Wireless Sensors Networks Architecture by editorijettcs

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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 1, Issue 4, November – December 2012, ISSN 2278-6856, Impact Factor of IJETTCS for year 2012: 2.524

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									   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 1, Issue 4, November – December 2012                                    ISSN 2278-6856




             Wireless Sensors Networks Architecture
                                      Riadh Bouhouchi1 and Tahar Ezzedine Author2
                         1,2
                               University of Tunis El-manar, National Engineering School (ENIT) of Tunis,
                                              SysCom Laboratory, 2092 Manar II, Tunisia


Abstract: Today, sensors networks and sensory systems for
environmental assessment have reached a high technical               2. SONSORS
level.The   recent   technology     in Information and
communication which automates everything in this universe            A sensor network is a dense wireless network of
is Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Lot of challenges are              specialized small devices, low-cost sensors with a
faced when enabling the sensor network with web technology           communication infrastructure intended to control,
and quickly getting an observation from a sensor at the right        monitor and record conditions at diverse locations.
time and place may be critical, Were now Sensor Web will             A sensor node, is a node in a wireless sensor which is
give solution to the web enabled WSN by featuring an                 small, lightweight and portable that is capable of
advanced and scalable architecture that supports numerous            gathering sensory data, performing some processing and
diverse and heterogeneous sensor types.This paper describes          permitting the communication with other connected
an advanced concept of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)                 nodes in the network.
which has been used the lightweight communication tools,
                                                                     Sensor network consists of many different sensors type
cloud computing, service oriented architecture, wireless
communications, digital electronics, mobiles sensors and the
                                                                     such as low sampling rate magnetic, thermal, acoustic,
Multimedia outlines Geographic Information System to                 seismic, visual, infrared, and radar, which are able to
monitor the real time status of distributed measurement              control and monitor a wide variety of ambient conditions
system.                                                              that include
Keywords: Sensor Web Enablement (SWE), Wireless                      [2] Temperature, Humidity, pollution, Vehicular
Sensor Network (WSN), service oriented architecture                  movement, Lightning condition, Pressure, Soil makeup,
(SOA), Cloud Computing, Geographic information                       Noise levels, Mechanical stress levels on attached objects,
system (GIS), JSON.                                                  and The current characteristics such as direction, speed,
                                                                     and size of an object.
1. INTRODUCTION                                                      Sensor nodes can be used for location sensing, continuous
                                                                     sensing, event ID, event detection, and local control of
Smart environments represent the next evolutionary                   actuators.
development step in building, utilities, industrial, home,           The concept of wireless connection and the micro-sensing
shipboard, and transportation systems automation. Like               of these nodes promise many new application and
any sentient organism, the smart environment relies first            realization areas. We categorize the applications into
and foremost on sensory data from the real world and in              health, home, environment, military and other
order to improve services with public organizations and to           commercial areas. It is possible to amplify this
help protecting the environment from possible                        classification with more categories such as chemical
threats,many researchers are about implementing an                   processing, space exploration and disaster relief, but our
advanced architecture for Sensor Web Enablement (SWE)                research is limited only to the environmental sector.
to monitor remotely environmental phenomena using
recent technologies.
                                                                     3. ENVIRONMENTAL                              SENSOR
Sensory data comes from multiple sensors of different
modalities in distributed locations. The smart                       APPLICATIONS
environment needs information about its surroundings as              Environmental applications of sensor networks include
well as about its internal workings; this is captured in             monitoring environmental conditions that affect crops
biological systems by the distinction between                        and livestock;      macro instruments for large-scale;
exteroceptors and proprioceptors.                                    irrigation; earth monitoring and planetary exploration;
The challenges in the hierarchy of: detecting the relevant           chemical/ biological detection; precision agriculture;
quantities, monitoring and collecting the data, assessing            earth, biological, and environmental monitoring in soil,
and evaluating the information, formulating meaningful               marine, and atmospheric contexts; flood detection;
user displays, and performing decision-making and alarm              meteorological or geophysical research; forest fire
functions are enormous. The information needed by smart              detection; bio-complexity mapping of the environment;
environments is provided by Distributed Wireless Sensor              tracking the movements of insects, small animals, and
Networks, which are responsible for sensing as well as for           birds; and pollution study.
the first stages of the processing hierarchy [1]:                    Forest fire detection: Since the nodes are deployed
                                                                     randomly in a forest, we do not have information about

Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012                                                                           Page 130
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 1, Issue 4, November – December 2012                                    ISSN 2278-6856


their coordinates. Sensor nodes can relay the exact origin      sensors supply information to the centralized storage
of the fire to the end users before the fire spreads to an      system (database system) in a pre-defined way.
uncontrollable stage.                                           Research projects, such as our project and the COUGAR
We can deploy and integrate millions of sensor nodes            Device Database Project (Cornell University) [11] and
using     radio    frequencies/optical     systems.     Also,   other research projects, are investigating distributed
environmental applications of sensor networks include           approaches in interacting with sensor nodes [13] in the
monitoring environmental conditions that affect crops           sensor field to provide long-running queries and
and livestock;       macro instruments for large-scale;         snapshot.
irrigation; earth monitoring and planetary exploration;         Precision Agriculture: Some of the benefits are the level
chemical/ biological detection; precision agriculture;          of air pollution in real-time, the level of soil erosion, and
earth, biological, and environmental monitoring in soil,        the ability to control and monitor the pesticides level in
marine, and atmospheric contexts; flood detection;              the potable water.
meteorological or geophysical research; forest fire
detection; bio-complexity mapping of the environment;           4. ISSUES
tracking the movements of insects, small animals, and           Wireless Sensor networks are the key to collecting the
birds; and pollution study.                                     information needed by smart and virtual environments. In
Forest fire detection: Since the nodes are deployed             such applications, cabling or running wires is usually
randomly in a forest, we do not have information about          impractical and not efficacy.The basic problem is how to
their coordinates, sensor nodes can relay the exact origin      make Interaction with wireless sensor nodes in order to
of the fire to the end users before the fire is spread          collect useful information about the external world and
uncontrollable.                                                 which protocols and technology have to be used to do so.
We can deploy and integrate millions of sensor nodes            A lot of researches and IT creators have been made to
using radio frequencies/optical systems. Also, they can         find an advanced architecture made up of adaptive future
only be equipped with effective power scavenging                advanced Internet applications in order to allow and
methods [3], such as solar cells. In this environment,          facilitate data communication between the sensor nodes
Sensors could be left unattended for months or even             that are placed in the environment and the final users.
years. The sensor nodes collaborate together to perform         A wireless sensor network is required that easy to install,
distributed sensing task and overcome nature obstacles,         is fast, maintain and not expensive.
such as sand, rocks and trees that block wired sensors’
line of sight.                                                  5. PRINCIPAL GOALS
Biocomplexity       environment       mapping      [4]:    A    The main goal of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) is
biocomplexity       environment        mapping       requires   to enable all types of Web and Internet-accessible sensors,
sophisticated approaches that permit the integration of         instruments, and imaging devices to be accessible and
information across temporal and spatial scales [5,6]. The       controllable via the Web.
advanced technology in the automated data collection and        The SWE initiative is focused on developing standards to
remote sensing have enabled higher spatial, higher              enable the real situation discovery, exchange of data, and
spectral, and temporal resolution at a geometric                processing of sensor observations.
interpretation declining cost per unit area [7]. Along with     The main functionalities within a sensor web include:
these important advances, the sensor nodes are easy to            • THE DISCOVERY OF SENSOR SYSTEMS,
connect to the Internet, which permits remote users to               DIFFERENT            OBSERVATIONS,              AND
monitor, control and observe the biocomplexity of the                THEOBSERVATION PROCESSES;
atmosphere and the whole environment. Although                    • THE DETERMINATION OF A SENSOR’S
airborne and satellite sensors are useful in the observation         CAPABILITIES AND THE QUALITY OF
of large biodiversity, e.g., spatial complexity of dominant          MEASUREMENTS;
plant species, they do not provide fine grain enough              • THE ACCESS TO THE DIFFERENT SENSOR
information to control small size biodiversity, that make            PARAMETERS              THAT AUTOMATICALLY
up most of biodiversity in an ecosystem [8]. As a result,            ALLOW GIS SOFTWARE TO PROCESS AND
there is a need for a ground level deployment of wireless            GEO-LOCATE OBSERVATIONS;
sensor nodes to control and observe biocomplexity [9,10].         • THE REAL-TIME RETRIEVAL OBSERVATIONS
One example of biocomplexity mapping of environment                  AND COVERAGE IN STANDARD ENCODINGS;
is released at the James Reserve in California [4]. Three         • THE TASKING OF SENSORS TO ACQUIRE
monitoring grids with each having (25-100 nodes per gri)             OBSERVATIONS OF INTEREST;
sensor nodes will be implemented for environmental                • THE SUBSCRIPTION TO PUBLISH ALERTS
sensor data loggers and fixed view multimedia.                       THAT WILL BE ISSUED BY THE DIFFERENT
Flood detection [11]: Another example of flood detection             SENSORS OR SENSOR SERVICES BASED UPON
is the system of ALERT [12] deployed in the USA.                     CERTAIN CRITERIA IN ORDER TO ALLOW A
Several types of sensors deployed in the system of ALERT             QUICK AND CORRECT DECISION.
are the rainfall, water level and weather sensors. All these

Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012                                                                       Page 131
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 1, Issue 4, November – December 2012                                    ISSN 2278-6856


6. ADOPTED SOLUTION                                              technologies such as SOA and Cloud computing have
The emergence and consolidation of Service-Oriented              been developed to resolve integration problems.
Architectures (SOA), Cloud Computing and Wireless                The Cloud’s huge capacity with equivalent low cost
Sensor Networks (WSN) rise benefits, such as flexibility,        makes it an ideal platform for SOA deployment. This
scalability, security, interoperability, and adaptability, for   paper deals with the combined approach of Cloud and
building these kinds of applications.                            Service Oriented Architecture.
The following architecture summarizes the relationships          In cloud computing, infrastructure components are
between all the stated                                           provided ashardware elements where            software are
technologies and shows that we are about choosing the            provided as web services and applications (or toolkits) are
platform as a service cloud computing for the production         exposed as APIs to the outer world.
environment and where the high availability of web               An infrastructure that allows truly ubiquitous
application servers and the advanced cloud storage are           computation using sensors as interface between physical
owned by the cloud provider unlike the client application        and cyber backbone and the internet as the
which is available in the user workstation                       communication medium.
                                                                   - It integrates large-scale Sensor networks with sensing
                                                                      applications and cloud computing infrastructures.
                                                                   - It collects and processes data from various sensor
                                                                      networks.
                                                                   - Enables larg-scale date sharing and collaborations
                                                                      among users and applications on the cloud.
                                                                    Delivers cloud services via sensor-rich mobile devices.
                                                                   -Allows cross-disciplinary applications that span
                                                                      organizational limitations.
                                                                   - Enables users to easily collect, access, process,
             Figure 1: Adopted Architecture                           visualize, archive, share and search large amounts of
                                                                      sensor data from different applications.
6.1 Middleware for sensor wireless networks service                 - Supports complete sensor data life cycle from data
oriented architecture:                                                collection to the backend decision support system.
Web services that many leading organizations are now                - Vast amount of sensor data can be processed,
moving towards.                                                       analyzed and stored using computational and storage
SOA allows an organization to efficientlycontrol existing             resources of the cloud.
resources rather than forcing themto build yet another               - Allows sharing of sensor resources by different users
redundant storage tower for each business need. This, in              and applications under flexible usage scenarios.
turn, also makes IT more proficient, permitting for                - Enables sensor devices to handle specialized
shorter cycle times and faster project delivery,in order to           processing tasks [15].
help IT align with business.                                     Also other direct benefits such as:
By implementing service oriented architecture at all
stages of WSN, the quickimprovement of applications as             1. Great storage capacity
well as the detailed testing of sensor networks will be            2. Investment and Cost reduction,
possible. This service oriented methodology will allow for         3. Needless software installation and maintenance.
the development of a WSN management system that will               4. Improved Scalability, Accessibility and Reliability.
be able to handle the dynamic addition and removal of              5. Availability of on-demand services or applications
different sensors and applications as interoperable                 from anywhere,
services [14]:                                                     6. Pay-as-you-go model and energy saving.
The SOA design pattern isdesigned by loosely                       7. Elasticity
joinedreusable, discoverable, inter-operable platform
services.                                                        6.3 Three tiered REST Architecture
SOA offers several benefits as following
                                                                 REST is quickly becoming the preferred technology for
   i. Component Reuse
                                                                 building arbitrary applications that communicate over the
   ii. Language – neutral integration
                                                                 network. REST fully leverages protocols and standards
   iii. Organizational agility
                                                                 that power the World Wide Web and is simpler than
   iv. Leveraging Existing Systems
                                                                 traditional SOAP-based web services. With the
                                                                 emergence of cloud-computing and the growing interest
6.2 The sensor cloud computing
                                                                 for web hosted applications, REST-based technologies
With the rapid evolution of Information Technology,
                                                                 can help both in the development of rich user interface
governments, organizations and businesses are looking
                                                                 clients calling into remote servers; and in the
for solutions to expand their services and incorporate
                                                                 development of actual servers for manipulating data
their IT infrastructures. In recent years, advanced

Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012                                                                       Page 132
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 1, Issue 4, November – December 2012                                    ISSN 2278-6856


structures in a client application (written in any language)       {"name": "Light", "value": 87}
or directly in the browser.                                        ]
                                                                   }}
7. WHY REST WEB SERVICES?                                      A simple JSON document as JSON formatted strings.
                                                               JSON offers a better solution than XML for at least
Comparative studies show in the table below the
                                                               Javascriptenvironments since instead of parsing it as
advantage of using REST.
                                                               XML, it is directly fitted into the proper datastructure.
                                                               That advantage makes JSON an important player in Web
              Table 1: REST VS SOAP                            2.0 applications. Thereexists a JSON parser available
                   REST vs SOAP                                almost in every language.
ISSUE                  SOAP             REST
Nature           A standard        A style
                                                               8. DEVICES SENSORS
Devloper view    Yes               Yes
Platform         Yes               Yes                         The incredible growth of sensor technology in
Independence                                                   Smartphone increases day by day and will experience
Simplicity       No                Yes                         amazingly over the next few years. Success of smart
Security         SSL,WS-Security SSL                           phones is leading to a growing amount of MEMS &
                 WS-               No                          sensors in mobile phones to provide new features/
Transactions
                 AtonicTransactio                              services to end-users, to decrease cost through more
                 n                                             integration or to expand hardware performance [17]: Our
                                                               architecture involved this new kind of sensors and linked
Performance      Good              Better
                                                               with the most lightweight communication tools to detect
Transport        HTTP,SMTP,JMS HTTP
                                                               their various parameters and involves collecting readings
Protocol
                                                               over time.
Support
Service          WSDL              No format
description                        contract                    REFERENCES
                                   definition                  [1] A. Bonnaccorsi, “On the Relationship between Firm
Devloper         Yes               Minimal        or                 Size and Export Intensity,” Journal of International
Tooling                            none                              Business Studies, XXIII (4), pp. 605-635, 1992.
Request          Request is        Request is                        (journal style)
Format           transmitted as    transmitted as              [2] R. Caves, Multinational Enterprise and Economic
                 XML               URI                             Analysis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
Response         Response data is  Normally                        1982. (book style)
Format           transmitted as    transmitted as              [3] M. Clerc, “The Swarm and the Queen: Towards a
                 XML               XML can be                      Deterministic and Adaptive Particle Swarm
                                   JSON                            Optimization,” In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress
Caching          No                Get     operation               on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), pp. 1951-
                                   can be cached                   1957, 1999. (conference style) H.H. Crokell,
Initiative       WS* initiative to There are 3ed                   “Specialization and International Competitiveness,”
                 improve problems party add on’s                   in Managing the Multinational
                 like compression  for parsing                 [4] Subsidiary, H. Etemad and L. S, Sulude (eds.),
                 or security       JSON with C#                    Croom-Helm, London, 1986. (book chapter style)
                                                               [5] K. Deb, S. Agrawal, A. Pratab, T. Meyarivan, “A
Pros ++: Loose coupling, Robustness, Scalability, Agility,         Fast Elitist Non-dominated Sorting Genetic
Simplicity.                                                        Algorithms for Multiobjective Optimization: NSGA
JSON                                                               II,” KanGAL report 200001, Indian Institute of
JSON is an acronym that stands for JavaScript Object               Technology, Kanpur, India, 2000. (technical report
Notation. This is a way of serializing data and objects into       style)
a very simple and easy string representation. This format      [6] J. Geralds, "Sega Ends Production of Dreamcast,"
is easily consumable not only by JavaScript, but is also           vnunet.com, para. 2, Jan. 31, 2001. [Online].
much easier for humans to read, understand and debug.              Available:        http://nl1.vnunet.com/news/1116995.
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [16] is a lightweight            [Accessed: Sept. 12, 2004]. (General Internet site)
and language independent textformat to interchange data.
The idea is to serialize data structures (numbers, arrays,
etc)
     {"Sensors": {
     "item": [
     {"name": "Temperature", "value": 26.1},
Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012                                                                    Page 133
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 1, Issue 4, November – December 2012                                    ISSN 2278-6856


AUTHOR
                     Riadh Bouhouchi received the
                     Master degrees in communication
                     systems from ENIT, T.E graduated
                     in 2000 from ESPTT, and hold an
                     engineering degree in computer
                     sciences since 2006, as I hold more
                     than 8 international certificates in
advanced programming and management as ITIL
(Information Technologies Infrastructure Library).




Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012                                          Page 134

								
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