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Professor Sam Min Lecture 9 Designing Brand Identity To Brand or Not to Brand? In the past (100 ~ 200 years ago), most of products went unbranded. Producers and intermediaries sold their goods out of barrels, bins, and cases… Today, branding is such a strong force that hardly anything goes unbranded. What are the unbranded goods categories these days? What are the marketing strategies of unbranded goods? 1 By the way, would you brand or unbrand new products? Why? A name makes easier for the seller to process orders …. Brand loyalty Protection from competition Brand name and trademark can be legally protected. Strong brands help build the corporate image, making it easier to launch new brands and gain acceptance by consumers. Brand Name Strategies 1. Individual brand names What are the advantages and disadvantages of an individual- brand names strategy? Advantage It can search for the best name for each new product. Disadvantages Company does not tie its reputation to the product’s acceptance. Higher development cost Need advertising 2. Blanket family name for all products Advantages: The development cost is less because there is no need for name research or heavy advertising expenditures to create brand name recognition. The sales of the new product are likely to be strong if the manufacturer’s name is good. Ex) Campbell Soup 2 3. Company trade name combined with individual product names What are the examples? The company name legitimizes, and individual name individualized, the new product. Brand Name How do you develop a good brand name? Develop a list Debate the merits of different names Make a choice. Founder Dell Computer, Chrysler, Merrill Lynch, Charles Schwab, Disney. The benefit of using a name is that it is easier to protect. It satisfies an ego. The downside is that in itself it is not very descriptive of what a company (or product) does. 3 Descriptive Priceline.com, Toys R Us, E*Trade. What are the advantages and disadvantages of descriptive brand names? Advantage It clearly communicates the intent of the company (or benefit of the new product). Disadvantages As a company (or brand) grows and decides to diversify, the name may become limiting. Competitors can easily mimic. Fabricated A name coined from "sage," "age," and "geo," Sageo suggests sound guidance, authority, and universality. It's a compelling brand name that signals a rich and reliable user experience. Sageo, Exxon, Kodak, Xerox, Agilent. The advantage of this type of name is that it may be easier to copyright. It is certainly distinctive, but a company must invest a significant amount of capital into educating its market. 4 Metaphor Oracle, Nike, Sprint Things, places, people, animals, processes, mythological names, or foreign words are used in this type of name to allude to a quality of a company. Questions and Guidelines in Brand Name Selection Question Guideline What is the brand's role or If the brand is to aid in positioning, purpose? choose a brand name with meaning (DieHard, Holiday Inn). If purely for identification, a neologism (made-up word) such as Kodak or Exxon will work. Will this product be a If so, choose carefully so as not to be a bridgehead to a line of products? limitation in the future (Western Hotels changed name to Western International, then finally to Westin.) Do you expect a long-term If not, a dramatic, novelty name might position in the market? be useful (such as Screaming Yellow Zonkers). Is the name irritating or Women found Bic's Fannyhose to be insulting to any market objectionable. segment? 5 * A global brand name should not carry poor meanings in other countries and languages. Example: Nova is a poor name for a car to be sold in Spanish-speaking countries. Some use consumer surveys or experiments to evaluate brand names. Association Test (What images come to mind?) Learning Test (How easily is the name pronounced?) Memory Test (How well is the name remembered?) Preference Test (Which names are preferred?) Brand Identity Brand identity is the visual and verbal expression of a brand. It is tangible and appeals to the senses. An effective brand identity will: Be bold, memorable, and appropriate Be immediately recognizable Be differentiated among competing brands Be legally protected Work well across media and scale Work both in black and white and in color 6 Tagline Tagline is a short phrase that captures a company’s brand essence, personality, and positioning, and distinguishes it from its competitors. 1. A tagline must be short 2. It must differentiated from its competitors 3. It must be unique 4. It must capture the brand essence and positioning 5. It must be easy to say and remember 6. It cannot have any negative connotations 7. It is typically displaced in a smaller font 7 Nike Just do it Hewlett-Packard Invent Apple Computer Think different Honda Simplify GE We bring good things to life BMW The ultimate driving machine Sears Where else? Microsoft Where are you going today? Volkswagen Drivers wanted The Sequence of Cognition The brain acknowledges and remembers shapes first. Visual images can be remembered and recognized directly, while words have to be decoded into meaning. Color is second in the sequence. Color can trigger an emotion and evoke a brand association. Content is third in the sequence behind shape and color. 8 9
"Designing Brand Identity"