Docstoc

Chap1 Introduction

Document Sample
Chap1 Introduction Powered By Docstoc
					Chap1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 3 1.1 Origination.................................................................................................... 3 1.2 Background .................................................................................................. 3 1.2.1 Environmental Hazard of PCBs ......................................................... 4 1.2.2 Obligation of Convention Implementation of China ......................... 4 1.2.3 Foundation of China Convention Implementation ............................ 5 1.3 Objective ...................................................................................................... 7 1.4 Research Contents ........................................................................................ 7 1.5 Implementation Method ............................................................................... 9 Chap 2. The Baseline of PCBs in China ...................................................................... 10 2.1 Sources of PCBs ......................................................................................... 10 2.1.1 PCBs Production .............................................................................. 10 2.1.2 PCBs Importation Status .................................................................. 10 2.2 Usage of PCBs............................................................................................ 10 2.2.1 Close Usage ..................................................................................... 10 2.2.2 Semi-close Usage ............................................................................. 11 2.2.3 Open Usage ...................................................................................... 11 2.2.4 Electric Equipment Containing PCBs in China ............................... 11 2.3 Storage of PCBs ......................................................................................... 11 2.4 Amount of PCBs ........................................................................................ 12 2.5 Distribution of PCBs .................................................................................. 12 Chap 3 Environmental education on PCBs in China ................................................... 14 3.1 Environmental Education in Developed Countries .................................... 14 3.1.1 History of Environmental Education ............................................... 14 3.1.2 The Characteristic of Environmental Education in Developed Countries ...................................................................................................... 15 3.2 Environmental education in China ............................................................. 15 3.2.1 Review of History ............................................................................ 15 3.2.2 Characteristic and Defect ................................................................. 16 3.3 Environmental Education on PCBs in China ............................................. 16 3.3.1 Status of environmental Awareness on PCBs .................................. 17 3.3.2 Strategy of environmental education on PCBs ................................ 17 Chap 4 China Management-Capacity Establishment of PCBs Disposal ..................... 19 4.1. The baseline of PCBs management in developed countries....................... 19 4.1.1. Management Code of PCBs in the United States ............................ 19 4.1.2. Management Code of PCBs in Canada ............................................ 19 4.2. The Baseline of PCBs Management in China ............................................ 20 4.2.1. The Baseline of Administrative Organizations in China ................. 20 4.2.2. The Baseline of PCBs Code in China .............................................. 24 4.3. Capacity Establishment of PCBs Management in China ........................... 26 4.3.1. Consummation of China Administrative Institution of PCBs.......... 27 4.3.2. Consummation of China Administrative Institution of PCBs.......... 27 Chap 5 the Construction of PCBs Disposal Technology in China ............................... 29 5.1 The PCBs Wastes Disposal Technique in Developed Countries ................ 29

5.1.1 High PCBs Concentration Pollutants Elimination/Disposal Technology ................................................................................................... 29 5.1.2 Disposal Technology for Low PCBs Concentration Polluted Soil .. 30 5.1.3 Disposal Technology for Transformer Oil Containing PCBs .......... 31 5.2 The Existing PCBs Waste Disposal Technology in China ......................... 31 5.2.1 Pilot Technology Project (中试技术项目) ...................................... 32 5.2.2 The Demonstration Project .............................................................. 32 5.3 The Suggestion of China PCBs Wastes Disposal Technique ..................... 32 5.3.1 The Principles for PCBs Disposal Technology Selection ................ 32 5.3.2 China PCBs Disposal Technology Selection ................................... 33 Chapter 6 PCBs Priority Disposal Series in China ...................................................... 37 6.1 Requirements of the Convention for PCBs Waste Disposal ...................... 37 6.1.1 Limitation of Using PCBs ................................................................ 37 6.1.2 Limitation of Recycle ...................................................................... 37 6.1.3 Expiration of Use ............................................................................. 37 6.2 PCBs Priority Disposal Series in Developed Country ............................... 38 6.2.1 PCBs Priority of Disposal Region in Developed Country ............... 38 6.1.1 The Experience on PCBs Reducing or Disposal in Developed Country ........................................................................................................ 38 6.2 PCBs Priority Disposal Series in China ..................................................... 39 6.2.1 National Institution and Policy Instruction ...................................... 39 6.2.2 Establishment of the National Disposal Technology ....................... 40 6.2.3 Establishment of Local PCBs Disposal Capacity ............................ 41 6.2.4 PCBs Waste Elimination .................................................................. 42 6.2.5 PCBs Waste Disposal ....................................................................... 42 6.2.6 Supervision and Appraisal ............................................................... 42 Chap 7 China PCBs Disposal Implementation Plan .................................................... 43 7.1 The National Implementation Plan............................................................. 43 7.2 Assurance Measures for Plan ..................................................................... 43 7.2.1 Policy Measures ............................................................................... 43 7.2.2 Institutional Measures ...................................................................... 43 7.3 The procedures for National Implemental Plan ......................................... 44 7.3.1 Demonstration Stages ...................................................................... 44 7.3.2 Promotion Stages ............................................................................. 44 7.3.3 Dissemination Stages ....................................................................... 45 7.3.4 Consummation Stages ...................................................................... 45 7.4 The Cost for Implementation Plan ............................................................. 45 7.4.1 Incremental Cost Estimation ............................................................ 45 7.4.2 Finical Channel ................................................................................ 47

Chap1 Introduction
1.1 Origination

In May 2001, China government signed Stockholm Convention on Persist Organic Pollutants (POPs), which polychlorinated biphenyls is one of 12 POPs ranked in the first group of the Convention list. The convention stipulates that signatory country should submit the National Implementation Plan on reduction and elimination of PCBs and accomplish environmentally-sound disposal of the equipment containing PCBs and PCBs itself. In order to find out PCB pollutants as soon as possible and establish the national strategic schedule on PCBs Reduction and Disposal in China and promote the progress of Convention implementation, China government developed the projects of PCB Inventory Methodology and Strategy Development on PCB Reduction and Disposal, PDF-B project (preparation of a demonstration project of PCBs management and disposal cooperating with World Bank supported by the Italian government and GEF. Sino-Italy bilateral cooperation project, PCBs Inventory Methodology and Strategy on Reduction/Elimination and Disposal in China, is separated into two subitems which are PCBs Inventory Methodology in China and Strategy on Reduction & Elimination and disposal in China. Environmental Science Institute of Beijing Normal University Charges the subitem research of Strategy on Reduction & Elimination and disposal in China

1.2

Background

Two decades ago, since people were scare of Environmental awareness and subject to pursuit interest everywhere, they produced a multitude of POPs which impaired ecological environment and the health of human being. The pollution of POPs spreads worldwide, persistently lasts and can hardly be reversed, the Stockholm Convention gives a firm base to solve thoroughly the environmental problem of POPs, and offer the opportunity for reduction/disposal of POPs in China. In china, PCBs pollution is much serious and outstanding, so reduction/disposal of PCBs become the priority research of POPs in China, however, Strategy on Disposal of PCBs is the foundation of thorough disposal of PCBs in China. The programme which is base on the PCBs situation and Convention Implementation Capacity in China, in view of experience of developed countries in PCBs disposal, workouts the strategy on reduction/disposal of PCBs that is suit to the situations of China.

1.2.1 Environmental Hazard of PCBs
PCBs, whose structure is sketched as below, has 209 types of isomeric compounds, among which 13 types has dioxin toxicity. In the early and middle period of 20th, PCBs are widely used as important raw material of chemical engineering such as heat exchanger, lube, transformer, capacitor dielectric plasticizer, wax extenders, bond agent ,insect killer, incise oil, pressure-sensitive carbon paper, fire retardant and so on. A bulk of PCBs entered environment and reacts with environmental materials, which evokes a series of transportation and transformation, entering into the bodies of creatures and human being through different path, eventually, being a seriously hazard ecological environment and human health.

PCBs can affect the growth and photosynthesis of algae, have toxicity to invertebrate, and is easy to accumulate in animal fat and organs, which low dose can damage the reproductive ability and immune system of wild animals, and can cause the failure of fish spawning, lead female polar bear masculinization. And high dose can kill animals.

1.2.2 Obligation of Convention Implementation of China
When PCBs are accumulated in a body to a certain level, poisonous effects will occur, such as skin pigment deposition, liver atrophy, hormone vitality dieing down etc. It can also be transferred to embryo through maternity, which make embryo abnormal, and can decrease the quantity of man’s sperms. After accident of the rice bran oil happed, because of the transferability and persistence of PCBs, children represented stunt and behavior obstacle after 7 years old. In USA, since polluted fish ate by mother, the children also presented short-term obstacle of memory function. As all the parties to the convention are required to eliminate the use of polychlorinated biphenyls in equipment by 2025 (e.g. transformers, capacitors or other receptacles containing liquid stocks). The first signatory should take sound measure to ensure safe disposal, collection, transportation and storage of the PCBs. The PCBs wastes are removed POPs characteristics after disposal. Make every effort to recognize and remove the working equipments whose PCBs content is over 0.005% and phase out to eliminate the equipments whose PCBs content is high. If the equipments contain PCBs over 0.005%, the trade activity of those was banned by convention, except the need for environment sound management.

1 The Annex B of Convention also stipulates: ○try best to recognize and indicate and eliminate equipments whose PCBs content are over 10% and volume is over 5 litres; 2 ○ try best to recognize indicate and eliminate equipments whose PCBs content is 3 over 0.05%; ○ make every effort to recognize and eliminate the usage of 4 equipments whose PCBs content is over 0.005%, and volume is over 0.05 litre.○ Don’t allow to recycler the liquid whose PCBs content is over 0.05%, except for the 5 purpose of maintenance and service operation○ Make great effort to ensure the program is accomplished before 2008, Meanwhile, the equipments which contain PCBs liquid or are polluted by PCBs whose content is over 0.005% must be under the environmental sound managements according to the section 4 of item D.

1.2.3 Foundation of China Convention Implementation
In China, PCBs have a history of long-term production and being wide used. In recent years, Chinese government has already done a lot of work in PCBs pollution control, but due to the limitation of some practical situations, such as technique, economy and management, China should make great effort to implement convention

(1) Environmental Oppression of PCBs in China
In China, the production of PCBs is from 1965 to 1974, and the total output is about 100000 tons, PCBs mainly were used as impregnate agent of electric capacitor and of varnish and additive of oil print. Since 1974, China had already stopped to produce PCBs and sealed the electric capacitors that contain PCBs and dropped However, due to the restricted factors such as economy, technique and awareness etc. at that time, the electric capacitors which were out of service and stored in bank were merely temporally sealed up, thus a lot of problems raised with aspect to sealing quantities and effects, which facilities in some sealing site are simple, constructions are according to the criterions, some of them are lack of anti-seepage measures, without consideration of the environmental factors and in PCBs storage spots, some storage spot are selected arbitrarily , some spots were lack of environmental assessment and management during the storage, the most of which were out of management and little environmental monitoring were done. Currently, most of PCBs sealed electric capacitors have already expired the period of sealing or temporary storage, if some powerful measures of pollution control and final disposal aren’t adopted in time, the potential threat of environment leakage will rise year by year, since that, the point-source pollution will increased at the range and frequency. PCBs sealing spots in China are turning out to be or have been the large pollution sources, and become priority research of reduction/disposal of China. At the same time, we should check out large-scale electromechanical equipments in use

which imported from 1970s to 1980s. Register the transforms containing PCBs and strengthen management of them.

(2) The foundation of Convention Implementation of China


The baseline of convention implementation Since 1974, the related departments of Chinese government promulgated relevant documents to stop the production of electric capacitors that contain PCBs and prevent environment from PCBs pollution, and also promulgated related regulations. The government has already established an excellent management system for hazard waste treatment and disposal at national and local different levels, which has the ability of international communication and state function implementation, and which gives an elementary base of the establishment of institutions and regulations on reduction/disposal of PCBs in China. Some scientific academies, colleges in China have established research centres for PCBs monitoring, disposing, which will play an important role in management of convention implementation of China. In Shenyang, China, incinerator for PCBs treatment had already built up and operated perfectly, which could provide necessary technique ensure for convention implementation of China PCBs. And that Chinese government will go on to invest in environment education, which also provide substantial mainstay for fulfilment of China PCBs.  The work has done In order to implement the convention, Chinese government has already established working team of PCBs projects and programming in foreign economy office of SEPA, which charges the preparation of international cooperation projects on POPs, and the management of implementation. The Chinese government has carried out activities on convention implementation of PCBs such giving training on convention to provincial officers of management departments, POPs related enterprises, and POPs experts, preliminarily forming anterior preparation projects(PDF-B) of national implement project (NIP) , submitting Elementary Evaluation on Baseline of PCBs-kind POPs in China, and incepting China-Italy, China-Canada PCBs projects.

(3) The Challenge of Convention Implementation of China
China has to confront with a lot of difficulties and challenges to implement convention and perform defined goals. Firstly, we must investigate the pollution situations of PCBs, particularly the situation of its storage and distribution And workout a careful plan for collection, transportation, storage and disposal of PCBs waste and phaseout the strategic objective of convention implementation.

Now, a lot of information on storage quantity, position and circumstance of electric capacitors those contain PCBs seriously lost, for example, the mark of the storage spot, storage spot recognition failure, electric capacitors in storage being stolen, water seeping into the spot and PCBs leaking, etc. In China, the storage spots are not only numerous but also dispersive, and in a short period of future, local organizations and business enterprises still face the renovation and institutional transformation, so convention implementation of PCBs in China still face great pressure.

The main obstacle of implementation in china includes : being difficult in finding and identifying the storage spots; capacity deficiency of collection, transportation and temporary safe storage of PCBs; poor disposal capacity of PCBs treatment, and the ability of whole procedure management still requiring to strengthen further; PCBs management system of state level and local level hasn’t been established; the public’s environment awareness of PCBs needs to rise, especially, the propaganda of the convention and responsibility education of implementation; being lack of sufficient support fund and transferred technique.

1.3

Objective

The Chinese government plans to adopt the strategy that contains preparation stage, demonstration stage, and promotion stage to implement reducing and disposing of PCBs, in order to implement Stockholm Convention thoroughly. The establishment of strategy framework on reducing and disposal of PCBs in China is the crucial task in preparation stage and is the foundation of reduction/disposal stage and promotion stage. The purpose of studying convention is to workout the strategy on reduction/disposal of PCBs in demonstration stage and promotion stage, by finding the inventory, the source and the pollution situation, which provides scientific base for further national implementation plan of pollution elimination .of PCBs.

1.4

Research Contents

The research should base on the practical situation of China, in view of advanced experience of PCBs eliminating and disposing from advanced countries, which mainly focuses on the responsibility of convention implementation, the establishment of management institutions, constituting the policies and regulations, priority of disposal field making, management of technique specification, reducing and disposing technology, environmental education of PCBs and national implementation plan etc. then workout the Chinese strategic programming on PCBs eliminating and disposing.


The responsibility of convention implementation

Study Stockholm Convention and define the obligations that China should undertake concerning reduction and disposal of PCBs, and defining the short-term objective and long-term programming of China.


Establishment of management institution Study the construction, the responsibility and the function the current of institutions on reduction and disposal and analyse its ability of undertaking implementation of eliminating and disposing of PCBs; Base on the current situation of society, economy and culture in China, put forward the suggestion that is of Chinese special feature and efficiency, with the function of international communication, department coordination, policy implementation, adaptive to the development..



Establishment of policy and law Related PCBs policies and regulations involve every aspect of storage, monitor, disposing, import and export of PCBs. Based on Chinese situation, put forward series of proposals for consummation of polices and regulation, which is adequate for obligation of eliminating and disposing of China, can provide enough protection for people’s life and health and can dynamically develop.



Priority disposal field: Based on the obligations of PCBs eliminating and disposing, according to ecosystem risk evaluation of PCBs, put forward dynamic priority field of PCBs and disposing, to maximize the benefit of PCBs eliminating and disposing.


Management of technique specification: According to the recognition method of the spots polluted by PCBs and evaluation of clearing-up technique, work out corresponding technique specification respectively for each stage of collection, transportation, storage, disposal, rehabilitation and monitor of PCBs.


Reducing and disposing technique: Study application situations of different developed countries PCBs disposals, and practical situation of technique application in China, put forward a series of optimized projects for eliminating and disposing of PCBs, which suit to Chinese situation.


Environmental education of PCBs: Based on sufficient investigation, study the advantages and disadvantages of domestic environmental education of PCBs, considering advanced experience and education rationales of developed countries, put forward civil PCBs environmental education strategy with Chinese-characters, to strength of civil environment awareness of PCBs, greatly promote development of PCBs eliminating and disposing.

National activity plan: basing on construction of organization, policy, technique and education of Chinese PCBs eliminating and disposing, putting forward national activity plan of Chinese PCBs eliminating and disposing that has dynamic development function.

1.5

Implementation Method

Use the method of theory research combined with investigation at the spot to workout the Strategy, thoroughly researching domestic and international datum of PCBs eliminating and disposing, basing on Chinese situation, considering experience of developed countries’ as assistance, in view of domestic and international opinions of experts, scholars and related people, workout Strategy on PCBs eliminating and disposing, which is Chinese characterized.. Concrete research route is as following:  Establish a 5- expert group for studying PCBs eliminating and disposing.  Under the Guiding of CTA and NTA, workout outline of strategy for PCBs eliminating and disposing.  Extensively collecting, sorting, analysing kinds of data of developed countries’ PCBs eliminating and disposing, find out developed countries’ experience and lesson on capacity establishment of PCBs eliminating and disposing.  Thoroughly analysing all kinds of Chinese data of PCBs eliminating and disposing, especially in two demonstration units in Zhejiang and Liaoning, find out the situation and deficiency of capacity establishment of PCBs eliminating and disposing in China  Studying Stockholm Convention to clean and definite various of duties Chinese should fulfil  Workout A draft of strategy framework of PCBs eliminating and disposing in Chinese, thus it provides guidebook for related activities  Asking for international experts, domestic experts, and shareholder people the opinions of on the Draft, and thoroughly analysing situations of demonstration provinces of China and other areas, then revise and consummate Draft of strategic framework.  According to all kinds of data from China and developed countries on PCBs eliminating and disposing, thoroughly research contents that strategy framework involves, preliminarily workout A draft of strategy framework of PCBs reducing and disposing in Chinese.  Asking for the opinions of international and domestic experts, and shareholder, workout Draft of strategy framework preliminarily and then further analysing all kinds of information feedback, accomplish Draft of strategy framework.

Chap 2. The Baseline of PCBs in China
2.1 Sources of PCBs

2.1.1 PCBs Production
In China, the time of producing PCB3 was within 1965-1974 year, 9000 tons of total output. The main manufactures was chemical plant of Xi’an, electricity factory of Shanghai and solvent factory of Suzhou, etc.. PCB3 is primarily used as the medium of the electric condenser, which was mainly produced by the plants of Xi'an electric power capacitor factory, Guilin electric power capacitor factory, Wuxi electric power capacitor factory and Zhejiang electric power capacitor factory. The total output of the condenser is about 700,000 to 750,000, and this kind of condenser has YL, YIW, CL, RLS and RLSI identification. The Chinese total output of PCB5 is 1000 tons, which is principally used as the paint additive. The main manufacturers of paint containing PCB5 are Shanghai paint factory, Shanghai Zhen Hua paint factory, Tianjin paint factory, Guangzhou paint factory, Dalian paint factory, Harbin paint factory, Xi’an paint factory and Gansu paint factory, etc..

2.1.2 PCBs Importation Status
The time of importing electric equipment containing PCBs was mainly between the year of 1970 and 1980, which was briefly the special-purpose voltage transformers and electric condensers related to large-scale import equipment, and the total amount was about 400,000 to 450,000. In addition, there was a small amount of hydraulic oil or heat conduction oil containing PCBs.

2.2

Usage of PCBs

In China, there are three main ways to use PCBs: closed usage, semi-closed usage and open usage.

2.2.1 Close Usage
The closed usage of PCBs usually happens to the power industry, in which the PCBs is used as the voltage transformer oil, the insulating medium in electrical condenser, no work compensation condenser in the power system, the lighting current stabilizers, the electric engine and startup condenser use in the refrigerator, heater, air conditioner, hairdryer, and the condenser and motor (special-purpose liquid cooling electrical

motor) of electronic products, such as the TV, microwave oven, etc..

2.2.2 Semi-close Usage
In China, the semi-closed usage of PCBs usually happens to many industries. The PCBs is used as the heat conduction oil in the field of chemical industry of the inorganic and organic, plastic composed, petroleum refined etc., as the hydraulic oil in the mining industry and metal processing industry, as the vacuum pump in the field of product of electronic device, laboratory, research institution, waste water discharging industry, and as the electric switch, the voltage stabilizer and the liquid insulating cable in the electric facility.

2.2.3 Open Usage
In China, the Open Usage of PCBs usually happens to the product of printing ink, dope, fire prevention paint, etc. And it also may be used in the product of lubricating oil, additive, plasticizing agent, insecticide, etc..

2.2.4 Electric Equipment Containing PCBs in China
The time of producing the electrical condenser containing PCBs in China was within 1965-1974 year, and the service life of the condensers is about 15 to 20 years, so the year of washed out was between the year of 1980 and 1990. The time of importing the electrical condenser containing PCBs was between the year of 1970 and 1980, and if the service life of the importing equipment is about 25 years, the year of washed out is between the year of 1995 and 2005.

2.3

Storage of PCBs

In China, the storage way of the electric equipment containing PCBs is mainly: concentrated storage in the cave, concentrated storage underground and temporary storage in the factory. Between the years of 1995-1996, government's relevant department has carried on the investigation to the use and storage situation of the electric equipment containing PCBs in some areas. The investigation result showed: in most areas the electric equipment containing PCBs had been already sealed up the according to national relevant regulations, and in the conditional areas and units they had been sealed up with the way of concentrated storage in the cave or the hillside, and in some areas they had been sealed up in the iron cases and putted in the storehouse leaved unused or the vacant lot of the factory. But in a few areas they were still in running, and they were burnt or land filled illegally in a few areas and units. In these illegal cases, the storage plots had already been blotted out with the road or the buildings, and this would cause the permanent potential pollution.

2.4

Amount of PCBs

The pollutant containing PCBs investigation work was confined to the demonstration provinces of Zhejiang and Liaoning for some reason. It can be estimated tentatively according to the investigation result in Zhejiang province that the total amount of the pollutant amount containing PCBs. And this will be revised after further nationwide investigation. The PCBs produced in the whole country was about 9000 tons. According to the filled rate of 20%-25% in the condenser, the total amount of electrical condenser containing PCBs was about 40,000 tons, and the present stock of condenser is about 30,000 tons because of the loss and disposal for many years. Generally speaking, the quantity of the heavy pollutant containing PCBs (including the PCBs oil, the soil that the PCBs concentration is greater than 500ppm, and other PCBs wastes) is approximately 1-3 times than the electric condenser. If calculate by 2 times, the amount of national heavy pollutant containing PCBs is about 60,000 tons, in which the amount of PCBs oil (including the quantity of fragment of the broken condenser, existing stock, and voltage transformer) is totally about 3000 tons. If calculate by 10 times of the heavy pollutant, the national quantity of light pollutant containing PCBs(the contaminated soil that the concentration is within 50-500ppm) is totally about 600,000 tons. If calculate by 5-10 times of the, electric condenser, the national quantity of wastewater is totally about 150,000-300,000 tons.

2.5

Distribution of PCBs

The result of NIP study shows: in China, the potential PCBs is mainly in the power industry and the quantity of PCBs reduces sequentially from east to west area. Based on achievement of the PCBs inventory materials and inventory method in the experimental provinces (Zhejiang, Liaoning), estimate Chinese PCBs potential total amount further more, confirm and divide PCBs potential quantity distribution regional rank and distributing industry classification.

45.2% PCBs 35.7% PCBs 19.1% PCBs

Chap 3 Environmental education on PCBs in China
Environmental education, namely makes people know the environment, understand environmental question with the aid of the educational means, and then achieve the knowledge and technical ability for treating environmental pollution and preventing environmental question coming into being, and establish the correct attitude on the relation between people and environment, and all of these are in order to realize the protection of the human environment through joint efforts of social member. The environmental education is a foundation of waking up people environmental awareness, the important means to prevent and cure environmental pollution, and a strong guarantee of carrying out the environmental regulation, and also the important way to achieve environmental protection goal. The improvement of whole people PCBs environmental awareness in China is a strong guarantee to perfectly realize the reducing and eliminating and disposal of PCBs. And the energetic development of the high efficient environmental education is the solid foundation for improving the whole people's environmental awareness.

3.1Environmental Education in Developed Countries
The beautiful environment in the developed countries and regions benefits from people noble environmental awareness and the improvement of environmental awareness and setting-up of sustainable development view are integral with the effective implementation of environmental education. On the whole, the environmental education of the developed country not only starts early but also progresses constantly, and occupies the very latest in educational idea all the time.

3.1.1 History of Environmental Education
In the middle period of the 20th century, the global environment worsened rapidly, and the environmental public hazard incidents of shocking the world happened in rapid succession, and then the first climax appeared in the world environments question. Under this background, people realized gradually that the effective implement of environmental protection had to be consistent with arousing people's environmental awareness and launching the environmental education in a more cost-effective manner. Since 1949, the environmental education of the developed country has gone through four period of stage: the embryonic and gestation period (1949-1969), rise and establish period (1970-1975), vigorously developing period (1976-1992) and consummating and ripe period (1992- ). In 1992, the developed country established the environmental education idea of sustainable development.

3.1.2 The Characteristic of Environmental Education in Developed Countries
In developed countries such as U.S.A., Britain, Germany and Japan etc., the environmental education takes many years to develop, and they has already formed the mature educational idea of environment. The environmental education in these countries has the characteristics of cooperation, innovative and practicality. In the developed country, the environmental education relies on the whole society close attention, extensive cooperation to develop. Extensive cooperation has improved the actual effect of sustainable development education, and promoted the development of sustainable environmental education of the whole world. In the educational process of environment, the environmental education is studied and paid attention not merely in the universities, and many relevant research institutes and non-government organizations. The environmental education is being innovated and developed constantly. Environment educational content tends to localization, practicality. And the environmental education pays attention to people's seeing and feeling things and hot questions which people pay close attention to. For help people environmental awareness raise, there are corresponding practice bases for environmental education in the developed countries. In recent years, the environmental education in developed country has new developments. In the environment educate target, children are being paid attention to; and some experts began to lead economic principles into the environmental education, adopting the way of profit absorbing to improve the educational result of environment.

3.2Environmental education in China
Relative to developed countries such as U.S.A., Britain and Japan, etc., the environmental education of China is launched relatively late; it starts in the middle and later period of the seventies of the 20th century. Using the developed countries and regions successful experience and lesson in the world for reference, the Chinese environmental education gets the fast development, and makes high effect; In the course of developing, the Chinese environmental education has formed it's own characteristic, and developed the peculiar theory.

3.2.1 Review of History
In 1973, the State Council issued " Several Regulations About Protecting and Improving the Environment " which launched the request for the environmental education in the university clearly. In 1979, " Law on Environmental Protection of the

People's Republic of China (tried) " was issued, which made the clear regulation to the environmental education. In the eighties, the kindergarten and primary school began to popularize the experimental unit teaching work of the knowledge of environmental science education. In 1990, State Bureau of Environmental Protection held national first environmental social education working conference, in which the goal and measure of the environmental education have been made, and then implemented. In 1996, " Action Outline of National Environmental Propagation and Education (1996-2010) " was issued; the development of the environmental education of the whole people was brought into schedule. Gone through more than 20 years development, the Chinese environmental education had remarkable progress, and a set of environmental educational pattern with Chinese characteristics that produced extremely rich education results has formed.

3.2.2 Characteristic and Defect
At present, China has already formed a multi-level, multi-form and complete specialty abecedarian environmental education system with Chinese characteristics. There are preliminary foundations in such aspects as policy for education of the environment, teaching material construction, teaching form. China' s environmental education system is made up of school environmental education, on-the-job environmental education and social environmental education. School environmental education is made up of basic education and specialized education; basic education mainly aims at middle and primary schools, and specialized education means the cultivation of the environmental qualified personnel in a specific field of the different levels. The on-the-job environmental education means that the environment systematic on-the-job personnel receive academic credential education, continuing education and undergo job-specific training of environmental protection. The social environmental education mainly means the environmental education for the whole people aiming at improving the environmental awareness, especially policymaker. However, compared with environmental education of the developed country, the Chinese environmental education exists a lot insufficiency. For example, the environmental educational development of middle and primary schools of China is uneven; the whole people's environmental awareness remains to improve further; the environmental education of middle and primary schools has not realized the systematize; the teacher engaged in the environmental education lack the systemic training of environmental protection knowledge, technical ability and regulation; the environmental education lacks permeability and practicality, etc..

3.3Environmental Education on PCBs in China
For the eliminating and disposal of Chinese PCBs, China has to base on actual conditions, regard international advanced experience as the reference, and make the

educational strategy of environment suitable for China, consequently improve the environmental awareness of whole Chinese people in a more cost-effective manner, and at last realize the implementation of eliminating and disposal of Chinese PCBs.

3.3.1 Status of environmental Awareness on PCBs
Because of the disappearance of relevant PCBs environmental education and shortage of the relevant environmental policy of PCBs, people’s consciousness for environmental issue to PCBs is generally thin; even some functional officials in relevant interest department have conflict heart to store in.

3.3.2 Strategy of environmental education on PCBs
In allusion to current situation of Chinese people PCBs environmental awareness, regarding the characteristic of PCBs environmental question, consulting the successful educational experience of environment both at home and abroad, make the dynamic educational strategy of PCBs environment with Chinese characteristics as follows.

(1) Basic Rationale
In order to make the environmental education of PCBs fruitful, carry out and implement, the environmental education should follow principles of permeability, practicality, moral education, measuring one's own ability, perceptivity, systematicness and persistantability.( 渗透性、实践性、德育性、量力性、直观 性、系统性和终身性原则) It is the important insurance of improving the quality and effect of environmental education for these seven principles carried out and flexible application in the whole course of environmental education.

(2) Strengthening education for leaders
The leading cadres are in decision status, whose environmental awareness directly influences the harmonious development of environment and economy. It can make leading cadre consciously guarantee environmental protection fund poured into and consciously cooperate and advance the development of the environmental protection activity that improving the leading cadre's environmental awareness. So, it is obligatory that strengthening the leading cadre, especially relevant interest department's leading cadre’s PCBs environmental awareness for the purpose of promoting Chinese PCBs eliminating and disposal activity going on wheels.

(3) Strengthening school education
In the institution of higher education, offer students of not environment major educational course of PCBs environment, which will make students play a promoting role in eliminating and disposal of PCBs in their work of future. In the kindergarten and middle and primary schools, launch the environmental education of PCBs through organizing the different forms, such as environmental protection lecture, general knowledge test and extracurricular activities, etc., in order to popularize the environmental knowledge education of PCBs.

(4) Popularizing education for people
Increase PCBs environmental knowledge education to ordinary people who may be exposed to PCBs for the purpose of improving their environmental awareness, and then promote the implement of eliminating and disposal of PCBs activity.

(5) Working Out teaching materials
According to the characteristic of different crowds of environmental education, work out the practicably teaching materials of the different levels, this will make a very good result in development of the environmental education of PCBs.

(6) Fully Using the Media
In order to improve people's PCBs environmental protection consciousness in a more cost-effective manner, give full play to the function of various media, such as newspaper, broadcast, TV, wall advertisement, magazine, caricature, lecture, film, etc., and carry on the objective propaganda of PCBs environmental knowledge unremittingly, and then realize the great improvement of the whole people PCBs environmental awareness.

Chap 4 China Management-Capacity Establishment of PCBs Disposal
The Chinese Management-Capacity Establishment of PCBs Disposal mostly includes two aspects those are establishment of Administrative Institutions, and Polices, Code and Specifications.

4.1. The baseline of PCBs management in developed countries
The developed countries in elimination and disposal of PCBs are mostly European Countries, United States and Canada, which have established the administrative institutions for danger waste of PCBs like that are greatly efficient and perfect. Meanwhile, those developed countries/areas have established systemic management policies, codes and specifications etc. of PCBs

4.1.1. Management Code of PCBs in the United States
In the year of 1979, the United States has published code of forbidding producing and sale PCBs. The relative code claims that all the usages of PCBs are illegal except allowance of EPA, for example, non-hazard electric device. Forbid using product whose concentration of PCBs is more than 500ppm, and ban to use PCBs transformer without safe anti-seepage devices near the commercial building. It also claims protective measures should be taken within 48 hours when the leakage of PCBs is found; meanwhile environment discharge of PCBs and exposure of body should be measured. PCBs facilities must be stored according to the code. Must attach tags to the equipments in use. Must carry out PCBs continuous monitoring where is polluted. Must keep recording on the PCBs disposal. EPA must assess Commercial Storage Company of PCBs.

4.1.2. Management Code of PCBs in Canada
In the year of 1977, Canada government constituted the code to forbid producing, sale and usage of PCBs. It prescribes that anything whose concentration is greater than 50ppm is regard as PCBs material. Any littering of PCBs into the environment is illegal. Obsolete PCBs must be stored in accordance of the corresponding code or be disposed by adopted facilities. Some solid PCBs waste can be filled. The facilities in use that contain high concentration of PCBs will be eliminated before 2007. All PCBs storage sites will be ceased to used before 2009 and most of facilities in use whose PCBs concentration are low will be eliminated.

4.2. The Baseline of PCBs Management in China 4.2.1. The Baseline of Administrative Organizations in China
(1) Corresponding Institutions of National Convention Implementation


Guidance and Negotiation Institution: In Nov. 2003, China established guidance group of Chinese National Implementation Plan for Stockholm Convention, to work out National Implementation Plan and audit the Implementation Plans and propose the decisive advices, which is comprised by 11 branches of State Department which are SEPA, National Development & Reform Commission, the Ministry of Foreign affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Business Affairs, Ministry of Construction Ministry of Science and technology, Board of Agriculture, Ministry of Health, State Electricity Regulatory Commission (SERC), and National Administration Safety in Production etc. Guidance Group are in the charge of EPA, its subordinate group, NIP Communication Workgroup which charge the cooperation among the departments. Convention Implementation Office: In April 2003, SEPA specially established Guidance Group of Convention Implementation. Its responsibilities includes, carrying out the policy research of the Convention and offering support service for convention negotiation, offering support service for domestic policy and code constituting of NIP and negotiation with different departments, undergoing selection, preparation, declaration and approval of projects of the convention implementation and planning to implement approved projects, offering domestic co-finance support service, which that raises money for Convention Implementation projects, collecting and issuing the corresponding information according to the decided procedures and carrying out propagation and cultivation activities, and other tasks assigned by guidance group.



Accompanying with the Chinese government formally signed on the Stockholm Convention, the Preparatory Office of Convention Implementation afflicted to SEPA, has upgraded to Convention Implementation Office (CIO) of SEPA. The Joint Group of SEPA and SERC was established to enforce the capacity of coordination of Convention Implementation.

(2) Administrative Constitution of Hazard Waste


State Level: SEPA is directly affiliated to State Department SEPA, in charge of environment protection. It is China’s leading organ of the negotiation delegation to join Stockholm Convention and one of the state contact points. SEPA administrative establishment are over 200 members, consisting many organs within. Main departments directly related with Stockholm Convention include: Department of International Cooperation, Department of Pollution Control, Department of Policy and Regulation, Department of Scientific and Technological Standard, Department of Planning/Finance and Supervising Department. Department of International Cooperation takes charge of Convention negotiation, foreign affairs such as international cooperation etc, among which the subordinate office of the Department of Pollution Control, solid waste and chemical management office mainly takes charge of operation service of pollution control of PCBs. Local Level: At local levels, the governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government all set up environment protection departments, which are usually called Environment Protection Bureau (EPB). The pollution control departments of provincial environment protection bureau or provincial administrative center of solid waste take charge of PCBs pollution prevention of their own provinces. Pollution control departments or management office of cities and county environmental protection bureaus take charge of their owe PCBs pollution prevention and control. For example, Zhejiang Environmental Protection Bureau is a government sector specializing in environmental protection in Zhejiang, 9 departments totally and 10 institution directly under the bureau, among which Pollution Control Department mainly takes charge for chemicals and solid waste pollution prevention and control. Besides, there are 11 Environment Protection Bureaus and 83 County Environment Protection Bureaus in Zhejiang Province.



(3) Auxiliary Management Institution of Hazard Waste
Since the requirements for management technique of chemical is much higher, some governmental functions are carried out by affair department affiliated to government, which corresponds to the management technique support of government institution.


Hazardous Waste Administration Support Institutions Affiliated to State Environmental Protection Administration of China The hazardous waste administration support institutions affiliated to State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPA) include: SEPA Chemicals Registration Center, SEPA Waste Import Registration Administration Center, China Hazardous Waste

Administration and Disposal Training Technology Transfer Center. SEPA Chemicals Registration Center is a technical support organization affiliated to State Environmental Protection Administration of China specializing in environmental administration for chemicals. The center, which engages to environmental management of chemical, is the technique supporting unity that affiliated to China Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRAES).And it exercises environmental administration of initial import of chemicals and the import/export of toxic chemicals; meanwhile it also engages in improving methods and technologies for the national environmental administration of chemicals. And it is also a subordinate of Sino-Japan Friendship Environmental Protection Center. China Hazardous Waste Administration and Disposal Training and Technology Transfer Center” is located in Solid Waste Control and Natural Resources Research Institute, Environmental Sciences and Engineering Department, Tsinghua University, providing Basel Convention negotiation, training and other relevant support for State Environmental Protection Administration of China.  All levels of auxiliary environmental hazard management institution in Zhejiang: In 1999, Zhejiang administrative center of solid waste was founded. It charge drafting and formulating local solid waste administration regulations, rules and normative documents, compiling solid waste administration program and planning, solid waste pollution prevention technical and economic policies, taking charge of hazardous solid waste declaration and registration, hazardous waste operation license, organizing and implementing provincial hazardous waste transportation double draft system, supervising solid waste pollution prevention and cure works. The local solid waste administration centres also play an important role in local solid waste administration in Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou and Jinhua, etc.

(4) Administrative Institutions of PCBs of Electric Power Industrial


State Power Grid Company

At present Chinese power industry has established a new system with the economic reform; the distribution of electricity (power grid) was separated from the electricity production (power plants). There are two power grid corporations in China, i.e. the State Grid Corporation of China and the South Grid Corporation of China. Established on the basis of a sum of enterprises and institutions formerly owned by State Power Corporation of China, State Grid Corporation of China (short for SG) is a special large-sized enterprise approved by the State Council to operate the business of power transmission, transformation, distribution and other assets of power grid,which is a state-holding and authorized investing Corporation by the State Council.



State Electricity Regulatory Committee

The State Electricity Regulatory Commission will perform their functions of administration of law according the authorization of the State Council, and implement the responsibility of electricity regulation throughout the country as a whole according the laws and regulations. Various organs will be set up in the State Electricity Regulatory Commission, in which the Power Transmission Regulatory Department is related to the management of PCBs electric equipment.

(5) Disposal Institutions of PCBs


Shenyang Institute of Environmental Sciences: Shenyang Institute of Environmental Sciences is under the jurisdiction of the State General Bureau of Environmental Protection and Shenyang Municipal Government, and meanwhile, is also the support unit of National Environmental Protection Technical Center of Hazardous Wastes Disposal Engineering. Such institute studied the techniques of PCBs incineration and disposal at the beginning of 1990s. It completes successively the development of PCBs incineration technology and the construction of incineration pilot plant, conducts the PCBs incineration treatment on a middle test scale and accumulates certain experiences in PCBs collection, transportation and disposal. At present, the institute is undertaking the construction of PCBs incineration demonstration engineering project that the State Planning Commission sets up. The National Environmental Protection Technical Center of Hazardous Wastes Disposal Engineering with the institute as its support unit is presently the unique domestic engineering technical center at national level in the field of hazardous wastes disposal. Its main responsibility is to develop the control technique of PCBs pollution with PCBs as its principal part and conduct engineering demonstration; to import, assimilate and assess foreign relevant techniques; to study and draft relevant economic and technical policies in the management of hazardous wastes.  Hangzhou Dadi Environmental Protection Co., Ltd.: Hangzhou Dadi Environmental Protection Co., Ltd. Presently, it's the unique hazardous waste integral collection, temporary storage and disposal enterprise in Zhejiang Province, possessing clearing, transportation, temporary storage qualifications for most hazardous wastes and disposal qualification for part of these wastes. For PCBs, entrusted by Zhejiang Province Environmental Protection Bureau and Provincial electricity sections, Hangzhou Dadi Environmental Protection Co., Ltd. has completed the excavation and removal of PCBs electrical equipments storage site in Xiasha Farm for Hangzhou Iron and Steel Works, and removal of PCBs wastes in Humen Transformer Substation, Houzhai Town, Yiwu City. All the PCBs wastes are temporarily stored by the company.

(6) Monitoring Institution of PCBs Pollution
Since 1973, China environmental protection system has established about 2,340 monitoring centers/stations and 15 monitoring networks with 75,000 personnel. The monitoring projects involve 300 indexes including air quality, surface water quality, groundwater quality, seawater quality, soil, substrate sludge, bio-samples, ecological environment, pollution sources (including tail gas from automotive vehicles), waste water, sludge, noise, radiation and electromagnetic radiation, etc. 9 technical directions, 16 technical specifications, 400 standard methods and 300 reference materials/quality control materials were established. However, the deficit in PCBs monitoring capacity of China mainly lies in those aspects, which analytic instruments are antique and insufficient, the operators are lack and technique level is lower and don’t have little capacity and experience in PCBs analyzing.

4.2.2. The Baseline of PCBs Code in China
The management and control of PCBs of Chinese government are mainly focus on the PCBs electrical equipment. China stopped PCBs production at the beginning of 1970s, limited PCBs the import of electrical equipment at the end of 1970s, drew up administrative provisions and standards to prevent and control PCBs pollution at the beginning of 1990s, launched a countrywide primary PCBs investigation in the middle of 1990s and drew up incineration control standard in 2000. (1) PCBs Electric Equipment and PCBs Waste In March 1974, former National No.1 Ministry of Machine-Building Industry issued the Circular on Changing Impregnant of Power Capacitors [Jidian 226 (74)] [1]which stipulated to stop using trichlorinated biphenyl to manufacture power capacitors.In August 1979, former State Economic Commission and Environment Protection Committee under the State Council issued jointly the Circular on Preventing Pollution Problems of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Harmful Substance which stipulated to control pollution of polychlorinated biphenyl and stop the import of electrical installation with polychlorinated biphenyl as the medium. In 1990,the former National Environmental Protection Agency (Now SEPA) issued Circular on Strengthening Management on Abandoned Polychlorinated Biphenyl Power Capacitors]which strictly prohibited dealing in waste PCBs power capacitors, dismantling waste PCBs power capacitors and power capacitors with no distinct model number, and put forward inventory survey of Environmental Protection Department and Electricity Department on PCBs power capacitors. In January 1991, the former National Environmental Protection Agency (Now SEPA)

and State Ministry of Energy issued jointly the Regulations on Prevention of Environmental Pollution of Electrical Equipment Containing Polychlorinated Biphenyl and its Wastes to prevent and control the pollution from the use of PCBs electrical equipment and collection, storage, transport, treatment and disposal of PCBs wastes and to strengthen governmental supervisors and management on PCBs. In June 1991, the State Bureau of Technical Supervision (now General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine-AQSIQ) and SEPA issued GB13015-91 Standards on pollution control of PCBs wastes. The standard stipulated the pollution controlling value of PCBs wastes is 50mg/kg and all kind disposal methods of PCBs. In December 1995, SEPA and former Ministry of Power Industry issued jointly the Circular on Reporting Countrywide Polychlorinated Biphenyl Electrical Installation and Its Wastes and ordered relevant units to coordinate the countrywide investigation on use, storage status of PCBs electrical equipment. In October 1995, the Environmental Control Law of Solid Wastes Pollution of the People’s Republic of China, the first law on the environmental management concerning solid wastes was issued. In January 1998, the Directory of Hazardous Wastes was issued jointly by the SEPA, the former SETC, the former MFETC and the MPS, in which the PCBs is listed are the 10th hazardous waste. In 2004, State Council promulgated Management Method on Hazardous Waste Operation License which stipulated that any unit engaging in collection, storage and disposal of hazardous waste should draw hazardous waste dealing license from local or state environmental protection departments. License of disposal of hazardous waster containing polychlorinated biphenyls should be approved and issued by SEPA. On August 20, 1992 the Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal went to effect toward China. The convention stipulated the trans-boundary movement and disposal of which should follow relevant regulations of the Convention. In 1996, SEPA issued Interim Provisions of environmental Protection Management on Waste Import, which stipulated the import of electric equipment waste must get approval of SEPA. In the same year,SEPA issued Environmental Protection Control Standards on Imported Waste which stipulated PCBs content in the waste should no exceed 50mg / kg. In December 2001, the former MFETC, General Administration of Customs and SEPA jointly issued Directory of Prohibited Import Articles (The third) which prohibited import of waste oil containing PCBs. SEPA issued in August, 2002 Directory of Prohibited Import Articles ( The fifth ) , prohibiting the import of waste electromechanical products. On October 1,1999SEPA issued Double Draft Management on the Transfer of Hazardous Waste (SEPA [ 1999] 5)which required that the transfer of hazardous wastes should draw double draft.

In 2001, the Standard for Pollution Controls on Hazardous Waste Incineration was issued by SEPA, which stipulated the specific index on PCBs incineration. In the same year, SEPA issued Technical Policies on Pollution Prevention and Control of Hazardous Wastes, which PCBs waste was listed as special hazardous waste and must be specifically disposed. (2) Corresponding PCBs Commodities In Januar1999, the former SETC issued the Directory on Obsolete Production Capacities, Processes and Products to be Eliminated (the first),which definitely listed pesticides such as pesticide containing PCBs, chlordane, heptachlor are obsolete products that should be eliminated. On March 16, 1994, the SEPA, General Customs Administration, MFETC jointly issued Environmental Control Provision on Import of Chemicals for the First Time and Import and Export of Toxic Chemicals, which listed PCBs in Directory of Prohibited or Strictly Controlled Toxic Chemicals in China (The first), requiring the import and export of PCBs must apply and draw environmental protection registration certificate and release permit, and get approval of SEPA. (3) The Criterion for Environmental Quality of PCBs In 1988, the Ministry of Health released GB9674-88 Standards on hygiene limits of PCBs in seafood[20] (Taking effect in June 1st, 1989 ) which stipulated PCBs content in seafood such as fish, shellfish, shrimps and algae and PCBs measure method. GHZB1-1999 Standards on environmental quality of surface water release[22] by SEPA regulated that the PCBs content control standard was 8.0×10-6 mg/L in ofⅠ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ type surface water

4.3. Capacity Establishment of PCBs Management in China
Program the plan for administrative institution and policy institution depending on the baseline and future developing to found the PCBs platform of PCBs disposal of China, according to the analysis of current management capacity, considering of the experience of developed countries in disposing the PCBs.

4.3.1. Consummation of China Administrative Institution of PCBs
Analyze the structure, duty and function of related administrative institutions of PCBs management in present pilot provinces (Zhejiang and Liaoning province), and give the ideas on establishing administrative institutions applicable in China with the function of communicating internationally, coordinating departmentally, carrying out policies and adapting to development in national and local level. (1) State Level Enforce the law force of multi-department united office and improve working efficiency. Employ specific secretaries who are in charge of concrete documental work. Offer and amend work location of project management, increasing the investment to office facilities to ensure the working condition. Organize national PCBs training workshop according to the condition. Reinforce the international communication of management experience of PCBs. (2) Local Level Found united institution that is led by SEPA and concerning department anticipant; enforce the hardware investment of local government. Strengthen the training of local concerning staff and organize discussion meeting of management experience inter-provinces and inter-countries. Strengthen to establish auxiliary institution of local environment protection and introduce the non-governmental fund into the monitoring and disposal of PCBs.

4.3.2. Consummation of China Administrative Institution of PCBs
(1) State Level Constitute guideline of management and disposal technique and amend the current specification or standard to meet the demand of convention. Constitute the institutional specification for financing, use, management, supervise and risk controlling etc. of management and disposal of PCBs waste. Make out the draft criterion of environmental monitoring, pollutants discharging, and environmental qualities.

(2) Local Level Above all, make out specifications for preventing pollution of PCBs devices, emergency measures of PCBs pollution in demonstration province. Then, make out the corresponding management regulation of PCBs staged and hierarchically.

Chap 5 the Construction of PCBs Disposal Technology in China
The establishment of China PCBs disposal technology contains construction of technical standards for detecting, clearing up, collecting, transporting, storing, repairing and destroying PCBs of variable pollution levels. And it also contains the guidelines for carrying out technical training to employees who are engaged in PCBs disposal.

5.1 The PCBs Wastes Disposal Technique in Developed Countries
At present, PCBs wastes disposal technique in developed countries mainly has three kinds: disposal technique for high concentration PCBs containing pollutant, disposal Technology for low concentration PCBs containing pollutant and transformer oil containing pollutant.

5.1.1 High PCBs Concentration Pollutants Elimination/Disposal Technology
(1) High Temperature Incineration Technology Reaction mechanism: Oxidation reaction between PCBs and oxygen which generates CO2, H2O and HCl. Feature of Techneque: Incineration can make PCBs almost destroyed completely, but it needs expensive special incinerator; the technique for feeding system, exhaust system and automatic monitoring system are complicated and the control conditions are very strict; dioxin can generated from the process, and the generated flying dust and residue must be landfilled safely. Disposal criterion: DRE≥99.9999%, dioxin emission≤0.1ng/Nm3. (2) Plasma Transform Technology Technology principle: PCBs reacts with O2 and H2O due to the effect of plasma, and produces CO, CO2, H2, HCl. The generated gases are fuel gas; and the solid residues form the vitreous body. Technology feature: of universality; and it can satisfy strict discharge standard (low dioxin concentration, the quantity of tail gas is smaller than 20% of incineration of same scale of, and the vitreous body can be disposed as ordinary solid waste).

Disposal criterion: the concentration of dioxin in tail gas is lower than 0.01ng/Nm3. (3) Gas phase Chemistry Reduction Technology Technology principle: Under the condition of high temperature and low-voltage, PCBs react with H2, generating CH4 and HCl, and the generated gas can be used as fuel gas. Technology feature: Suitable for disposing all kinds of PCBs wastes, hydrogen supply and using have risks. Disposal criterion: DRE≥99.9999%~99.999999%, the mount of dioxin in tail gas is slight.

5.1.2 Disposal Technology for Low PCBs Concentration Polluted Soil
5.1.1 In Situ. Vitrification
Reaction mechanism: Insert two electrodes in PCBs polluted soil, and heat solid materials by electric current until melting; at the same time, the gas volatilized out is discharged after collecting and purifying; the final melts reach stabilization after recrystallization. Technology feature: This technology is suitable for dealing with inorganic matter and soil polluted by PCBs. The treated soil will not present the migration phenomenon of PCBs. Disposal criterion: DRE≥99.9999%, PCBs content in solid is smaller than 2ppm , and dioxin is not detected from purified tail gas.

5.1.2 Thermal Desorption
Technology principle: Heat polluted soil under the protection of nitrogen in converter, and make PCBs and other organic pollutants resolved from the soil; clean the volatilizing gas through gas cleaning system, and discharge the remaining tail gas after purified by filter; separate oils from waster water generated from cleaning system, and incinerate the concentrated liquid containing PCBs in incineration plant, and discharge the sewage after treatment. Technology feature: Suitable for treating soil polluted by PCBs; the treatment effect is pretty good, and the cost is moderate. Disposal criterion: No dioxin generates from the process; the PCBs content is 1-2ppm in the treated soil and lower than 0.5μg/L in discharged sewage.

5.1.3 Electric Heat Desorption in Situ.
Reaction mechanism: Utilize electric current to heat the polluted soil, then collect volatilized pollutants through paved gas collecting pipeline; pyrolyze the organic matter among them using thermal oxidator; and finally, discharge the tail gas after treatment. Technology feature: It is one type of indirect thermal desorption, and suitable for PCBs polluted soil; the treatment effect is steady, and no pollution transport phenomenon. Disposal criterion: DRE≥ 99.9999998%; PCBs content is smaller than 1ppm in the treated soil; dioxin content is lower than 0.1TEQng/Nm3 in discharged tail gas.

5.1.3 Disposal Technology for Transformer Oil Containing PCBs
(1) Chemistry Dechlorination Technology Reaction mechanism: PCBs react with H2 and NaOH (or KOH) under the effect of catalyser, generating hydrocarbon, NaCl and H2O. Technology feature: Suitable for oils in which PCBs content is lower than 30%; it can carry out movable type normal position treatment. Disposal criterion: After treatment, the PCBs content is lower than 1ppm. (2) Sodium Reduction Technology Technology principle: PCBs react with sodium, generating non chloro-organic(氯 代有机物) and NaCl. Technology feature: Suitable for material oil in which PCBs content is lower than 11000ppm; the rate of reaction is fast. Disposal criterion: After treatment, the PCBs content is 1~2ppm and the purity of material oil is pretty high. (3) Continuous Dechlorination (CDP) Technology Technology principle: Hydroxide of alkali metal react with PCBs, generating alkali metal and metal chloride, that realizes dechlorination of PCBs oil. Technology feature: Suitable for mineral oil in which PCBs content is lower than 5000ppm; the dechlorination agent is ordinary industrial chemicals, and the cost is low; the metal chloride generated is a relatively harmless material; could build up mobile devices for field processing. Disposal criterion: PCBs content in treated PCBs mineral oil is lower than 5ppm.

5.2 The Existing PCBs Waste Disposal Technology in China
In China, because the relevant research for PCBs disposal technology lags behind, the technical application instances are only for incineration of high PCBs concentration containing wastes

5.2.1 Pilot Technology Project (中试技术项目)
(1) Project overview: In 1995, Shenyang Institute of Environmental Science succeed in developing one pilot-plant which reaches national PCBs control standard, and the device has already run for more than eight years. (2) Essential equipments: pre-treatment equipment, stoves of a section for solid, liquid and mixture of solid and liquid, purification stove of two sections, quench device for high-temperature tail gas, sewage treatment device . (3) Technology index: The treatment scale is 1.0t/d wastes; Tail gas purification adopts quench and wet deacidification technology; the remove rate of PCBs is up to 99.9999%; the combustion rate of fuel is up to 99.9%; the remove rate of HCl is up to 99%.

5.2.2 The Demonstration Project
(1) Project overview: The demonstration project of hazardous waste incineration in Shenyang is a demonstration project of national high-tech industrialization. The ability of incineration of PCBs is 15 t/d. It adopts rotary kiln pyrolysis stove, two sections high-temperature exhaust gas treating stove, verturi gas quenching technology, NaOH and activated carbon absorption tail gas treatment, and the fresh water advanced treatment and reclamation technology. (2) Essential equipments: rotary kiln pyrolysis stove, two sections high-temperature exhaust gas treating stove, verturi gas quencher, NaOH spray tower, activated carbon absorption tower, bag-type dust collector, and fresh water treatment equipment. (3) Technology index: The remove rate of PCBs is up to 99.9999%; combustion rate is up to 99.9%; The remove rate of HCl is up to 99.9%; the dioxin content in exhaust gas is lower than 0.5TEQng/Nm3.

5.3 The Suggestion of China PCBs Wastes Disposal Technique
According to China PCBs wastes characteristic and the assessment of PCBs disposal technology at home and abroad, it is suggested that China PCBs wastes disposal technology can be divided into three kinds: high PCBs concentration (content ≥ 500ppm) wastes disposal technology, low PCBs concentration (content 50ppm-500ppm) polluted soil treatment technology and PCBs transformer oil disposal technology.

5.3.1 The Principles for PCBs Disposal Technology Selection
(1) High PCBs Concentration Waste High PCBs concentration wastes have the greatest environmental risk in China, and

must be innocently disposed as soon as possible according to the convention. And it must keep the following principles.  Be ripe, safe to be running and easy to operate;  Suitable for various forms of PCBs wastes, including PCBs capacitors and solid, half solid and liquid wastes which are polluted by;  Have been applied with practical experience in China; and the operation cost is moderate;  Consistent with the China's technological development trend of hazardous waste disposal, and fit the technology policy of China's hazardous waste disposal;  Make a compromise between practicability and maturity and should consider the forward looking and demonstrative effect of the technology.  Accord with the demand of international convention for innocent treatment of PCBs pollutants. (2) Low PCBs Concentration Polluted Soil The quantity of low PCBs concentration polluted soil is large, and the treatment technology should keep the following principles:  Should avoid the long distance transportation of a large amount of polluted soil, in order to reduce potential environmental risk and extra costs for package and transportation;  The storage sites for PCBs is quite scattered and the surrounding environment is complicated, so that the treatment equipments should be movable;  There can't be serious technological limitation when disposing PCBs;  The disposal expense should be rational;  It is reliable, safe, simple and convenient;  Convenient for the recovery of the pollution land. (3) The Transformer Oil Containing PCBs  Could dispose transformer oil on the spot;  Could reuse the treated oil after;  Should avoid using high temperature, high-pressure technology and dangerous chemicals;  The amount of wastes generated is as little as possible.

5.3.2 China PCBs Disposal Technology Selection
According to the above principles, synthetically considering factors, such as technology, policy, cost ,etc., different methods of cutting down PCBs in China. (1) The Disposal Technology for High PCBs Concentration Wastes There are three alternatives available for China’s high PCBs concentration wastes: incineration, plasma, incineration and plasma commensalisms technology, and among them the third alternative of scheme can be determined as the optimized alternative.

 The incineration and plasma commensalisms technology: Gross investment is 20,800,000USD, among which 6,000,000USD is for newly-increased allocation investment. And the finishing investments are 5,800,000USD for completed incineration project construction and 9,000,000USD for China’s plasma project. Table 5-1 Comprehensive comparisons of the three alternatives of PCBs waste disposal technology Incineration and Alternative Incineration Plasma Plasma Commensalism Various types of Various types of Dispose solid and Disposal Object PCBs wastes PCBs wastes semi-solid waste by incineration Dispose PCBs oil by plasma 9,800,000 13,500,000 20,800,000 Gross investment USD 4,000,000 4,500,000 6,000,000 Increased investment USD 2040 2420 1998 The average disposal cost not bad good good Joint treatment effect not bad not bad good Technology rationality no yes Conversion from waste to resource no no good Complementarity of technological process no yes Compromise the require of upgrade  Rationality of third alternative of disposal: Powerful: Sophisticated incineration demonstration project mainly disposes solid and semi-solid PCBs wastes which occupy higher proportion of wastes. Because the PCBs concentration is not very high, the disposal effect can fully meet the request of convention. Disposing PCBs oil by plasma device, compared with disposal by incineration, has greatly reduced cost and running loss of the incineration equipments. The flying ash containing dioxin and activated carbon concentrating other pollutants are generated from incineration system; and they are high level disposed by plasma, that greatly promotes the total pollution control level of disposal plant and environmental safety of disposal operation.

Easy to operate: The sophistication and construction of two disposal devices are not only relatively independent but also form one system, that make the project implementation can go on step by step. The incineration demonstration project could be sophisticated in advance and accept the solid and semi-solid PCBs wastes to dispose; the PCBs oil and burning flying ash, etc. could be kept in the storage unit temporarily; constructing plasma treatment facilities, forming matching disposal demonstration base, and then disposing PCBs oil and flying ash, etc. Economic feasibility: The cost of disposing solid and semi-solid PCBs wastes by incineration is less than the cost of disposing solid, semi-solid PCBs wastes and PCBs oil by synthetical treatment, while cost of disposing PCBs oil by plasma is less than by incineration. Technique is advanced: Plasma equipments have high-tech content and high-standard discharge index; disposal with plasma equipments is the demonstration of new technology application in China. Meanwhile, it could apply to other POPs wastes disposal, and meet the development request for follow-up technology. (2) Disposal Technology for Low PCBs Concentration Polluted Soil There are three alternatives available for China’s low PCBs concentration wastes disposal: incineration technology, solidification landfill technology, thermal desorption technology, etc. Among them, thermal desorption technology can be determined as the optimized alternative.  Thermal desorption technology: Technology process: PCBs polluted soil is desorbed in desorption stove at the temperature of 500~600℃ (where N2 is carrier), and generated gas is discharged after freezing and cleaning, and the sewage, which is from gas cleaning system and the spot, is discharge after flocculation, deposition and filtration by activated carbon. Finally, the generated waste PCBs oil, residuals from deposition and used activated carbon are deposed by incineration. Technology criterion: PCBs content in the desorbed soil smaller than 5ppm, and the PCBs discharge standard in tail gas is 0.5g/L. Technology feature: The technology process is ripe and reliable; the efficiency of thermal desorption is high; the cost is low, and the conditions of technology process are easy to control; it is flexible that the large and small scale of disposal are available; light polluted sewage also could be treated by this equipment on the spot.  Comparison Analysis on Disposal Technology According to the synthetical comparison with different technologies, it is sure that disposing PCBs polluted soil with thermal desorption technology is the most economic and most appropriate alternative. Technology Practicability Cost Environment Safety Have server years practical 2,500USD/t Good Incineration experience at home Applied at abroad 302USD/t Bad Solidification

Landfill Thermal Desorption

Applied in large scale (in America)

248.6USD/t

Good

(3) Disposal Technology for Transformer Oil Containing PCBs
The transformer oil containing PCBs is highly difficult PCBs wastes, it can choose incineration and plasma commensalisms technology for treatment.

Chapter 6 PCBs Priority Disposal Series in China
Research series about PCBs waste priority disposal in China is a foundation and preparation that trouble-free reduce or dispose PCBs in china. The priority series should be a guarantee to following work.

6.1 Requirements of the Convention for PCBs Waste Disposal
The Stockholm convention stipulates signatory countries’ obligation on PCBs waste disposal. The convention stipulates signatory countries are prohibited any PCBs production, meanwhile, it gives detailed description on use range of PCBs

6.1.1 Limitation of Using PCBs
The convention stipulates that PCBs can’t be used at place and equipment concerned with food production, and only can be used at untouched and anti-seepage equipment, it should be disposed to be anti-seepage, if it will be used in residence.

6.1.2 Limitation of Recycle
The convention stipulated that the liquor contained PCBs can’t be recycled if its content is more than 0.005%.

6.1.3 Expiration of Use
The convention stipulated that the PCBs in using equipments should be identified, recorded and removed the PCBs before 2025; and the equipment which contain PCBs liquid or Polluted by PCBs and its content is more than 0.0005% should be safely disposed before 2028, strive to find out whether has other articles that the content is more than 0.005%.

6.2 PCBs Priority Disposal Series in Developed Country

6.2.1 PCBs Priority of Disposal Region in Developed Country
In advanced country on PCBs disposal, the crucial PCBs priority disposal region is following: enhance the management about the PCBs storage, and strengthen the monitoring about the PCBs equipment in use, and carry out the inventory investigation on PCBs and the research on disposal strategy, and perfect the agency and policy on PCBs management and enhance publicity, and advance public consciousness and establish perfect systemic techniques about PCBs disposal. Adopt safety technology to reduce PCBs waste as soon as possible and enhance monitoring and appraisal and so on.

6.1.1 The Experience on PCBs Reducing or Disposal in Developed Country
In developed country on PCBs disposal, there are such experiences on PCBs disposal can be used for the reference. (1)Enforce the management of PCBs storage sites and the monitoring of PCBs equipment in use in order that avoid the PCBs waste from running off. Otherwise, it will make the inventory investigation of PCBs more difficult to be done, and the wastes more hard to control. (2)No other than to combine practical situation in our country, to formulate the strategy and the action project about elimination of the PCBs pollution as soon as possible. to do ascertain the feasible schedule and the concrete implementation plan on PCBs reducing and disposal in our country, the reducing and disposal on PCBs can be ensured. (3)Only do consummate the institutions and policies on PCBs management and enhance publicity,and define the function and duty of competent department, and establish management mechanism which is in combination and intimate cooperation with department, the work about the reducing and disposal on PCBs can be carried out efficiently. (4)Adopt all kinds of fashions to enhance the advising and education to the public, and advance the public conscious , so that the work of PCBs reducing and disposal can be carry out efficiently. (5)Strengthen the ability of PCBs supervisor and the develop of PCBs disposal technology and the construction of disposal, perfect the system of PCBs disposal technology, ensure the work of PCBs reduction and disposal goes on well and efficiently.

(6)Adopt the safety technology to destroy PCBs waste as soon as possible, the environmental pollution can be avoided more efficiently. Depress the PCBs pollution to the lowest level and avoid the second pollution during the disposal. (7)Strengthen the investigation and research on PCBs environmental pollution and impact, specially, carry through the identification of PCBs polluted areas and risk evaluation of it as soon as possible, safeguard PCBs stock sites from such potential impacts as environmental leaking and the dispersal of pollution and so on, so that the PCBs reduction and disposal can be ensured to go on efficiently.

6.2 PCBs Priority Disposal Series in China
The rationale for screening disposal priority area is based on the discriminating method and indicator system of PCBs priority reduction or disposal area in China, according to the rationale for recognition of disposal priority area Ensure the PCBs pollution can be controlled as pertinence and all sidedness and science; China should develop the following work vigorously in priority area. The significant area including: National institution and policy instruction, Constitute the national disposal capacity, Province-rank Capacity Establishment of Constitution and Policies, Inventory Investigation of PCBs, PCBs Cleanup, Rehabilitation of low concentration PCBs Polluted Soil, waste disposal of PCBs, treatment of transformer oil, monitoring and assessment.

6.2.1 National Institution and Policy Instruction
(1) Strengthen the establishment of national PMO capacity
Engage the expert secretary to take charge the concrete paperwork; and provide and improve the workplace of the project management office, increase the investment of office equipment, and ensure the working condition of the project management office, and advance the efficiency.

(2) Constitute and Emend and Implement the Environmental Criterion
Refer and collect and analyze and compare correlative technology and management data in domestic and abroad, and review and test on the spot to parts of China areas, and then study out several PCBs correlative environmental monitoring standard and dirty discharge control standards and environmental quality standards, and form the ultimately text further.

(3) Constitute the Guideline of PCBs Disposed Technology
Through analyzing the correlation technology and management data at home and abroad, and combining first-hand investigation condition, bring forward management and technology detailed rule and study out the PCBs disposal technological leading draft aim at collecting and packing and transporting and stockpiling and disposing the waste containing PCBs. Amend and repair the leading draft and form the final text to extend through the whole country. At the same time the Criterion for Pollution Control of PCBs 《含多氯联苯废物污染控制标准》 should be amended to make sure it is in accord with the convention

(4) Constitute financing management mechanism criterion
Focus on the situations that large fund is required and use of funds is extensive in china PCBs management and disposal, put forward the detailed demand for finance and use and manage and supervisor the PCBs waste disposal special fund, study out the draft criterion of PCBs disposal financing system and amend to form the final text.

(5) Constitute National PCBs Disposal Program
Constitute and emand and implement the program and phraseout implementation schedule on PCBs management and disposal.

(6) Improve PCBs environmental awareness of the public
Advise broadly the correlation information and the correlation PCBs knowledge about the Stockholm Convention through recording and kinescoping and television relaying and newspapers and advertising handbooks. Accelerate the public to comprehend the convention and enhance the public to cognition the PCBs harm and reducing PCBs exposure, and blaze them to take part in the environment with open arms and on their own initiative.

6.2.2 Establishment of the National Disposal Technology
Expedite the two national disposal center constructing and stoking of three Motive Heat Desorption Devices 移动式热脱附设备 and strengthen technical development and technology import.

6.2.3 Establishment of Local PCBs Disposal Capacity
(1) Strengthen Establishment of the province environmental institute
Strengthen the administrative institutions and theirs supporting institutions of hazardous waste, which are affiliated to Environment protection office of every provinces, and increase investment on office equipment to ensure and improving work condition to fit the program management. Developing the province PCBs basal database and the PCBs management and supervisor software , advance PCBs management efficiency in each province.

(2) Strengthen engaged staff’s training in local institutions
Those training of mangment of PCBs waste, inventory investigation and safe disposal of electric equipment, Environmental mornitoring of PCBs and abroad studying are respectively carried out to those staff of every provice-rank environment protection institutions and their support agencies, inventory investigation stuff, latent PCB-couching stuff and environment monitoring stuff to buildup the partners awareness and ability on PCBs pollution and prevention, and advance work efficiency and work achievement.

(3) Promote local PCBs Environmental awareness
Advise broadly the correlation information and the correlation PCBs knowledge about the Stockholm Convention through recording and kinescoping and television relaying and newspapers and advertising handbooks. Expedite the public in each province to know the convention, and accelerate the public to comprehend the convention and enhance the public to cognition the PCBs harm and reducing PCBs exposure, and encourage them to take part in the environment with open arms and on their own initiative.

(4) Constitute the regulation on local PCBs waste Prevention and Cure
Collect and analyze PCBs correlative policy and code management document and correlative management data each province at home and abroad, first-hand investigate the PCBs pollution and management, study out the exposure draft about prevent PCBs equipments from polluting at each province. Through convoking the charrettes and publicize at province governmental publications to collect and suggestion of the

public in Zhejiang, edit the exposure draft and establish the copy edit to province people's government.

(5) Workout emergency measures on PCBs pollution in each province
For preventing efficiently and controlling in time and eliminating the severe polluted events which is like happened in ZHEJIANG province in 1980’, , one of the actions of demonstration project is constitute emergency in advance on PCBs pollution in each province. Through inquiring datum and surveying at the spot, collect the information about the situation and study out the emergency draft. Through convoking the charrettes and publicize at province governmental publications to broadly collect ZHEJIANG advice and suggestion of the public, emend the exposure draft. Organize train and exercise on the spot, and based on it in due form the Preliminary Program (预案)through the second editing.

6.2.4 PCBs Waste Elimination
Carry out environmental and social assessment before the PCBs waste elimination, and work out cleanup PCBs plan and evaluate it at the same time. Cleanup of PCBs waste and construction of PCBs waste temporary storge bank and storage and management of PCBs waste temporary and long-distance transportation PCBs waste, analyze and appraise and evaluate it after the PCBs wastes are cleaned up. mornitor and manage the cleaning-up spots(清运点) after the PCBs wastes are eliminating PCBs.

6.2.5 PCBs Waste Disposal
Expedite the study on PCBs waste disposal including many kinds of concentration and types, to meet the demand for lower cost and easier manipulation and higher efficiency.

6.2.6 Supervision and Appraisal
Greatly promote the summary of MIS information and the information bulletin about the PCBs waste removal and the PCBs waste disposal, and establish the index system of supervise and checking and regulations on project impact assesment and PCBs waste disposal project and so on, thus, realize democratization and vitrification and high efficiency of PCBs disposal management.

Chap 7 China PCBs Disposal Implementation Plan
Four stages National Implementation Plans of developing elimination and disposal of PCBs in China, that are Demonstration plan, Promotion Plan, Dissemination Plan and Accomplishment Plan, has been put forward depending on China PCBs Elimination Management Strategy, Technical Strategy, Finance Policy, and taking consideration of the current situations, which include amplitude terrain, developing country, uneven economy distribution, national environmental management model & institution and citizen environmental awareness & habits, and the development prospect.

7.1 The National Implementation Plan
National elimination & disposal implementation Plan of PCBs consists of those aspects, which are PCBs inventory survey and information based on it in China and PCBs MIS (Management Information System), to establish the PCBs institution and legislation from national level to local government level, to establish the system of disposal technique, to fulfill the national environment instruction, to build the feasible and effective financial channel of elimination and disposal of PCBs.

7.2 Assurance Measures for Plan

7.2.1 Policy Measures
The Policy Measures of National Implementation Plan include those are to promote the policy measure constituted to come into effect, to complete the current policy measures considering the experiences of PCBs disposal in other countries and in demonstration province.

7.2.2 Institutional Measures
Propose to establish those institutional organizations of national level and local government level in order to carry out the elimination and disposal plan of PCBs and manage the projects business based on the existing institution, so that accomplish national management system of PCBs and make the institution organization run more effectively in elimination and disposal of PCBs. Institutional assurance measures for Measures National Implementation Plan consist of capital management institution, technique management institution, management engineering institution of elimination and disposal of PCBs and cooperation

institution for nongovernmental environmental-protection organization etc.

7.3 The procedures for National Implemental Plan
On bases of the practical situation of China, NIP of PCBs in China is preliminarily separated into four stages.

7.3.1 Demonstration Stages
In the year of 2003 to 2008, Demonstrational Province Implementation Plan will be carried out. Based on the local conditions in demonstration province, the systemic demonstration implementation strategy was made, which includes management capacity establishment, technique establishment and funding etc. The Chinese chose Zhejiang and Shenyang as pilot provinces taking considerations of the proposal of CTA, where the Inventory Methodology, Baseline Investigation of PCBs and Disposal Technique Selecting, Management Institutions & organizations and Environmental Inspecting will be fulfilled in. Eventually, Report for Elimination Plan of PCBs Implementation in Demonstration Province will be given depended on the information above. In demonstration province, establish province-ranked Systemic Inspecting Center of PCBs, which makes the monitoring of PCBs great efficient, authoritative, long-term and systemic; choose the national advanced PCBs disposal technique and management concept, which make the technique used much efficient, practical, economical, and standard. Strive for the fund of GEF and relative fund to establish elimination and disposal capacity of PCBs. Strive for the match funding of administration. Establish the institution system for the management of fund of government province-government, responsibility-holding enterprise, non-governmental organization, in order to take in fund of every aspects and make the disposal operation fitting to the market economy. Elimination and Disposal Implementation Plans of PCBs of Nation-ranked Province-ranked City-ranked and Country-ranked levels will be separately made on a basis of acquired experience of Elimination and Disposal Implementation Plans of PCBs in demonstration province.

7.3.2 Promotion Stages
In the years of 2008 to 2013, national promotional implementation plan will come into force. Considering the criterion choosing for demonstration province and practical principles, the power grid of east in China (four provinces or cities), where

the economy comparatively is developed, the environmental awareness is strong, and the power grid in northeast of China (3 provinces) are chosen to be the place fort the strategic promotion of elimination and disposal plan of PCBs. Then the national strategy for promotion of elimination and disposal of PCBs will be made depending on the results and experience of promotion in demonstration area and the directions of Implementation of Stockholm Convention. Make establishment of the national comprehensive administrative organizations more perfectly. Greatly promote the experiences achieved in demonstration province and establish the further measures and policies for the management capacity, technique capacity and fund using of elimination and disposal of PCBs from different levels of nation, province, city and country, which depend on practical situations in promotion province and acquired experiences in demonstration province.

7.3.3 Dissemination Stages
In the years of 2013 to 2023, National Implementation Plan will be disseminated to implement in area of south power grid coverage and 15 to 18 or so cities in Midwest of China that are comparatively rich, which are chosen to promote elimination and disposal plan of PCBs; National Strategy of dissemination of elimination and disposal implementation plan of PCBs will be constituted on basis of the practical conditions in dissemination areas, the experiences acquired from promotion province and directions for the Convention Implementing. And accomplish the establishment of management capacity, technique capacity, funding using policy of elimination and disposal of PCBs at the level of national rank, province rank, city rank and country rank based on above all.

7.3.4 Consummation Stages
In the years of 2023 to 2028, elimination and disposal plan of PCBs will be bought into effect. Appling the experience from the implementation of elimination and disposal plan of PCBs in prophase, and taking considerations of the practical social, economical condition in unimplemented provinces, the PCBs NIP will be carried out national wide.

7.4 The Cost for Implementation Plan 7.4.1 Incremental Cost Estimation
The government should know the relevant investment of strategy plan of PCBs, on basis of NIP in order that China NIP of PCBs can be carried out smoothly, and make the NIP operable and specific. The China NIP totally costs 4.1 Billion of Chinese

currency (equal to 50 million dollars) Table 7-1 Financial Estimation Table for NIP of Elimination and Disposal of PCBs NO. Usage
Enforcement

Investment
(10,000 Ұ)

Memo
(estimating method)

Incremental cost
(10,000 Ұ)

Memo
(estimating method)

Account for 100% 3000 3000 Investment

1

of National Institution Capacity Institution

Account

2

Enforcement 9300 in Province Establishment Each

3000,000/province 9300 *31province Investment Account for 30% 30000 150,000,000*2 9000 of Investment Account for 100%

3

of State Disposal Center PCBs

4

Pollution 5000 Control Investment Technique Enforcement Account 500 for 10% of

5

of Province 6200 rank Investment monitoring Risk Account 2000,000 *31 4960 for 80% of

6

Assessment 9300 of PCBs Investment Storage Bank Account 100,000 *30 /province*31provic 6510 for 70% of

7

Health Fund 5000 of PCBs 5000

for 100% of Investment

8

Storage Bank 74400 Cleanup 800,000 /site*30 /province*31provinces 70680

Account for 95% of

Investment Disposal of Account

9

Heavy 124000 Pollution Investment PCBs Disposal for Account 20,000/ton*2000tons/province*31provices 117800 for 95% of

10

low 124000 concentration Investment PCBs Waste Account Unanticipated 20000 Cost Investment Total 410200 354650 10000 for 50% of 2000/ton*20000tons/province*31provinces 117800 for 95% of

11 13

7.4.2 Finical Channel
The preliminarily supposed financial channels include establishing specific fund for China NIP of elimination and disposal of PCBs, Appling for the supporting of GEF, looking for the international cooperation projects and bilateral cooperation project, and a portion of PCBs disposal running in market economy fashion and proposing the areas which are well-developed and sensitive to environmental problems to invest more money in PCBs disposal, imposing the disposal fractional charge on the enterprises who are concerning with the production, usage, and sale of PCBs.


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:13
posted:10/29/2009
language:English
pages:47