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                                         VISION FOR 2011-2015
                                        Child Protection Section
                                               June 2011
Background
Despite growth rates that are estimated to be as high as 8.3%1, an estimated 54.5% of the
population lives below the poverty line2. Mozambique’s 10.6 million children bear much of the brunt
of this poverty, with 44 per cent continuing to suffer from chronic child malnutrition3 and 48% living
below the poverty line4. Moreover, Mozambique suffers from a HIV prevalence rate of 11%.
Interwoven with the impacts of the HIV epidemic and food insecurity, poverty has immediate and
long-term multifaceted effects on children’s survival, development and overall wellbeing. Childhood
poverty is a barrier to accessing social services and increases children’s vulnerability to exposure of
risks, including violence, sexual abuse and exploitation, unnecessary separation from families and
communities and neglect, and
susceptibility to HIV infection.
                                             Figure 1: The situation of child protection in Mozambique
Child protection mechanisms are                 56% of total population is children
fundamental to creating a protective            48% of children live in absolute poverty (MICS 2008)
environment for both girls and boys,            46% of children are stunted (IOF 2009)
where they are free from violence,              1.4% children live with HIV (MICS 2008)
exploitation,     and       unnecessary       31% of children aged 0-59 months have had their births
separation from family; and where                registered(MICS 2008)
laws, services, behaviours and                12% of children are orphaned (MICS 2008)
                                              5% of children are ‘vulnerable’ due to HIV and AIDS (MICS
practices      minimize       children’s
                                                 2008)
vulnerability, address known risk
                                              12,767 children are in institutional care (MMAS)
factors and strengthen children’s own
                                              5,000 cases of child abuse reported in 2010 (MINT); 70%
resilience. A protective environment             of girl respondents were sexually abused by their
for children supported by a robust               teachers; 50% of girl respondents were abused by boys in
social     welfare      system       and         their peer group (MICS 2008)
infrastructure boosts children’s human        41% of girls aged 15-19 have a child or are pregnant (DHS
and economic development progress                2003)
and improves the health, education            17% of girls aged 20-24 were married before they turned
and overall wellbeing of children and            15; 52% of them married before they turned 18 (MICS
their evolving capacities to be citizens,        2008)
productive members of society and             1,000 women and children are estimated to be trafficked
                                                 annually (IOM)
parents. A diffused and fragmented
                                              22% of children aged between 5 and 14 years are
protective environment and social
                                                 involved in child labour; 25% work in rural areas vs. 15%
welfare system can exacerbate                    in urban areas (MICS 2008)
harmful and abusive practices against         35% of the total prison population in Mozambique is 16-
children and can exacerbate the                  21 years (MINJUS)
impacts of poverty, social exclusion          13% of children aged 2-9 years are living with at least one
and HIV on children’s lives.5 Figure 1           disability (MICS 2008).
highlights the urgency with which child
protection issues need to be
comprehensively addressed, all the
more so because the holistic human development as pertained in the PARP cannot be achieved
unless the protection of children is an integral part of programming strategies and plans.


1
  Economist Intelligence Unit. Mozambique: Country Report. October 2010.
2
  Ministry of Planning and Development. Inquérito ao Orçamento Familiar (Household Poverty Survey). 2010.
3
  INE. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. 2008.
4
  Calculation based on MICS.
5
  UNICEF Child Protection Strategy, 2008.
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Vision

UNICEF Child Protection section will support the Government of Mozambique in ensuring that all
children are free from violence, abuse, exploitation and neglect through strengthening,
coordinating and accelerating a systemic response to child and social protection, complemented
by quality service provision and social change, in conjunction with families, communities, civil
society, development partners, academia, the private sector and UN agencies.

The section will deliver on this vision through the following Programme Component Results:

   Child Protection policies, legal framework and systems strengthened to create a co-ordinated
    multi-sectoral protective environment for all children through social change.
    o Specific areas of intervention will include the prevention and response to violence and
        abuse, juvenile and child justice, and the implementation of laws, policies and regulations;
        intensified collaboration with religious groups and community leaders on addressing harmful
        cultural practices.
   Social protection programmes and systems respond effectively to the rights of the poorest and
    most vulnerable children and their families, complemented by quality social welfare services.
    o Specific areas of intervention will include social protection, birth registration, and the
        complementary response to Orphans and other Vulnerable Children (OVC).

Figure 2 below places the Child Protection programme in the context of the overall UNICEF Country
Programme. It recognises Birth Registration and Social Protection as the springboard for families to
access basic services across sectors; acknowledges Prevention and Response to violence, abuse,
neglect and exploitation and Justice for Children as the core services that the Child Protection
system must provide; and identifies Alternative Care, Psychosocial Support, Legal Assistance as
complementary services for OVC.




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Elements of the Vision


          Issue                 Rationale for Interventions                Legal and Policy Framework                    Current Status                    Way Forward 2012-15
Birth Registration is a       Birth Registration is required               Article 7 of the Convention of        UNICEF has supported the              UNICEF will support the
fundamental human              To be eligible for Social                   the Rights of a Child (CRC)           MINJUS in implementing the            MINJUS in
right as it is the legal        Protection programmes;                      recognizes every child’s right        National Birth Registration            Consolidating the existing
recognition of a child’s       To access education                         to be registered at birth by          Programme. So far, this                 programme (e.g.
existence and                   (enrolment to Grade 1                       the State within whose                Programme has been highly               absorption of mobile
establishes identity,           unconditionally and to sit                  jurisdiction this child is born.      successful, with the                    brigades into MINJUS
citizenship and family          Grade 5 examinations);                     The African Charter on the            percentage of children                  structures)
ties.
                               To protect children against                 Rights and Welfare of the             under five being registered            Digitalising current and
                                                                            Child (Article 6) states that         increasing from 8% in 2004              new birth certificates
                                legal prosecution as an adult
                                (in case of conflict with the               “every child shall have the           to 31% of children in 2008             Enhancing inter-sectoral
                                                                            right from his birth to a name        (MICS 2008).                            linkages with the
                                law);6
                               To be protected from abuse                  and shall be registered                                                       Ministries of Health,
                                and exploitation (child                     immediately after birth.”                                                     Justice and Ministry of
                                labour, trafficking and early              2005 Civil Registration law                                                   Women and Social Action
                                marriage).                                 2005 Birth Registration Action                                               Exploring options for
                               To allow inheritance from a                 Plan developed by Ministry of                                                 developing a
                                deceased parent                             Justice (MINJUS)                                                              comprehensive Civil
                                                                                                                                                          Registration programme

Social Protection is          Social protection measures can            2007 Social Protection Law               UNICEF, together with other           UNICEF will support MMAS
generally understood          play an important role in                 2009 Regulations for Basic               UN agencies and                       (Ministry of Women and
as a set of public            reducing the poverty and                   Social Security                          development partners, has             Social Action) and INAS in
actions which address         vulnerability of families and in          2010 Basic Social Security               supported the MMAS and                designing and rolling out
poverty, vulnerability        enhancing the access of the                Strategy                                 National Institute of Social           The revised Social
and exclusion as well         poorest to social and economic                                                      Action (INAS) in                        Protection programmes

6
 The Mozambican Penal Code defines the minimum age of criminal responsibility at 16 years of age. Without proof of age, children even though below the age of criminal responsibility can be
arrested and detained without resort to any mitigating measures. This is often the case for children in conflict with the law (informal selling and petty theft6).




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           Issue             Rationale for Interventions             Legal and Policy Framework               Current Status                Way Forward 2012-15
as provides means to       services. Social protection can                                            implementing the Programa            and related updated
cope with life’s major     play a major role in achieving                                             Subsidio de Alimentos (PSA),         programme manuals
risks throughout the       full and productive                                                        which has increased in its         A community case
lifecycle7                 employment, improving the                                                  coverage from 96,572                 management system to
                           quantity and diversity of food                                             households in 2006 to                ensure beneficiary
                           consumption with direct                                                    217,471 in 2010, as well as          households have access to
                           nutritional impacts (for                                                   in the successful advocacy           complementary social
                           children’s physical and                                                    for increasing benefit levels.       services
                           cognitive development), has                                                Recent support has resulted        A monitoring and
                           proven links to sustainable                                                in further proposed changes          management information
                           growth in agriculture and is a                                             to Social Protection                 system and evaluation
                           tool to achieve the MDGs.                                                  programmes to better                 framework
                                                                                                      address the needs of poor          Beneficiary identification
                                                                                                      and marginalized groups,             booklets
                                                                                                      including vulnerable children      A Sector Wide Approach
                                                                                                                                           and related Common Fund
Prevention and             Sexual abuse, physical violence        Criminal Code                      5,000 cases of child abuse        Consolidation of multi-
Response to Violence       are detrimental to a child’s           Juvenile justice Act               reported yearly to the            sectoral collaboration;
is essential for           development on all fronts,             Domestic Violence Bill             police; Ministry of               community case
ensuring the rights of     while early marriage and early         Trafficking Act                    Education-led zero tolerance      management’ capacity
all children, especially   pregnancy, in addition to being        Children’s Act                     on violence campaign              development of all line
girls, to have a           a violation of a girl’s rights, are    CRC Recommendations, CRC           launched; multi-sect oral         ministry staff and judiciary;
childhood free of          also harmful for the next               art 19                             agreement on prevention           intensified service delivery
exploitation and           generation. Currently there are        Articles of the CEDAW              and response among five           (forensic medicine, policy
abuse.                     high levels of child abuse and          regarding child marriage           line ministries and the           victim support units, legal aid
                           culture of acceptance and tacit                                            judiciary and civil society       and social action/mental
                                                                  African Charter on the
                           tolerance of abuse amongst                                                 reached                           health), intensified
                                                                   Welfare of the Child
                           families and in communities.                                                                                 communication for
                                                                                                                                        development with religious

7
 HelpAge International, Hope & Homes for children, Institute of Development Studies, International Development Institute, International Labour Office, Overseas
Development Institute and UNICEF. Advancing Child Sensitive Social Protection: A Joint Statement.

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         Issue               Rationale for Interventions          Legal and Policy Framework             Current Status               Way Forward 2012-15
                                                                                                                                  groups and community
                                                                                                                                   Leaders. Further exchanges
                                                                                                                                  with Latin America
Justice for Children       To ensure children in contact         Juvenile Justice Act            MINJUS Is Implementing the       Expansion of the
seeks to ensure that       with the law have access to           Criminal Code                   first pilot on community           community work as an
children are not jailed    justice and are treated               CRC Concluding Observations     work for children in conflict      alternative measure to
together with adults       adequately, there is a need to        Conclusions of judiciary        with the law in Maputo             imprisonment in the
or for petty crimes and    reverse the trend to imprison          meeting/ workshop of 28/29                                         country
to address the lack of     children in conflict with the          April 2011                                                       Further build capacity of
alternative to             law. This is essential for                                                                                juvenile justice actors
custodial care and         ensuring that these children                                                                              based on lessons learned
prioritization of child    are given a chance to be                                                                                  from Latin America and
cases in courts            reintegrated in society.                                                                                  South Africa.
Alternative Care is the    1,8 million children are orphans    Children’s and Juvenile Justice   12,895 children live in 149     Strengthening of alternative
provision of a life in a   and other vulnerable children,       Act                               residential institutions; 700   care modalities in country in
family environment         many of these are growing up        Residential Care Regulations      children deprived of            a multi-sectoral manner with
for every child.           alone without parental care         Ratification of International     parental care were              coordination between
Alternative care           and protection. Alternative          Convention for Inter-Country      reintegrated in biological      MMAs, MINJUS, the Courts
modalities are: kinship    care is essential for ensuring       Adoption                          and foster families in          and the Attorney General’s
care, guardianship,        that placement of a child in        National Plan of Action for       2010/11; multi-sectoral         Office
national and               alternative care is done in the      OVC                               process of reunification has    Signing and ratification of the
international adoption     child’s best interest and needs.    National Social Security          started; mapping of             Convention on Inter-Country
and foster care.                                                Strategy                          residential care centers        Adoption
                                                                                                  done, database in place.        Process of de-
                                                                                                  Database to become              institutionalisation to be
                                                                                                  extended with alternative       continued. Training of foster
                                                                                                  care placements included        parent networks as well as of
                                                                                                  and piloted in 7 provinces.     caregivers working in
                                                                                                  Mapping of children in          institutions in International
                                                                                                  alternative care families.      Child Development.
                                                                                                  upholding of minimum            Database to become
                                                                                                  standards in temporary          expanded to serve as core

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         Issue               Rationale for Interventions         Legal and Policy Framework              Current Status                Way Forward 2012-15
                                                                                                  residential centers.             database to regulate child’s
                                                                                                                                   placements in the country.
Psychosocial Support       Illness, deaths in the family or     Article 27 of the CRC            PSS is part of the package of    UNICEF will support MMAS
(PSS) aims to support      impact of natural disasters may       acknowledges the right of        Minimum Standards of             and other partners in
children, families and     cause the disruption of social        every child to a level of life   Quality Service Provision to     implementing quality PSS
communities in their       networks and prevent children         that is adequate to his/her      OVC currently being tested       interventions in the country
social and emotional       from experiencing nurturing           physical, mental, spiritual,     by the Government of             through
well-being and rebuild     relationships, and a sense of         moral and social                 Mozambique. MMAS has              Providing on-the-job
their resilience and       love and recognition. This may        development and requires         also instituted a Technical         training to social welfare
disrupted connections      require assistance from               states to adopt appropriate      Working Group on PSS to             sector workers on PSS
caused by loss, illness,   external agents to help               measures to help parents and     guide the accelerated roll-       Rolling out a medium
natural disasters or       communities to foster                 caregivers to make this          out of quality PSS                  term course on PSS
other trauma.              interventions to help children        effective.                       interventions in the country.     Monitoring the quality of
                           rebuild self-esteem and              The 2006-2010 National Plan                                          PSS interventions
                           confidence and enhance the            of Action for OVC recognises
                           social relationships required for     PSS as one of six basic
                           their psychological and               services
                           emotional well-being.
Legal Assistance           Given the high numbers of            The 2006-2010 National Plan      Much of the focus to date in     UNICEF will support MMAS
Is required to protect     child headed households,              of Action for OVC recognises     terms of Legal Assistance        and the MINJUS in facilitating
OVC from property          whether due to the impact of          Legal Assistance as one of six   has been on Birth                the provision of free legal
disinheritance (PPD)       AIDS or migration or other            basic services                   Registration, discussed          assistance to OVC. UNICEF
                           causes, there is a significant                                         above. In addition, service      will work with civil society
                           risk that such children will lose                                      providers have also focused      organisations in the context
                           their inheritance and property.                                        on the acquisition of poverty    of PSS and protection from
                                                                                                  certificates. Little attention   property dispossession
                                                                                                  has been paid to PPD.            through strengthening the
                                                                                                                                   use of instruments like
                                                                                                                                   memory box, succession
                                                                                                                                   planning and will-writing.



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Complementarity with other Social Sector programmes
The Child Protection section will seek to
       Support Education by preventing the abuse of children in schools, build up government
        systems to identifying out-of-school children in the Child Friendly Districts and facilitating
        their reintegration in schools, and promoting Early Childhood Development;
       Collaborate with Health in terms of the response to Violence against children, psycho-social
        support and promotion of Birth Registration;
       Institutionalise synergies with Nutrition in terms of the prevention and treatment of chronic
        and acute malnutrition through Social Protection programmes;
       Link with HIV programmes, particularly in terms of the provision of holistic home-based care
        by community based activists and through child- and HIV sensitive social protection;
       Mitigate the impact of natural disasters on vulnerable children by strengthening child
        protection systems in risk prone areas, with particular emphasis on further supporting
        Community Child Protection Committees as the first line of response to vulnerable children;
        and advocate for stronger linkages between disaster risk reduction and management and
        social protection programmes.
       Liaise with Social Policy on evidence based Social Protection, advocacy, Public Finance
        Management and decentralisation;
       Work with Communications on Advocacy and Communication for Development across all
        programme issues with a special focus on addressing violation of children’s rights.


Cross-cutting Strategies

The three key strategies that the Child Protection programme will be to:

 Build national child and social protection systems
Child and Social Protection systems comprise the set of laws, policies, regulations and services
needed across all social sectors — especially social welfare, education, health, security and justice —
to support the prevention of, and response to, risks related to abuse, violence, exploitation and
neglect, and economic and social vulnerability respectively. Currently, Mozambique has a mixture of
formal and informal sub-systems such that children are dealt with without needs assessment; no
support services are offered to families; and there is a high level of reliance on volunteers and civil
society organisations.

UNICEF will work with MMAS, INAS, MINT, MINJUS and other line ministries to move to an
overarching system with a case management approach such that trained community workers assess
and plan each child's needs, in tandem with identifying support services for their care-givers as
required. In particular, UNICEF will:
- Support families and communities in their role as the first line of response to poor and vulnerable
   children: Community case management is especially important to identifying vulnerable
   children, reacting proactively to signals of distress and potential issues (alternative care, e.g. the
   need for a child’s placement in the care of an alternative family, preventing abuse, ensuring
   continued access to basic services, legal support), and following up afterwards to ensure
   vulnerable children receive quality support and services in conjunction with Social Protection
   programmes. There are currently 860 Child Protection Committees, and INAS permanentes
   (extension workers) covering all districts who provide a solid base for this approach.
- Reinforce the capacity of line ministries: All key line ministries need continued support in terms
   of enhancing the qualifications of their workforce, budgets, office equipment, infrastructure,
   financial management and monitoring systems. In addition, MMAS has the mandate to ensure


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    children’s rights are fulfilled and their needs addressed, but needs further support in terms of its
    staff, leveraging child protection and social protection, and coordination. Strengthening the
    social sector workforce through courses at different levels is a special area of focus.
-   Strengthen co-ordination mechanisms: While there are mechanisms at decentralized levels that
    advocate, harmonize and strengthen linkages between service delivery for children (namely the
    Technical Working Groups on OVC that exist in all 11 provinces and 54 districts), these can be
    further expanded and supported. At the national level, the National Council for Children and the
    Multi-Sectoral Nucleus on OVC can be further strengthened.


 Support social change
High levels of poverty, impact of HIV and unemployment are factors that often contribute to high
levels of violence and frustration in society. Many Child Protection issues relate to traditional
practices or social norms; consequently, protecting children from abuse, violence, exploitation and
neglect requires social consensus as to what is acceptable or not. Currently, there is high acceptance
of early marriage for girls, tacit acceptance of child labor, and reluctance to acknowledge sexual
abuse and exploitation openly.

In recognition of the above, UNICEF will:
- Build capacity of line ministries, especially MMAS, Ministry of Justice and Interior, Ministry of
     Education to establish a multi-sectoral framework to identify, prevent and respond to signals of
     distress and abuse
- Work with CBOs, religious groups and community leaders to create public awareness and social
     dialogue through Communication for Development so as to facilitate open discussion,
     awareness-raising on sensitive topics, attitudinal and behavioural change
- Enhance knowledge management by analyzing, synthesizing and disseminating available
     research, conducting research where necessary, and collating and sharing good practices;
- Enhance evidence based advocacy through TV, radio, roundtables, press conference and articles
     and through public speaking.


 Deepen strategic partnerships
A systems approach recognizes that there are many actors within the system, ranging from children,
to families, communities, the state at its different levels, as well as civil society and development
partners. A human-rights based approach requires that UNICEF support these duty-bearers to fulfill
the rights of children. UNICEF will therefore continue to:

-   Strengthen government institutions at all levels to lead, coordinate, implement and monitor the
    various government led national programmes;
-   Help further design a community case management system and provide support to community
    child protection committees and extension workers to undertake CCM in the best interest of
    vulnerable children
-   Partner with civil society organisations: partners can play a critical role in strengthening
    community child protection committees to follow up on community case management,
    monitoring programme implementation, mobilising resources for vulnerable groups, and
    generating evidence, lessons learned and best practices. Civil society can facilitate linkages
    between poorest and most vulnerable households and social protection programmes to
    enhance children’s access to quality services. These actors can further complement government
    programmes or provide technical assistance in areas such as psychosocial care and legal
    assistance where necessary. Academia is also an important partner for conducting research and
    evaluations leading to evidence based programming and undertake social sector courses.


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-   Deepen collaboration with development partners: There is widespread commitment ensuring
    that poor and vulnerable children are included in the debate on creating fiscal space for poverty
    reduction through social protection programmes and economic growth and national
    development planning and programming. This can be further capitalized on by formalizing the
    multi-sectoral Social Action Working Group into a Sector Wide Approach (SWAp) on Social
    Action to ensure that poor and vulnerable children continue to be included during
    implementation of social protection programmes and through national development planning
    and programming


Conclusion
As evidenced above, Mozambique has a strong and comprehensive legal and policy framework for
children. The Government has clearly shown its commitment to the realisation of the rights of all
Mozambican children by ratifying the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1993 and
domesticating and harmonising its provisions under the 2004 Constitution. Moreover, the National
Plan of Action for Children, Acts relating to Juvenile Justice, Child Trafficking and Social Protection,
among others, further contribute to an overarching protective environment for children.

However, despite the availability of a patchwork of child protection mechanisms and social
protection programmes, the current environment in Mozambique is not yet in the position to
provide a broad-based social welfare system to enable the population, and particularly children, to
better manage risk and reduce its vulnerability. Currently, only a small proportion of the most
vulnerable children are reached, due to fragmented implementation of mechanisms and
programmes effectively reaching children and adequately addressing their needs. Without
concerted and coordinated efforts to break the cycle of poverty and vulnerability, Mozambique will
continue to battle to rise to the next step of the development ladder. Children will continue to suffer
and struggle for daily survival and development.

Strengthening the social welfare system through fostering sustainable linkages between child
protection mechanisms and social protection programmes is one such indispensable approach that
can accelerate the response to poor and vulnerable children. Building and fostering multi-sectoral
partnerships is critical to strengthening and sustaining this approach. The crucial link and synergistic
relationship between social protection and child protection is magnified at the household level. A
poor and vulnerable family caring and supporting a child who receives direct assistance through a
social protection programme, such as a cash transfer, is able to ensure that the child has increased
and more sustainable access to nutritional food, clean water and sanitation, and key services like
health and education. Of equal importance is that the impact of the social protection intervention
can ensure that the child remains within a loving family environment, receives the necessary
emotional and psychosocial care, and is protected from abuse, violence and exploitation as the child
does not need to be the income provider.

The upcoming four years of the 2012-2015 UNICEF Country Programme presents a vital opportunity
to promote, scale up and coordinate a joint systemic approach to child protection and social
protection interventions in order to consolidate and reinforce the overall social welfare system.
Linking social protection interventions with access to quality services while at the same time
enhancing the overall protective environment that prevents and responds to children suffering from
abuse, violence, exploitation and neglect directly targets the Millennium Development Goals by
aiming to combat child poverty and effectively address vulnerabilities children face throughout the
life cycle.




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