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Designing Brand Identity


									                                                        Professor Sam Min

                        Lecture 9
                 Designing Brand Identity

To Brand or Not to Brand?

In the past (100 ~ 200 years ago), most of products went
unbranded. Producers and intermediaries sold their goods out of
barrels, bins, and cases…

Today, branding is such a strong force that hardly anything goes

What are the unbranded goods categories these days?

What are the marketing strategies of unbranded goods?

      By the way, would you brand or unbrand new products?

  A name makes easier for the seller to process orders ….
  Brand loyalty  Protection from competition
  Brand name and trademark can be legally protected.
  Strong brands help build the corporate image, making it
   easier to launch new brands and gain acceptance by

Brand Name Strategies
1. Individual brand names
What are the advantages and disadvantages of an individual-
brand names strategy?
    It can search for the best name for each new product.
    Company does not tie its reputation to the product’s
    Higher development cost
    Need advertising

2. Blanket family name for all products

Advantages: The development cost is less because there is no
need for name research or heavy advertising expenditures to
create brand name recognition. The sales of the new product are
likely to be strong if the manufacturer’s name is good.
Ex) Campbell Soup

3. Company trade name combined with individual product

What are the examples?

     The company name legitimizes, and individual name
     individualized, the new product.

Brand Name
How do you develop a good brand name?

     Develop a list  Debate the merits of different names
      Make a choice.


Dell Computer, Chrysler, Merrill Lynch, Charles Schwab,

The benefit of using a name is that it is easier to protect. It
satisfies an ego. The downside is that in itself it is not very
descriptive of what a company (or product) does.

Descriptive, Toys R Us, E*Trade.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of descriptive brand
   It clearly communicates the intent of the company (or
    benefit of the new product).
   As a company (or brand) grows and decides to diversify,
    the name may become limiting.
   Competitors can easily mimic.


                      A name coined from "sage," "age," and "geo," Sageo suggests sound guidance,
                      authority, and universality. It's a compelling brand name that signals a rich and
                      reliable user experience.

Sageo, Exxon, Kodak, Xerox, Agilent.

The advantage of this type of name is that it may be easier to
copyright. It is certainly distinctive, but a company must invest
a significant amount of capital into educating its market.


Oracle, Nike, Sprint

Things, places, people, animals, processes, mythological names,
or foreign words are used in this type of name to allude to a
quality of a company.

Questions and Guidelines in Brand Name Selection

Question                          Guideline
What is the brand's role or       If the brand is to aid in positioning,
purpose?                          choose a brand name with meaning
                                  (DieHard, Holiday Inn). If purely for
                                  identification, a neologism (made-up
                                  word) such as Kodak or Exxon will
Will this product be a            If so, choose carefully so as not to be a
bridgehead to a line of products? limitation in the future (Western Hotels
                                  changed name to Western International,
                                  then finally to Westin.)
Do you expect a long-term         If not, a dramatic, novelty name might
position in the market?           be useful (such as Screaming Yellow
Is the name irritating or         Women found Bic's Fannyhose to be
insulting to any market           objectionable.

* A global brand name should not carry poor meanings in other
countries and languages. Example: Nova is a poor name for a
car to be sold in Spanish-speaking countries.

Some use consumer surveys or experiments to evaluate brand
Association Test (What images come to mind?)
Learning Test (How easily is the name pronounced?)
Memory Test (How well is the name remembered?)
Preference Test (Which names are preferred?)

Brand Identity
Brand identity is the visual and verbal expression of a brand. It
is tangible and appeals to the senses.

An effective brand identity will:

     Be bold, memorable, and appropriate
     Be immediately recognizable
     Be differentiated among competing brands
     Be legally protected
     Work well across media and scale
     Work both in black and white and in color


Tagline is a short phrase that captures a company’s brand
essence, personality, and positioning, and distinguishes it from
its competitors.

   1. A tagline must be short
   2. It must differentiated from its competitors
   3. It must be unique
   4. It must capture the brand essence and positioning
   5. It must be easy to say and remember
   6. It cannot have any negative connotations
   7. It is typically displaced in a smaller font

Nike                Just do it
Hewlett-Packard     Invent
Apple Computer      Think different
Honda               Simplify
GE                  We bring good things to life
BMW                 The ultimate driving machine
Sears               Where else?
Microsoft           Where are you going today?
Volkswagen          Drivers wanted

The Sequence of Cognition

The brain acknowledges and remembers shapes first. Visual
images can be remembered and recognized directly, while words
have to be decoded into meaning.

Color is second in the sequence. Color can trigger an emotion
and evoke a brand association.

Content is third in the sequence behind shape and color.


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