          35                                                                                                                              11.4                           11.6            11.7             11.9                               12.0           12.1             12.3           12.4              12.6


                   Hardness at different treatment stages                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)
                   Soft-annealed HB                                                                                                                                    Nitrided surface hardness HV1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               RT                                 100 °C              150 °C                                     200 °C               300 °C            400 °C                500 °C
                   max. 248                                                                                                                                            approx. 950
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               24.0                               25.9                26.8                                       27.1                 27.4              27.2                  26.8


                   Applications                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Applications
                   Aluminium-alloyed nitriding steel for large cross sections, suitable for piston rods, extruders, cylinders.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Cutting tools and stamping moulds, precision blanking tools, thread rolling dies and circular shears, circular knives, circular shear
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               blades, cold pilger rolling mandrels, pressure pads, plastic moulds, cold extruders, deep-drawing moulds, woodworking tools, cold rolls.
                   Heat treatment
                   Soft annealing °C                                        Hardening °C                                                       Quenching                                                                             Tempering °C                                        Nitriding °C                                                                                                                          Heat treatment
                   680 – 720                                                Furnace                                                            Polymer or oil                                                                        580 – 700                                           480 – 570                                                                                                                             Soft annealing °C                                            Cooling                                                              Hardness HB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               830 – 860                                                    Furnace                                                              max. 250
                   Thermal expansion
                   Temperature °C                                                                                          -191 – +16                        20 – 100             20 – 200                                                           20 – 300                     20 – 400             20 – 500                                                                                                                Hardening °C                                                 Quenching                                                            Hardness after quenching HRC
                   Linear coefficient of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       10301) – 10802)                                              Air, oil or saltbath, 500 – 550 °C                                   62 – 64
                   thermal expansion α 10-6K-1                                                                             9.1                               11.1                 12.1                                                               12.9                         13.5                 13.9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Tempering °C                                             100                             200         300         400        500       525         550         575       600
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          HRC1)                                         62                              59          57          58         60        60          59          55        46
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          HRC2)                                         64                              59          59          60         63        63          61          57        48


                   Time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                                                        Tempering diagram                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tempering diagram / Hardening 1030 °C                               Tempering diagram / Hardening 1080 °C

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pre-treatment:                      920 °C, 30 min. (air)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hardening:                          900 °C, 30 min. (oil)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Heat treatment cross-section          15 mm
                                        1200                                                                                                                                                                                       2000                                                                 200                                            100                                                                                       70                                                                     70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Elongation at fracture A5: Reduction of area at fracture Z in %




                                        1100                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Rm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1800                                                                 180                                             90
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 66                                                                     66
                                        1000
                                                                                                                                                                                   Yield point Rp0.2: Tensile strength Rm in MPa




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Notch impact energy Av in J (ISO-V)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1600                                                                 160                                            80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rp0.2
                                        900                                                                                                             Ac3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      62                                                                     62
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1400                                                                 140                                            70
                                        800
                    Temperature in oC




                                                 A                                                                     50   50                          Ac1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      58                                                                     58
                                                                                              F         40 50                                                                                                                      1200                                                                 120                                             60
                                        700                                                                  50          50  50




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Hardness in HRC




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hardness in HRC
                                                                                         3              P
                                        600                                                       15
                                                                                                                  40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1000                                                                 100                                            50                                                                                        54                                                                     54
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Z
                                        500                                                                                                                                                                                         800                                                                     80                                          40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 50                                                                     50
                                                MS                                                  B
                                        400                             5                          90                                                                                                                               600                                                                     60                                         30
                                                                    2         30         80
                                                                                    60                            80 15
                                        300                                                   90       95                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        46                                                                     46
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    400                                                                     40                                          20
                                        200                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Av
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    200                                                                     20                                         10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 42                                                                     42
                                                                              566        442                351                    240    219
                                        100      Hardness
                                                                             534 543 505            383 358 348           333     293    233                                                                                                                             A5
                                                     HV 10                                                                                                                                                                           0                                                                       0                                          0                                                                                        38                                                                     38
                                          0                                                                                                                                                                                                     100     200    300       400     500       600        700
                                               100           101            102                     103                         104                    105                  106
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tempering temperature in °C (duration 2 h)
                                               Time in s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 34                                                                     34
                                                                     100                      101                         102                    103                  104
                                                                     Time in min
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 30                                                                     30
                                                                                                                   100                         101              102
                                                                                                                   Time in h                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800                                    0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Tempering temperature in °C                                            Tempering temperature in °C




                                                                                                                                                       46                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   47
THYRAPID® 3343




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      THYROPLAST® PH X SUPRA
                   Chemical composition Typical analysis in %                                                                                                                                                               Chemical composition Typical analysis in %
                    C                                                   Cr                               Mo                                      V                                                 W                        C                                             Cr                            Ni                                 Cu                                          Nb
                    0.90                                                4.1                              5.0                                     1.9                                               6.4                      0.05                                          15.0                          4.5                                3.5                                         +


                   Steel properties                                                                                                                                                                                         Steel properties
                   Standard high-speed steel grade. High toughness and good cutting power owing to its well-balanced alloy composition. Therefore                                                                           THYROPLAST® PH X SUPRA is a corrosion-resistant, precipitation-hardened steel with high strength. It shows excellent polishability
                   suitable for a wide variety of applications.                                                                                                                                                             due to the applied remelting process. Compared to THYROPLAST® 2316, hardness in as-delivered condition and corrosion resistance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            are improved.

                   Physical properties
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Physical properties
                    Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                                   20 °C                                 350 °C                                    700 °C
                                                                                                                     32.8                                  23.5                                      25.5                   Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                                              20 – 100 °C                          20 – 200 °C       20 – 300 °C            20 – 400 °C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Solution annealed and aged condition                                                         10.7                                 10.8              11.2                   16.6

                   Applications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                               20 °C                                150 °C            300 °C                 500 °C
                   Plastic moulds with increased wear resistance, screws.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         16.4                                 17.9              20.2                   22.6

                   Heat treatment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Applications
                    Soft annealing °C                                                          Cooling                                                               Hardness HB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            THYROPLAST® PH X SUPRA is recommended for tools used in the processing of corrosive plastics. Further applications for components
                    770 – 860                                                                  Furnace                                                               240 – 300                                              in aircraft and chemical industries.

                    Hardening*) °C                                             Quenching                                Tempering                                                        Hardness after quenching HRC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Heat treatment
                    1190 – 1230                                                a) Saltbath, 550 °C                      At least twice                                                   64 – 66
                                                                               b) Oil                                   530 – 560                                                                                           THYROPLAST® PH X SUPRA usually is supplied in precipitation-hardened condition at a hardness of 40 HRC .
                                                                               c) Air


                   *) It is recommended that a hardening temperature at the lower end of the range be selected for tools of complex geometry and cold-forming tools.




                      Isothermal time-temperature-transformation diagram                                                                                     Tempering diagram

                                     1200                                                                                                                                       70
                                                                                                         Austenitizing temperature 12100 C
                                     1100                                                                                                                                       66
                                     1000
                                                                                                                                                                                62                                          Weight loss diagram                                                                                  Ageing diagram
                                             Ac1e
                                     900                                                                  Start of transformation
                                                                                                                                                                                58
                                     800 Ac1b                                                                                                                                                                                                                    THYROPLAST® 2316          THYROPLAST® PH X SUPRA                                        44
                 Temperature in °C




                                                                                                                        31 End of transformation
                                                                                                                                                              Hardness in HRC




                                                                                                                            34 36 Pearlite stage                                54
                                     700
                                                        Start of carbide precipitation                                                                                                                                                               100                                                                                                 42
                                     600                                                                                                                                        50
                                         Austenite
                                         + Carbide                                                                                                                                                                                                    10                                                                                                 40
                                     500 + Ledeburite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Weight loss in g/m2
                                                                                                                                                                                46




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Hardness in HRC
                                     400                                                                               Start of transformation                                                                                                         1
                                                                                                                                                                                42                                                                                                                                                                       38
                                     300
                                                    = Hardness in HRC                                                                    50%                                    38                                                                    0.1
                                                                                                                             53                                                                                                                                                                                                                          36
                                     200                                                                                        Bainite stage
                                                               Martensite stage                                                                                                 34
                                     100        50%                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.01                                                                                                34
                                             65 80%                                                                                                                             30
                                       0
                                            100               101             102              103             104                 105               106                             0    100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800                           0.001
                                            Time in s                                                                                                                                         Tempering temperature in °C                                                                                                                                32
                                                                         100             101             102                 103               104
                                                                         Time in min                                                                                                                                                               0.0001                                                                                                30
                                                                                                     100                101              102                                                                                                                   5%                5%              5%                 5%                                     350         400   450      500      550       600    650
                                                                                                     Time in h                                                                                                                                              Acetic acid      Nitric acid   Hydrochloric acid   Sulphuric acid                                                Ageing temperature in°C




                                                                                                                 48                                                                                                                                                                                                        49
THYROPLAST® PH 42 SUPRA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        CorroPlast®
                          Chemical composition Typical analysis in %                                                                                          Chemical composition Typical analysis in %
                          C                                  Mn                      Ni                     Cu                        Al                      C                            Mn                       S                               Cr                        Additions
                          0.15                               1.5                     3.0                    1.0                       1.0                     0.05                         1.30                     0.15                            12.50                     +


                          Steel properties                                                                                                                    Steel properties
                          As-supplied hardness approx. 40 HRC (approx. 1250 MPA). Precipitation-hardened, remelted plastic mould steel with excellent         CorroPlast® is a new corrosion-resistant steel for plastic moulding, featuring extremely good machinability at a supplied hardness of
                          polishability and suitability for texturing. Good electrical discharge machinability, machinability and weldability, suitable for   approx. 320 HB. The reduced carbon content endows CorroPlast® with excellent welding properties.
                          nitriding. Improved compression strength due to higher hardness compared to conventional plastic mould steels.

                                                                                                                                                              Physical properties
                          Physical properties
                                                                                                                                                              Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)              20 – 100 °C        20 – 200 °C    20 – 300 °C   20 – 400 °C    20 – 500 °C
                          Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6 m/(m • K)                     20 – 100 °C         20 – 200 °C               20 – 300 °C                                                                    10.0               10.6           11.0          11.3           11.6
                          Solution annealed and aged condition                                11.3                12.6                      15.5

                                                                                                                                                              Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                               20 °C                         150 °C                350 °C
                          Thermal conductivity W/(m • K)                                                          20 °C                                                                                                    21.8                          22.5                  23.8
                                                                                                                  31

                                                                                                                                                              Density kg/dm3                                               20 °C
                          Modulus of elasticity MPa                                                               20 °C                                                                                                    7.7
                                                                                                                  206000

                                                                                                                                                              Modulus of elasticity MPa                                    20 °C                         150 °C                350 °C
                          Applications                                                                                                                                                                                     214600                        208600                198000
                          THYROPLAST® PH 42 SUPRA is suitable for all kinds of tools in plastic processing with high demands on strength, such as highly-
                          stressed plastic injection moulds, compression moulds and hot-runner systems.                                                       Applications
                                                                                                                                                              Base plates, mould bases and plastic moulds with standard requirements on polishability, as well as being resistant to condensation and
                          Heat treatment                                                                                                                      cooling water.
                          THYROPLAST® PH 42 SUPRA is supplied in precipitation-hardened condition at a hardness approx. 40 HRC. No additional heat
                          treatment is necessary. After repair welding an ageing at 520 °C/1 h is recommended.                                                Typical mechanical properties
                                                                                                                                                              Heat treatment               Yield stress             Tensile strength                Elongation at             Reduction of area
                          Special Information                                                                                                                 diameter                     in MPa                   in MPa                          fracture in %             at fracture in %
                          Due to its well-balanced composition and its high homogeneity, THYROPLAST® PH42 SUPRA has a comparable machinability to             in mm Ø                      Rp0.2 min.               Rm min.                         A min.                    Z min.
                          THYROPLAST® 2311 and 2738 even at a higher as-supplied hardness approx. 40 HRC. Compared to THYROPLAST® 2711, machinability is
                                                                                                                                                              170                          890                      1100                            13                        42
                          significantly improved at the same hardness level.


                          Machinability
                          Comparison of machinability of conventional plastic mould steel THYROPLAST® 2711 with THYROPLAST® PH 42 SUPRA.




                                                                                                                                                              Machinability of X33CrS16 and CorroPlast® in % (hardness 325 HB)

                                          THYROPLAST® 2711         THYROPLAST® PH 42 SUPRA                                                                    Roughing       X33CrS16                     100%
                                                                                                                                                                             CorroPlast®                          140%

                                                                                                                                                              Finishing      X33CrS16                     100%
                                                                                                                                                              milling        CorroPlast®                         135%
                          Machinability




                                                                                                                                                              Grinding       X33CrS16                     100%
                                                                                                                                                                             CorroPlast®                         135%

                                                                                                                                                              Drilling       X33CrS16                     100%
                                                                                                                                                                             CorroPlast®                                150%
                                           40 HRC                   40 HRC
                                                                                                                                                              Thread         X33CrS16                     100%
                                                                                                                                                              cutting        CorroPlast®                          140%




                                                                                             50                                                                                                                                          51
Hardness comparison table



Tensile strength             Brinell hardness   Vickers hardness          Rockwell hardness             Tensile strength             Brinell hardness   Vickers hardness           Rockwell hardness

                   Ball indentation                                                                                        Ball indentation
Rm                 mm                                                                                   Rm                 mm
MPa                d                  HB        HV                 HRB    HRC                 HR 30 N   MPa                d                  HB        HV                 HRB     HRC                 HR 30 N

255                6.63               76.0      80                 –      –                   –          785               3.97               233       245                –       21.3                42.5

270                6.45               80.7      85                 41.0   –                   –          800               3.92               238       250                99.5    22.2                43.4

285                6.30               85.5      90                 48.0   –                   –          820               3.89               242       255                –       23.1                44.2

305                6.16               90.2      95                 52.0   –                   –          835               3.86               247       260                (101)   24.0                45.0

320                6.01               95.0      100                56.2   –                   –          850               3.82               252       265                –       24.8                45.7

335                5.90               99.8      105                –      –                   –          865               3.78               257       270                (102)   25.6                46.4

350                5.75               105       110                62.3   –                   –          880               3.75               261       275                –       26.4                47.2

370                5.65               109       115                –      –                   –          900               3.72               266       280                (104)   27.1                47.8

385                5.54               114       120                66.7   –                   –          915               3.69               271       285                –       27.8                48.4

400                5.43               119       125                –      –                   –          930               3.66               276       290                (105)   28.5                49.0

415                5.33               124       130                71.2   –                   –          950               3.63               280       295                –       29.2                49.7

430                5.26               128       135                –      –                   –          965               3.60               285       300                –       29.8                50.2

450                5.16               133       140                75.0   –                   –          995               3.54               295       310                –       31.0                51.3

465                5.08               138       145                –      –                   –         1030               3.49               304       320                –       32.2                52.3

480                4.99               143       150                78.7   –                   –         1060               3.43               314       330                –       33.3                53.6

495                4.93               147       155                –      –                   –         1095               3.39               323       340                –       34.4                54.4

510                4.85               152       160                81.7   –                   –         1125               3.34               333       350                –       35.5                55.4

530                4.79               156       165                –      –                   –         1155               3.29               342       360                –       36.6                56.4

545                4.71               162       170                85.0   –                   –         1190               3.25               352       370                –       37.7                57.4

560                4.66               166       175                –      –                   –         1220               3.21               361       380                –       38.8                58.4

575                4.59               171       180                87.1   –                   –         1255               3.17               371       390                –       39.8                59.3

595                4.53               176       185                –      –                   –         1290               3.13               380       400                –       40.8                60.2

610                4.47               181       190                89.5   –                   –         1320               3.09               390       410                –       41.8                61.1

625                4.43               185       195                –      –                   –         1350               3.06               399       420                –       42.7                61.9

640                4.37               190       200                91.5   –                   –         1385               3.02               409       430                –       43.6                62.7

660                4.32               195       205                92.5   –                   –         1420               2.99               418       440                –       44.5                63.5

675                4.27               199       210                93.5   –                   –         1455               2.95               428       450                –       45.3                64.3

690                4.22               204       215                94.0   –                   –         1485               2.92               437       460                –       46.1                64.9

705                4.18               209       220                95.0   –                   –         1520               2.89               447       470                –       46.9                65.7

720                4.13               214       225                96.0   –                   –         1555               2.86               (456)     480                –       47.7                66.4

740                4.08               219       230                96.7   –                   –         1595               2.83               (466)     490                –       48.4                67.1

755                4.05               223       235                –      –                   –         1630               2.81               (475)     500                –       49.1                67.7

770                4.01               228       240                98.1   20.3                41.7      1665               2.78               (485)     510                –       49.8                68.3




                                                      52                                                                                                         53
Hardness comparison table



Tensile strength               Brinell hardness             Vickers hardness                          Rockwell hardness             Process and process parameters

                    Ball indentation                                                                                                Brinell hardness1)                              Diameter of ball indentation in mm              d
Rm                  mm                                                                                                              1)
                                                                                                                                       calculated from:
MPa                 d                   HB                  HV                  HRB                   HRC                 HR 30 N      HB = 0.95 . HV

1700                2.75                (494)               520                  –                    50.5                69.0      (0.102 F/D2 = 30)                               Hardness value =             0.102 . 2 F        HB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                π D(D – √D2 – d2)
                                                                                                                                    D = 10
1740                2.73                (504)               530                  –                    51.1                69.5

1775                2.70                (513)               540                  –                    51.7                70.0      Vickers hardness                                Diamond pyramid                                 HV
                                                                                                                                                                                    Test forces ≥ 50 N
1810                2.68                (523)               550                  –                    52.3                70.5
                                                                                                                                    Rockwell hardness                               Ball 1.588 mm (1/16“)                           HRB
1845                2.66                (532)               560                  –                    53.0                71.2                                                      Total test force = 98 N

1880                2.63                (542)               570                  –                    53.6                71.7                                                      Diamond cone                                    HRC
                                                                                                                                                                                    Total test force = 1471 N
1920                2.60                (551)               580                  –                    54.1                72.1
                                                                                                                                                                                    Diamond cone                                    HR 30 N
1955                2.59                (561)               590                  –                    54.7                72.7                                                      Total test force = 294 N

1995                2.57                (570)               600                  –                    55.2                73.2

2030                2.54                (580)               610                  –                    55.7                73.7

2070                2.52                (589)               620                  –                    56.3                74.2

2105                2.51                (599)               630                  –                    56.8                74.6

2145                2.49                (608)               640                  –                    57.3                75.1

2180                2.47                (618)               650                  –                    57.8                75.5

–                   –                   .–                  660                  –                    58.3                75.9

–                   –                   .–                  670                  –                    58.8                76.4

–                   –                   .–                  680                  –                    59.2                76.8

–                   –                   .–                  690                  –                    59.7                77.2

–                   –                   .–                  700                  –                    60.1                77.6

–                   –                   .–                  720                  –                    61.0                78.4

–                   –                   .–                  740                  –                    61.8                79.1

–                   –                   .–                  760                  –                    62.5                79.7

–                   –                   .–                  780                  –                    63.3                80.4

–                   –                   .–                  800                  –                    64.0                81.1

–                   –                   .–                  820                  –                    64.7                81.7

–                   –                   .–                  840                  –                    65.3                82.2

–                   –                   .–                  860                  –                    65.9                82.7

–                   –                   .–                  880                  –                    66.4                83.1

–                   –                   .–                  900                  –                    67.0                83.6

–                   –                   .–                  920                  –                    67.5                84.0

–                   –                   .–                  940                  –                    68.0                84.4

                                                                                                                                    General note (liability)
                                                                                                                                    All statements regarding the properties or utilization of the materials or products mentioned are for the purposes of description only.
Conversion of hardness values using this table are only approximate. See DIN 50 150, Dezember 1976.                                 Guarantees regarding the existence of certain properties or a certain utilization are only ever valid if agreed upon in writing.




                                                                  54                                                                                                                                           55
Edelstahl Witten-Krefeld
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