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Energy management in plastics processing

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					Energy management in
 plastics processing
 Energy management in plastics processing


Why worry about energy?
The carrots
   Finance
   Management
   Environment
   Customers
The sticks
   Legislation
   Our reputation
 Energy management in plastics processing


The carrots - Finance
  Energy costs are much the same as the
   cost of direct labour
  Energy is now the second or
   third largest cost and the fastest
   rising cost
  Reducing energy costs makes
   the company more profitable
  Reducing costs protects jobs
 Energy management in plastics processing


The carrots - Management
  Managing costs is good management
  Energy supplies are not
   certain and secure:
   We must plan for the worst
  Other companies are
   already ahead of us:
   competitive companies
   survive
 Energy management in plastics processing


The carrots - Environment
  Climate change
  Global warming
  Greenhouse effect
  Sustainability
  Life-cycle analysis
  Carbon footprint - using
   energy efficiently will help
   to reduce our carbon
   footprint
 Energy management in plastics processing


The carrots - Customers
  Our customers care about
   our environmental
   performance because
   their customers care
  Consumer pressure -
   The questions are only
   beginning
 Energy management in plastics processing


The sticks - Legislation
  Legislation is getting tougher and more
   complex
  Corporate social responsibility
  Stakeholders
 Energy management in plastics processing


The sticks - Reputation
  A company’s reputation can depend on its
   environmental performance
  Do you want to work for a
   ‘dirty’ company?
  Do you want to tell your
   children about it?
  Do you want to do
   something about it?
 Energy management in plastics processing


Why are we doing this?
  The aim is to reduce energy use:
    To retain customers
    To save money and increase profits
    To protect our jobs!
    To play our part in protecting
     the environment by reducing
     our greenhouse gas emissions
  It is that simple
 Energy management in plastics processing


Who is involved?
  It is our problem and we are all involved
   but only if we want to have jobs in the
   future
  You are the ‘front-line troops’
 Energy management in plastics processing


What can we achieve?
  Energy costs can be reduced by up to
   30%:
    Management - 10%
    Maintenance - 10%
    Technology - 10%
  We are ready to ‘walk the
   walk’ instead of simply
   ‘talking the talk’?
 Energy management in plastics processing


What are the current costs?
  Each year we spend:
     £XXX,XXX on electricity
     £XXX,XXX on gas
What are the potential savings?
     £YYY,YYY for electricity
     £YYY,YYY for gas
These are big numbers
 Energy management in plastics processing


What are our current CO2 (carbon
dioxide) emissions?
  Each year we generate:
    XXX,XXX tons of CO2 from
     electricity use
     (1000 kWh of electricity generates
     0.537 tonnes of CO2)
    XXX,XXX tons of CO2 from
     gas use
     (1000 kWh of gas generates
     0.190 tonnes of CO2)
 Energy management in plastics processing


Exercise: If we wanted to create an
energy inefficient site then what would
we do?
 Energy management in plastics processing


How many of these things are we doing
today?
What controls are in place to stop us
doing them tomorrow?
How many of these things
would you do in your own
house?
What is different?
 Energy management in plastics processing


Our objective:

To reduce energy use
by 10% within 12
months
 Energy management in plastics processing


This is not simply about lighting!
                 Lighting
                    5%
                            Offices
                             1%     Heating
                                      2%
            Water pumps
                5%

               Chillers
                11%



        Compressors
           10%                                 Polymer
                                              Processing
                                                 66%
 Energy management in plastics processing


Where is energy used on site?
  Services: Compressed air, cooling and
   chilled water, materials handling,
   regrinders, lighting, heating,
   cooling/ventilation, etc.
  Processing: Injection moulding machines,
   extruders, blow moulding machines, etc.
  Site: Administration functions - offices,
   computers, monitors, printers, etc.
 Energy management in plastics processing


The basic areas:
  Management
  Services
  Processing
  Operations
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Motors
  The energy cost of a motor can exceed
   the purchase cost in just 40 days (1000
   hours) of use
  The life cost of a motor
   (energy + maintenance) is
   often over 100 times the
   first purchase cost
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Motors: Switch it off!
  The first, the best and the most effective
   action
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Motors: Linking machines
  Save energy by turning machines and
   ancillaries off when they are not needed
  Shut down machines, conveyors, heaters
   and chillers when they are not being used
    Link downstream machines so that when the
     main machine is not operating then
     downstream machines stop operating, e.g. link
     conveyors to the machine
    Look for ‘hidden’ equipment, e.g. regrinders!
  Traffic lights
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Motors: Slow it down (VSDs)
  Use variable frequency drives (VSD) for
   fans & pumps
  Slowing a motor down with a VSD saves
   money
                                                  100



  Take a signal from the                         90

                                                  80




   temperature or flow rate
                                                  70




                            % of original speed
                                                  60

                                                  50

                                                  40

                                                  30

                                                  20

                                                  10

                                                   0
                                                        0   10   20   30   40     50      60    70   80   90   100
                                                                           % of original cost
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Compressed air: It is not free
  Minimise the demand and then optimise
   the supply
          Minimise the demand   Optimise the supply


                                     Step 3
                Step 1
                                Reduce generation
            Reduce leakage
                                     costs
                                    Step 4
                Step 2
                                Reduce treatment
             Reduce usage
                                     costs

                                      Step 5
                                Improve distribution


               Stage 1               Stage 2
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Compressed air: Leakage
  An average of 30% of the compressed air
   generated is lost in leaks
  If you can hear a leak
   it is costing at least                   £14,000
                                                          Cost of compressed air leaks (7 bar and 8000 hours per year)




    £100/year                               £12,000


                                            £10,000



  A 3 mm hole will cost
                        Cost per year (£)
                                             £8,000


                                             £6,000

   at least £1,200/year                      £4,000




  Locate and seal leaks                     £2,000


                                                £0
                                                      0     1       2       3       4       5       6      7       8     9   10
                                                                             Size of leak (mm diameter)
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Compressed air: Usage
  Find and remove poor usage of
   compressed air:
    Bowl feeders
    Product movement
    Cooling
    Air guns
  Reduce usage pressure:
    Decrease regulators to the
     minimum for the process
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Compressed air: Distribution
  The longer the pipeline, the greater the
   pressure loss over the pipeline and the
   greater the cost
  Identify and seal unused
   spurs
  Stop the feed when the
   machine stops
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Cooling water: It is not free
  Minimise the demand and then optimise
   the supply
          Minimise the demand     Optimise the supply


                Step 1                  Step 3
           Reduce heat gains      Reduce cooling costs

                                       Step 4
                  Step 2
                                  Reduce distribution
          Increase temperatures
                                       costs

                Stage 1                 Stage 2
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Cooling water: Reduce heat
gains
  Find uninsulated cold surfaces
  Insulate these to prevent
   parasitic heat gain:
     Chilled water piping
     Cooling water
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Cooling water: Increase
temperatures
  How were the cooling water temperatures
   set?
  Can they be increased?
  Increasing temperatures
   decreases chiller loads and
   decreases costs
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Lighting: Switch it off
  Switch it off - Turning lights off when
   leaving a room or corridor (when not
   required) can reduce the
   daily cost by 15%
  Lighting an office overnight
   wastes enough energy to
   heat water for 1000 cups
   of tea
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Lighting: Fluorescent tubes
  In a conventional filament
   lamp only 10% of the energy
   goes into light the other
   90% goes into heat
  A fluorescent light tube
   uses 500 times more energy
   if left on for 15 minutes than
   the energy required to
   restart it!
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Lighting: Controls
  Locate switches in the right places
  Identify and label switches
  Zone lighting
  Automate lighting
     Presence detectors - Safety
     Light level sensors - Daylight
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Heating: Turn it down
  Staff are always tempted to alter
   thermostats because they think that they
   are too hot or cold
  Simply turning down the
   thermostat by 1°C can
   save significant energy
  Controls save real money
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Heating: Seal it up
  The cheapest method to reduce heat loss
   is to close doors and windows unless they
   are needed for ventilation
  Draught proofing doors and
   windows is a cheap and
   effective method of reducing
   heat loss
  Use automatic fast-acting
   roller shutters on external
   doors
 Energy management in plastics processing


Services - Heating: Make it local
  Avoid ventilating and heating the whole
   building space when only
   local areas need it
  Shut down heating in areas
   that are not occupied
  Do not heat warehouses
   simply to prevent
   excessive dampness
 Energy management in plastics processing


Processing - Process heating: Insulate,
insulate, insulate
  Insulate hot surfaces to prevent heat
   losses:
     Moulding machine barrels
     Transfer pipes and dies
     Mould temperature controller
      piping
     Ovens
  Not extruder barrels!
 Energy management in plastics processing


Processing - Production planning
  A machine ‘throttled down’ to low
   production compared to capacity is
   inherently inefficient
  Schedule jobs to the most
   appropriate (the smallest
   capable) equipment
  A machine is wasting energy
   making product to a higher
   specification than needed
 Energy management in plastics processing


Operations - Start-up, stand-by and shut
down
  Start up and shut-down machines in the
   right sequence to reduce energy use
  Isolate shut-down machines
  Define a ‘stand-by’ condition
  Document and implement
   start-up, shut-down and
   standby procedures
 Energy management in plastics processing


Operations - Traffic light system
  Colour coding so that everybody knows
   when and where equipment can be turned
   off.
          Green - Turn off without question
          when not used
          Amber - Obtain permission to turn
          off when not used
          Red - Must NOT be turned off
 Energy management in plastics processing


Operations - Traffic light system
  Based on equipment/area mapping
  Every team member should be aware of
   what and when equipment can be turned
   off/shut down
  Turn equipment off when
   NOT required!
  Eliminate equipment from
   dry cycling!
  Make suggestions
 Energy management in plastics processing


Operations - Machine setting
  Tweaking of machines by operators (to
   get more production) causes lost time and
   energy
  Get machines set right,
   record the settings and do
   not change them
  Monitor the process and
   do not change settings
   whilst ‘in control’
 Energy management in plastics processing


Operations - Offices
  The energy used by computers,
   photocopiers, printers and fax machines
   can be reduced by over 50% by
   using stand-by features
  The cost of running a
   PC + monitor can be reduced
   from £63 a year to just £6
  Seven day timers are easily
   fitted to reduce energy costs
 Energy management in plastics processing


Auditing
  We are going to start auditing today
  We are going to do an energy ‘walk-
   around’
  We want to find ‘hidden’
   energy usage
  We want to find some
   ‘unproductive’ energy usage
  We want some projects!
 Energy management in plastics processing


Lets go see if we    1

can find some        2

potential savings    3


opportunities in     4

                     5
your area            6

                     7
Let’s be safe and    8

careful              9

                    10

				
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posted:1/15/2013
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