Life Under Slavery in America

Document Sample
Life Under Slavery in America Powered By Docstoc
					The Nature of Slavery
     The First Emancipation
• During the American Revolution slaves
  called for freedom (using revolutionary
  ideals)
• Most northern states started to end
  slavery
• Free blacks increased in number, but
  most were still slaves.
• 1800, 89% of blacks are slaves
        Life Under Slavery
• The Expansion of Slavery
  Whitney’s cotton gin (1793) made
  cotton cultivation profitable
• Influences the rapid and extensive
  expansion of slavery after the American
  Revolution
• “Trail of Tears” removal of indigenous
  people for cotton land
• Vast increase in slaves in 1800’s
• Slave population increases 7 times
  between 1790-1860
• Grew fastest in cotton producing states
• Alabama & Mississippi
• Virginia still has largest slave population
• Slavery looks much different in deep
  south
   Slave Labor in Agriculture
• Geography and region shaped the slave
  experience (environment & work)
• 55% of slaves cultivated cotton
• 10% Tobacco
• 10% Sugar, rice, hemp
• 15% Domestic servants
• 10% Factories
• Tobacco: Important in VA, MD, KY
• Difficult crop to produce-long growing
  season, careful cultivation
• Rice: Remained in SC, GA. Slaves
  worked according to the task system,
  allowing some slave autonomy.
  Families together
• Sugar: LA, Missouri. Required constant
  labor. Hard work. Deadliest. Mostly
  men-no families
• Cotton: Most important crop of the
  South. All day work.
     Price of Slaves Increases
•   1830s, male = $1,250
•   1860, male = $1,800
•   Expensive
•   For the very wealthy
•   1/4 of whites own slaves
   House Servants & Skilled
           Slaves
• 75% of slave workforce are field hands
• In order to keep plantations and farms self
  sufficient masters used slaves as house
  servants and craftsmen
• House Slaves: Often women, cook, clean,
  tend children, nurses. Men, butlers,
  gardeners.
• Work was sometimes less strenuous, but
  under constant supervision. Lived in mater’s
  house. Never get a break. On duty 24/7
     Domestic Slaves Cont.
• House servants did not live in slave
  communities. (no slaves quarters)
• Skilled slaves were more elite than
  domestic/house slaves.
• They were carpenters, blacksmiths,
  millwrights, etc.
• “Hire their time”
• Frederick Douglass was a caulker -- gave %
  of wage to owner--mostly men
 Urban and Industrial Slavery
• Most skilled slaves who hired their time
  lived in southern towns and cities
• Urban slaves: Worked for wages, could
  eventually buy freedom for themselves
  and family members--very rare
• Women urban slaves worked as
  domestics, washer women
• Men as waiters and artisans
        Industrial Slavery
• Often employed slaves from urban
  areas
• Men, women and children worked in
  textile mills in GA, SC
• Worked in factories
     Domestic Slave Trade
• Expansion of slavery in south and west
  increased the domestic slave trade
• Owners sold men, women and children
  to slave traders
• Traders shipped slaves to slave
  markets in New Orleans and other cities
• Families torn apart
         QuickTime™ an d a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
   are need ed to see this p icture .
         QuickTime™ an d a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
   are need ed to see this p icture .
         QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor
   are neede d to see this picture.
• Slaves would be threatened…”Sold
  down the river”
• Sent down Mississippi as punishment.
• Slavery was worse in the South


                    QuickTime™ and a
          TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress or
             are needed to see this picture.
• Number of those traded was huge
• 1820-1860=50% of slaves were moved
  to the South
• Slave Prisons & Slave Pens
• Held in cities awaiting trade
• Humiliating process
• “Coffles”: Most victims of trading moved
  on foot in groups called cofffles.
• Chained or roped together
• People are making tons of money on
  this
         QuickTime™ an d a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
   are need ed to see this p icture .
          QuickTime™ an d a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
   are need ed to see this p icture.
         QuickTime™ an d a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
   are need ed to see this p icture .
         QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
   are neede d to see this picture.
          Slave Families
• Sought to preserve families
• Marriage was unbinding
• Most slaves could choose their own
  mates, although there is evidence that
  masters often did this
• Procreation
• Assumed men would be less rebellious
• Reproduction of “human chattel”
• Thomas Jefferson: “I consider a slave
  woman who brings a child every two
  years as more profitable than the best
  man on the farm”
         Sally Hemmings
• African American Jefferson’s what to be
  buried at Montechello along with all
  Jefferson’s white children and family.


                         QuickTime™ and a
               TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor
                  are neede d to see this picture.
         QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
   are need ed to see this picture.




                                               QuickTime™ and a
                                      TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor
                                         are neede d to see this picture.
• Many slave marriages endure despite
  dislocations and distance
• Slave marriage ceremonies ranged from
  “taking up”
• To “jumping the broom”
• Various rituals to signify marriage
          QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor
   are neede d to se e this picture.
          QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor
   are neede d to se e this picture.
In spite of difficulties enslaved parents
  instructed their children in family history,
  religion and survival skills
Extended family relationships are very
  important
• High infant mortality: 50% of children
  born into slavery died before the age of
  5
• Diets lacked necessary nutrients
• High rate of disease
• Care of children often fell to the elderly
  or older children
• House servants often took children with
  them to the master’s house
• On small farms women strapped their
  babies to them while they worked in the
  fields
• On larger plantations-elderly look after
  children
• Infanticide
• Adults taught children about the realities
  of plantation life
• Children learned survival skills
• “careful what they said to whites”
• Children started doing “light work” at 5
  or 6
• 55-65 years of free work out of one
  person
• Sexual abuse of slave women & the impact of
  this on the family
• Long term relationships between women and
  their masters were common
• White southerners justified sexual abuse in
  several ways:
• Blame the women as being promiscuous, as
  jezebel
• Said they seduced white men
• Failed to note the impact of rape on black
  women
• Also failed to look at the inability of black men
  to protect their wives and daughters
        Food and Clothing
• Diet: cornmeal, slat pork, self grown
  vegetables
• Deficient in calcium, vitamin C, protein,
  iron
• Chronic illness
                                    QuickTime™ an d a
                           TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
                              are need ed to see this p icture .
• Generally received clothing allotments
  twice a year (fall & spring)
• Black women individualized clothing--
  dyed clothing to make it their own.
      Socialization of Slaves
• Children are provided with skills to protect
  themselves
• Folktales
• Tricksters: Animals w/ human personalities
• Most famous: Brer Rabbit, who uses his wits
  to overcome threats from vicious antagonists
• Whites believe in the “Happy Slave” and
  likened slavery to a school and stated that
  they were protecting slaves
• Uncle Remus Stories
• Disney “Song of the South” 1948
• Ideology of the “happy slave”


          QuickTime™ an d a                        QuickTime™ and a
 TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor        TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor
                                            are neede d to se e this picture.
    are need ed to see this p icture .
• Divided consciousness: “two faced”
  behave one way in front of the master,
  and another way in front of other slaves
               Religion
• Protestantism: By the mid 19th century,
  most slaves practice
• In plantation churches, white masters
  told blacks that Christian slaves must
  obey their god and their masters
              Religion
• Semisecret black church: church
  services run by slaves
• Black preachers
• Emphasized Moses: Deliverance from
  bondage
• Services include singing, dancing and
  music
• Kumbaya
   The Character of Slavery
• Historians have debated the character
  of slavery for over 100 years
• First historians believed slavery was
  fantastic--like a school where masters
  were actually loosing money
• Portrayed as benign, paternalistic
• Helping slaves
• Other historians, however, have denied
  that paternalism had much to do with a
  system that rested on force.
             Punishment
• Masters often offered incentives to
  entice slaves to perform well.
• Yet slave labor is forced labor based on
  the threat of physical violence
• Whites believed slaves would not work
  unless they were threatened with the
  whip
            Punishment
• Fear of the lash: drove slaves to do the
  work and cooperate
• Parents teach children how to behave to
  avoid punishment
                                               QuickTime™ and a
          QuickTime™ and a           TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress or       are neede d to se e this picture.
   are needed to see this picture.
          QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor
   are neede d to se e this picture.
          QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor
   are neede d to see this picture.
          QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
   are needed to see this picture.
          QuickTime™ an d a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
   are need ed to see this picture.
         QuickTime™ an d a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
   are need ed to see this p icture .
         QuickTime™ an d a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
   are need ed to see this picture.
         QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor
   are neede d to see this picture.
          Quic kTim e™ and a
TIFF (Uncom press ed) decompres sor
   are needed to s ee this pic ture.
      Resistance to Slavery
• Resistance took on many forms:
• Work slowly
• Break tools
• Injured oxen, mules and other draft
  animals
• Spit in food
• Poisoned masters
              Resistance
• Fought off attempts at violence
• Learned to read and write
• Practiced own religions
• Ran away
• Lived in maroon communities & with Native
  Americans
• Mounted violent rebellions
                Resistance
• Arson
• Suicide
• Infanticide
              Resistance
•   Over 250 armed revolts recorded
•   Stono Rebellion
•   Gabriel & Nana Prosser (1800)
•   Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831)
•   Denmark Vessey (1822)
•   Amistad (1839)

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:2
posted:1/15/2013
language:English
pages:60