Basic functional fitness assessment protocols - Australian Customs

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					                     Australian Customs Service
      Basic Functional Fitness Assessment Protocols

Equipment Check List
     Goniometer
     Standard treatment table
     Biofeedback pressure stabiliser
     Vertec
     Stopwatch
     Calculator
     Exercise Mat
     Heart rate monitor
     Queens college step test CD
     CD player
     1 x marking dome (approx. 10cm height)

Equipment Provided By Customs
   41.3cm step for Queens college step test
   Hexagonal grid
   20kg dead weight for functional lift

Order of Testing
  1. Warm-up
  2. Knee Extension
  3. Thomas Test
  4. Waiters Bow
  5. Core Stability Test
  6. Lower Abdominal Strength Test
  7. Queens College Step Test
  8. Multi-directional Lunge Test
  9. Vertical Jump
  10. Hexagonal Obstacle Test
  11. 20 Repetition Squad Assessment
  12. Push Up Test
  13. 10 Repetition Functional Lift Test
Assessment Overview

         Test                  Pass Measure             Characteristic      Time Allowed
                                                          Assessed             During
Knee Extension                     > 135º            Hamstring                2 minutes
Thomas Test                  To parallel or below    Range of motion           2 minutes
                                                     around the hip
Waiters Bow                         > 40º            Lower back                1 minute
Core Stability Test           Level 6 or greater     Transversus               2 minutes
                                                     Abdominis (core)
Lower Abdominal                     > 150º           Abdominal                 1 minute
Strength Test                                        strength
Queens College Step        Age and gender specific Predicted aerobic           5 minutes
Test                                                 capacity
Multi-directional         8 out of 10 correct lunges Coordination,             3 minutes
Lunge Test                                           balance and
                                                     strength during
                                                     lunge action
Vertical Jump                >= 35cm for males       Lower body                1 minute
                            >= 26cm for females      power
Hexagonal Obstacle             < 20.9 seconds        Agility,                  2 minutes
Test                                                 coordination and
20 Repetition Squat        20 complete and proper Strength and                 2 minutes
Assessment                          squats           stability during
                                                     squatting action
Push Up Test                >= 10 reps for males     Upper body                2 minutes
                           >= 8 reps (modified) for strength
                                   females           endurance
10 Repetition              10 complete and proper Stability and                2 minutes
Functional Lift Test                 lifts           strength
* 5 minutes is allowed for warm-up and explanation.

1. Warm Up

It is expected that participants will undertake a basic warm-up prior to coming to the
assessment. This warm-up should include 3-5 minutes of light aerobic activity such as
walking or jogging, followed by some light stretching.

The participant will then undergo some light stretching at the start of the assessment as
the tester explains the assessment procedure.
2. Knee Extension Test

Knee extension is used to assess true hamstring length.

To undertake this test you will require:
   • Goniometer
   • Exercise mat

Test Procedure
          1. Have subject lie supine on the exercise mat.
          2. Manually raise subject’s left leg so that the femur is perpendicular to the
             ground. Let the right leg lie flat.
          3. Place a towel around the right leg (the knee) so that you can kneel on it
             thereby stabilising the right leg.
          4. Gradually extend the knee of the left leg ensuring the thigh stays
             perpendicular to the mat.
          5. When the end point has been reached (end of stretch), the knee angle is
             measured using a goniometer. The knee angle is measured by placing one
             arm of the goniometer along the line of the femur with the other arm
             directed along the line toward the ankle. The goniometer axis is placed on
             the knee joint line (centre of the knee).
          6. Record the measured angle on the recording sheet.
          7. Repeat on opposite leg.


                           Knee Angle º               Points
                         Greater than 135º             Pass
                          Less than 135º               Fail

                                           Figure 1
3. Thomas Test

Range of motion plays an important part in lower back stability. The Thomas Test is
specifically designed to detect flexion contractures of the hip, but it can also be used to
evaluate hip range of motion in extension.

The assessor will require the following items to accurately conduct the Thomas Test:
   • Standard treatment table (or a stable table with exercise mat)
   • Goniometer

Test Procedure
          1. Ensure treatment table is sturdy and set on an even surface.
          2. The subject should be lying supine on the table.
          3. The pelvis should be straight (Figure 2) and square to the trunk so that an
              imaginary line drawn between both anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) is
              perpendicular to the axis of the body.
          4. Neutralise the pelvis by asking the subject to bring both knees to their
              chest (Figure 3).
          5. Ask the subject to hold the left leg by gripping it around the shin and then
              slowly lower the right leg downwards toward the table, while maintaining
              a flat lumbar spine (Figure 4). A lumbar spine that extends as the leg is
              lowered indicates a flexion contracture of the hip.
          6. Place the goniometer with the axis at the greater trochanter and with 0º
              along the trunk. Measure the angle along the line of the femur.
          7. Record the result on the recording sheet.
          8. Bring the left leg back up to the chest and instruct the subject to now hold
              this leg and lower the opposite leg to the table.
          9. Repeat steps 7 and 8.
          10. Assist the subject to sit back up and get off the table slowly.


                             Femur Angle                 Points
                          To Parallel or Below            Pass
                            Above Parallel                Fail

Figure 2                        Figure 3                          Figure 4
4. Waiters Bow

Lower back stability and strength are important in reducing the incidence of back pain.
This test assesses these components.

The assessor will require the following items to accurately conduct the Waiters Bow:
   • Goniometer

Test Procedure
   1. Instruct the subject to stand with their feet shoulder width apart.
   2. Subject’s hands should be placed behind their back, over the sacrum, with fingers
   3. Instruct the subject to flex at the hips (bending forward), ensuring they maintain a
       neutral / straight spine.
   4. Measure the angle of flexion at the hip by placing the control arm perpendicular
       to the floor, the axis at the greater trochanter (bony part of hip on the lateral
       aspect of upper thigh), and the measuring arm along the line on the trunk.
   5. Record the result on the recording sheet.


                        Hip Flexion º                    Points
                       Greater than 40 º                  Pass
                        Less than 40 º                    Fail

Figure 5                                      Figure 6
5. Core Stability Test

This test has been developed as a tool for assessing core stability. Core stability is a
vital component in all areas of performance and injury prevention. The core stability
test is a ten level test in which the participant must satisfactorily achieve a level before
moving directly onto the next.

 • Starting position for Stage 1 is lying supine on the floor with knees bent to 90
     degrees. The feet, without shoes, should be comfortably apart, in contact with the
     floor, and not held.
 • Participant should be able to view the biofeedback stabiliser and mmHg at all times
    throughout the test.
 • Biofeedback stabiliser should be placed so that the lower portion of bag is at L2
     (i.e. at middle of arch of back).
 • The core stability test is a continuous test, and there are no rest intervals between
A valid repetition is one in which the participant completes the required stage, while
maintaining the required body position and the required mmHg.

Technical Violations:
The following technical violations will result in the attempt being invalid:
   • Participant fails to return biofeedback stabiliser to 40 mmHg after keeping
       reading between 30 and 50 mmHg when asked to perform given movement.
   • Participant is unable to maintain correct body alignment - lower limbs must
       remain parallel at all times throughout the tests and not “fall out” laterally.
   • Participant fails to steady needle at 40 mmHg before attempting next level- a
       needle that is moving does not show control of core muscles.

If a technical violation occurs, the participant may attempt the test again (starting from
the first level).


                             Level                     Points
                       Level 6 or Greater               Pass
                       Level 5 or Lower                 Fail
6. Lower Abdominal Strength Test

Abdominal strength is a major factor in reducing the incidence of back pain as well as
providing a strong basis of support around the spine.

You will need the following equipment for this test:
   • Exercise mat
   • Goniometer
   • Biofeedback stabiliser

Test Procedure
          1. Place the biofeedback stabiliser on the mat at the point of the lumbar
          2. Instruct the subject to lie down on the exercise mat in supine position, with
             knees bent, and biofeedback stabiliser bladder under the lumbar spine.
          3. Instruct the subject to flex their hips and extend their knees so that their
             legs are at 90º hip flexion and knees at 90º (Figure 7).
          4. Instruct the subject to flatten their lumbar spine against the ground while
             their legs are still at 90º hip flexion.
          5. Increase the pressure in the bladder up to 40mmHg.
          6. The subject must maintain between 30mmHg and 50mmHg of pressure on
             the bladder while lowering both legs simultaneously toward the ground
             (Figure 8).
          7. Record the greatest hip flexion angle the subject achieves before the
             pressure in the bladder goes outside the range of 30mmHg and 50mmHg.


                        Hip Flexion Angle              Points
                        Greater than 150º               Pass
                         Less than 150º                 Fail

Figure 7                                      Figure 8
7. Queens College Step Test

Cardiovascular endurance is a specific requirement of any employee involved in the
range of Customs enforcement activities. Cardiovascular endurance ensures they can
maintain a period of sustained intensity without suffering from high levels of fatigue.

To undertake this test you will require:

   •   A step 41.3 cm high (16.25 inches)
   •   A stop watch
   •   Queens College Step Test Cadence CD
   •   CD Player
   •   Heart rate monitor

Test Procedure
   1. Help fit the heart rate monitor to the subject. A small amount of water or electrode
       gel should be applied to the transmitter electrodes to help heart rate signal
       detection. Check to see if the watch or receiver is picking up the heart rate
   2. Instruct the subject to stand close to the step.
   3. Depending on the gender of the subject, set the metronome to operate at the
       following cadence:
           a. Males – 24 step cycles per minute (one cycle is stepping up and back
               down again)
           b. Females – 22 step cycles per minute (one cycle is stepping up and back
               down again)
   4. On your signal, instruct the subject to step up onto the step using their left foot,
       and step down with their right foot. Continue leading with the left foot for 1.5
       minutes, then swap so that the subject is leading with their right foot to step onto
       the step and their left foot to step down to the ground.
   5. Continue the test for 3 minutes. After 3 minutes has passed, instruct the subject to
   6. 20 seconds after the test has been completed, record the displayed heart rate from
       the heart rate monitor receiver.
   7. Calculate the participants VO2 based on the following formula:
           a. Males VO2 = 111.33 – (0.42 x HR)
           b. Females VO2 = 65.81 – (0.1847 x HR)

The scoring for this assessment is based on age and gender as per the table below.

      Gender                  Age                Pass                      Fail
       Male                  20-29    Greater than or equal to 42      Less than 42
                             30-39    Greater than or equal to 40      Less than 40
                             40-49    Greater than or equal to 38      Less than 38
                             50-59    Greater than or equal to 35      Less than 35
                              60 +    Greater than or equal to 31      Less than 31
      Female                 20-29    Greater than or equal to 35      Less than 35
                             30-39    Greater than or equal to 33      Less than 33
                             40-49    Greater than or equal to 31      Less than 31
                             50-59    Greater than or equal to 28      Less than 28
                              60 +    Greater than or equal to 26      Less than 26

Figure 9- Start/ finish position.             Figure 10. Position 1.

Figure 11. Position 2.                        Figure 12. Position 3.
8. Multi-directional Lunge Test

Coordination, balance and strength are all required for effective lunge movements. The
lunge is highly applicable to a range of Customs tasks.

Complete the test on an even surface.

Test Procedure
   1. Instruct the subject to stand with their hands on their hips, feet shoulder width
   2. The subject lunges forward with the right foot and must lower the thigh to 90º or
       parallel with the ground, and then return back to the starting position.
   3. The subject then lunges at a 45º angle with the right foot leading, and then returns
       to the starting position.
   4. The subject then lunges laterally to the right, and then returns to the starting
       position. Encourage the subject to make a big lateral step in order to get the lead
       thigh to parallel with the ground.
   5. The subject then lunges at a 45 º angle backwards and to the right, and then
       returns to the starting position.
   6. The subject then lunges directly backwards, and then returns to the starting
   7. Repeat steps 2 through 6 for the left leg. Replace all movements to the right with
       movements to the left. The right foot does not move at all.

   Note: For steps 2 through 6, the left foot does not move from its starting position, and
   the head is always facing forward.


           8 out of the 10 lunges must be completed successfully by      Pass
           maintaining posture and stability while taking the front
           thigh parallel to the floor.
           Failure to complete the above.                                Fail
Figure 13. (1)   Figure 14. (2)

Figure 15. (3)   Figure 16. (4)

Figure 17. (5)   Figure 18. (6)
9. Vertical Jump

The vertical jump is a widely accepted method of assessing general power of an

Setup the Vertec correctly on a non slip surface as per the instructions provided with the
Vertec. The ceiling in the room needs to be at least 4m high.

Test Procedure
   1. Instruct the subject to stand side on to the Vertec with their dominant arm closest
       to the Vertec.
   2. Keeping feet flat on the floor, they extend their dominant hand to move the vanes
       fully elevating the shoulder as they reach. Ensure both feet remain flat on the
       floor. Record the Standing Reach (SR) as the highest vane displaced.
   3. Move several of the lower vanes away allowing the participant to stands close to
       the Vertec and execute an explosive jump. Make sure the participant uses a
       counter movement (swing arms and squat as low as they like) to jump as high as
       possible with the athlete displacing the vane at the height of the jump.
   4. The takeoff must be from two feet, with no preliminary steps or shuffling.
   5. Allow the subject to have several jumps until no further improvements occur.
   6. Note down the highest absolute Jump Height as the highest displaced vane.
   7. Calculate the difference (Jump Height – Standing Reach) in cm.


                                           Male                Female
                     Pass             35cm or above         26cm or above
                     Fail             Less than 35cm        Less than 26cm
10. Hexagonal Obstacle Test

Agility and coordination are essential to any officer trained to apply use of force. This
test measures the ability, balance and coordination.

If the hexagonal obstacle test mat is not provided, please setup the test as follows:
           o Draw a hexagon on the floor using masking tape, with all sides equal to
              60cm (ensure all angles / corners are 30° each).
           o Clearly mark each line sequentially with a letter from A through F in a
              clockwise direction.
           o Note: the 60cm length is marked along the outside of the line.

Test Procedure
   1. Instruct the subject to stand in the middle of the hexagon facing towards the line
       marked A.
   2. At all times during the test, the subject is to face line A.
   3. After confirming with the subject that they understand the test procedure, prepare
       the stop watch for the beginning of the test.
   4. Instruct the subject to start on the word ‘Go’.
   5. Over a period of 2 seconds, countdown by saying ‘Ready’, ‘Set’, ‘Go’.
   6. On the command Go, the watch is started and the subject jumps with both feet
       over line A, then back to the middle, then line B, then back to the middle, then
       line C, and so on.
   7. The order in which the subject must jump is:
           a. Clockwise – A, B, C, D, E, F, A
           b. Anti-Clockwise – F, E, D, C, B, A
           c. Clockwise – B, C, D, E, F
   8. The test is finished when the subject returns to the middle of the hexagon after
       jumping back from F on the final clockwise sequence.
   9. Record the best time out of 2 successful tests (if required).

If the subject jumps on the wrong line or lands on a line then the test is to be restarted.

Figure 19                       Figure 20                       Figure 21
                   Figure 22


          Rating              Time
           Pass        Less than 20.9 sec
           Fail       Greater than 20.9 sec
11. 20 Repetition Squat Assessment

The squat action is a key to many bending and lifting movements and is necessary for
injury prevention and strength while undertaking a range of enforcement activities.
Effective squatting action will show adequate strength and a reduced risk of injury.

Test Procedure
          1. The participant should place their feet shoulder width apart with weight
             equally spread on both feet and arms extended directly out in front.
          2. The participant should then undertake 20 slow continuous squats. Each
             squat requires the thigh to go to parallel or below, while the subject
             maintains a neutral lumbar spine.
          3. Do not bounce at the bottom of the movement or stop during the
          4. If a squat is considered incomplete, then this is instructed to the subject
             and that squat is not counted. A total of 20 complete squats must be


            All 20 squat must be completed successfully by               Pass
            maintaining neutral lumbar spine while lowering the
            thighs to at least parallel with the ground.
            Failure to complete the above.                               Fail

Figure 23                                     Figure 24
12. Push Up

Upper body strength endurance is extremely important and directly relates to a person’s
ability to apply force primarily for restraint but also for boarding vessels via ladders and
similar activities.

To undertake this test you will require:
   • Marking cone/dome, approximately 8-10cm in height
   • Even surface

Test Procedure
          1. Place the marking cone on the floor.
          2. Males are to complete full push ups (Figure 25 and 26), while females are
              to complete modified push ups (Figure 27 and 28) as illustrated below.
          3. Instruct the subject to assume the starting position, hands shoulder width
              apart, arms fully extended (Figure 25 or Figure 27).
          4. The subject must lower their body until their elbows reach 90° - see Figure
              26 and 28 below. The chest should make contact with the top of the
              marking cone placed directly under mid-lower chest / lower sternum, but
              should not rest on the marking cone.
          5. Return to the starting position by extending the elbows so the arms are
          6. Correct position should be strictly enforced. The correct position involves
              the individual having a neutral spine and maintaining these natural curves
              without any change to them through the entire push up sequence.
          7. The push up action is to be continuous with no rest, however no bouncing
              should occur at the bottom of the push up action.
          8. A slow continuous action should be sustained with one complete push up
              being complete every 1-2 seconds.
          9. Complete as many push ups as possible.
          10. Record the total number of completed full body push ups. Do not include
              any incomplete push ups.
          11. The test will be judged as complete when the individual: is unable to go
              on; does not complete a full push up action; bounces or displays
              movement at the hips; has a break between push ups; or fails to make
              contact between the marking cone and the chest.

                      Male              Female (modified)
            Pass        10                      8
            Fail   Less than 10            Less than 8

Figure 25                   Figure 26

Figure 27                   Figure 28
13. 10 Repetition Functional Lift Test

Strength is an important physical characteristic required by all staff. This simple test
demonstrates the ability to repetitively lift a 20kg dead-weight in a safe and effective
manner from point A, then turning and walking, placing the object at point B.

To undertake this test you will require:
   • A 20kg dead-weight placed on the ground on the left side of the step

Test Procedure
   1. Mark point A and point B on the ground, 2 metres apart.
   2. Instruct the subject to assume the starting position (Fig. 29), in front of the 20kg
   3. Once the tester and subject are setup correctly, the subject should start when
   4. Each repetition involves the participant bending at the knees while maintaining a
       neutral lumbar spine, picking up the weight with two hands and lifting it as shown
       in Figure 31.
   5. While lifting the weight, the subject is then required to turn 180 degrees and walk
       to point B, where the weighted bag is lowered to the ground.
   6. The subject is then required to lift the weight again as above, and return to point
   7. A total of 10 repetitions are required with each repetition being the movement of
       the bag from one Point to another. The test is a continuous test with no rest
       between lifts.
   8. Ensure the subject maintains a neutral and straight lumbar spine, that they stand
       up by driving with the legs, and lower the weight in the same manner as the
   9. The test finishes when the subject lowers the weight to the ground at the
       completion of the 10th repetition.


           All lifts must be completed successfully by maintaining        Pass
           posture, stability and a neutral lumbar spine. Each lift
           should include leg drive and not result in a loss of form.
           Failure to complete the above.                                 Fail
Figure 29   Figure 30   Figure 31

Figure 32   Figure 33   Figure 34

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