Contemporary Studies by dffhrtcv3

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									     Contemporary Studies

The Links between Sport and Commercialism, and
                Sport and Politics
      What are we looking at?
• Advanced Cultures – those with economic &
  technological superiority (opp. Emergent)
• Sport being a tool to inspire, being a political
  tool, bringing financial benefits
• Understand that the political stance of a nation,
  effects its approach to sport
• View both Western democracies (Capitalist) &
  Eastern democracies (Socialist)
      What we are looking at?
• We need to look at how each democracy
  promotes sport
• We will look at 2 contrasting models, but we
  must understand that most Western European
  Countries, do lie somewhere between these 2
  extremes
• They have their own versions of either Socialist
  or Conservative Govts within a mixed economy
  where there is both state and commercial
  support for sport
           Key Words



    WHERE PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
  DOMINATES AND IS ENCOURAGED


PRIVATE WEALTH IS USED TO PRODUCE
AND DISTRIBUTE GOODS AND SERVICES
          Key Words


WHERE STATE OWNERSHIP DOMINATES
   AND CONTROLS COMMERCIAL
 ACTIVITIES, POLICY AND PRACTICE
         Key Words



WHERE BOTH PRIVATE AND PUBLIC
ENTERPRISE OPERATES TOGETHER
          Key Words



A SYSTEM WHERE THE PEOPLE HAVE
THE RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN PUBLIC
             AFFAIRS
          Key Words


WHEN THE DOMINANT ROLES IN SPORT
ARE TAKEN BY THE DOMINANT GROUP
           OF SOCIETY
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPORT AND
      COMMERCIALISM

              ‘The American Dream’
               Sport means
                business!
               Driven by
                commercialism
               Private and corporate
                businesses use sport
                to promote their
                products
       The American Dream
US SCHOOL SPORT
• US school sport has a
  very high profile
• It attracts big
  sponsorship
• Large media following
• Performers compete
  for athletic
  scholarships to
  colleges and
  universities
       The American Dream
COLLEGE SPORT
 Receive top level
  coaching and support
 Enormous pressure to
  win
 Heavily funded by TV
  and sponsorship
  deals
 Best college athletes
  are drafted into
  professional sport
         The American Dream
PROFESSIONAL SPORT
 There is enormous public
  interest
 It is linked and dependant
  on commercialism
 TV and advertising not
  only fund professional
  sport, but also govern
  procedures and influence
  its rules
        The American Dream
• US culture=‘win ethic’, US sport is a superb
  reflection of this
• 19th Century European Games –
Moulded to suit their changing environment, new
  games were invented. A new society was born –
  ‘the land of opportunity’ where a Pioneer spirit of
  determination, enterprise and drive was
  respected.
Games are high scoring, action packed with short
  bursts of action followed by commercial breaks!
      The American Dream
• The American Dream assumes:
That everyone can be a success in society,
  irrespective of age, gender or ethnic
  background and sport is a useful vehicle
  for success.
Through sport stereotypical views can be
  defied, the restricting glass ceiling of
  opportunity can be smashed and role
  models can be created
      The American Dream
Professional sports men and women are
 on multi million dollar playing contracts
They can earn even more from advertising
 and sponsorship deals
Professional sport dominates in US
 society
It reflects its competitive and capitalist
 nature
               Commercialism
        POSITIVE                    NEGATIVE
Funding gives athlete        Performers become
better chance of success     mobile adverts
Commercial sponsorship       Money determines the
leads to events which        location, timings & nature
otherwise might not          of events
happen
It matches the ‘win ethic’   Sporting values ca be
of the US culture            lost
                             Only high profit sports &
                             the most successful
                             performers benefit
     SPORT AND POLITICS
The ‘shop window’
• Sport and politics are interwoven. Sport
  can be used for internal and external
  political motives
• We are concerned with authoritarian one
  party states, such as China
            Sport and Politics
China
 Sport is controlled
  and encouraged by
  the state in order to
  increase political
  prestige and morale
  amongst the
  workforce
               Sport and politics
Eastern European
 The reforms of the Soviet
  Union did not mean an
  end to communism or to
  ’socialist’ influences in the
  world, so we can also
  refer to the old Eastern
  European countries that
  were dominated by the
  USSR before the
  disintegration of the
  communist system in the
  early 1990s
          What happened?
• From 1917, after the Russian monarchy
  was overthrown, the Communist party got
  rid of class division, private ownership and
  said they established an egalitarian
  system – equality for all
• Did this happen?
• Well, probably not in practice, but this is
  not the issue we want to look at. We are
  concerned with motive
           Political Motive
• Politicians used sport to promote their
  country and their political system
  worldwide
• The Olympic Games was the perfect stage
  to do this
 What happened in preparation for
         the Olympics?
• The entire population were tested
• Talented children were selected and given the
  best facilities, coaching, diet and even drugs to
  ensure international success and political
  superiority
• Athletes were given token jobs so they could
  concentrate on sport
• The Government controlled this centrally
THE MINORITY WERE FUNDED AT THE
  EXPENSE OF ‘EQUALITY FOR ALL’
         What about today?
• Drive for success and political superiority
  is still evident in China and other Eastern
  cultures today
• This is despite the fact the East and West
  have a lot in common
• Issues arise between multi-party
  democracies and single party
  authoritarianism
                TASKS
• Copy down fig 12.14 Commercial and
  political approaches to sport – p217

								
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