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The Women Adoption in Owned Businesses and Entrepreneurship in India


International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: Email:, Volume 1, Issue 4, November – December 2012, ISSN 2278-6856, Impact Factor of IJETTCS for year 2012: 2.524

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									   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: Email:,
Volume 1, Issue 4, November – December 2012                                    ISSN 2278-6856

    The Women Adoption in Owned Businesses and
            Entrepreneurship in India
                                                         Asif Perwej

                                         Research Scholar Ph. D (Management Studies)
                                          Department of Management & Commerce,
                                          CMJ University, Shilong, Meghalaya, India

                                                                Women Entrepreneurs may be defined as the women or a
Abstract: The Entrepreneurship is very important criteria       group of women who initiate, organize and operate a
for economic development. The role of women entrepreneurs       business enterprise. Government of India has defined
cannot be ignored in this process. There is a significant       women entrepreneurs as an enterprise owned and
contribution of women entrepreneurs in the growth of            controlled by a woman having a minimum financial
developing nations in the real world. Even though women's       interest of 51% of the capital and giving at least 51% of
contributions to the business are one of the major engines of   employment generated in the enterprise to women. Like a
global economic growth, too often women do not have access
                                                                male entrepreneur a women entrepreneur has many
to basic business education, commercial credit, and
marketing opportunities .It is in everyone's interest to
                                                                functions [4]. They should explore the prospects of
improve the status of women. Studies show that societies that   starting a new enterprise; undertake risks, introduction of
promote women's rights are healthier and more prosperous.       new innovations, coordination administration and control
Societies that restrict women's rights are just the opposite.   of business and providing effective leadership in all
Keywords: Women, Socio-Economic Constraints,                    aspects of business.
Entrepreneurship, Motivational Factors, Business,
                                                                2. THE  CONCEPT    OF     WOMEN
                                                                ENTREPREENEURSHIP IN INDIA
1. INTRODUCTION                                                 Entrepreneurship has long been recognized as the key to
The women owned businesses are highly increasing in the         economic growth. The role of entrepreneurs, especially
economies of almost all countries. The hidden                   the small scale entrepreneurs who successfully exploit the
entrepreneurial potentials of women have gradually been         industrial and commercial opportunities on a small scale
changing with the growing sensitivity to the role and           can not be underestimated. Small scale enterprises help in
economic status in the society. Skill, knowledge and            enhancing economic growth because they have a better
adaptability in business are the main reasons for women         chance to carry out innovations, new means of
to emerge into business ventures [1]. ‘Women                    production, new markets, new materials, new forms of
Entrepreneur’ is a person who accepts challenging role to       organizations that lead to increased productivity. In his
meet her personal needs and become economically                 studies relating to entrepreneurship Matlay (2006) [5]
independent. A strong desire to do something positive is        posited that conceptual and contextual convergence is of
an inbuilt quality of entrepreneurial women, who is             paramount importance to the ongoing debate of whether
capable of contributing values in both family and social        entrepreneurs are born or made and to issues
life. With the advent of media, women are aware of their        surrounding entrepreneurship education and its impact on
own traits, rights and also the work situations [2]. The        entrepreneurial activities. Schutte (1995) suggested that
glass ceilings are shattered and women are found                the male entrepreneurs have been extensively studied and
indulged in every line of business from puppet to power         the focus has now shifted to the study of female
cables. The challenges and opportunities provided to the        entrepreneurs. Hisrich and Brush (1984) [1] mentioned
women of digital era are growing rapidly that the job           that most of what is known about entrepreneurs, their
seekers are turning into job creators [3]. They are             background, motivation for starting a business and
flourishing as designers, interior decorators, exporters,       business problems faced by them are based on studies of
publishers, garment manufacturers and still exploring           male entrepreneurs. It is important to differentiate
new avenues of economic participation .      In India ,         entrepreneurs on the basis of gender if women
although       women constitute the majority of the total       entrepreneurship is to be promoted (John, 2004) [3]. The
population, the entrepreneurial world is still a male           following flow chart shows the reasons for women
dominated one.                                                  becoming entrepreneurs below figure 1.

Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012                                                                       Page 56
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: Email:,
Volume 1, Issue 4, November – December 2012                                    ISSN 2278-6856

                                                               owners that might explain why female-owned businesses
                                                               appear to under perform than male-owned businesses.
                                                               The prominent factors are age of female owned business,
                                                               family commitments, lesser access to capital, different
                                                               education levels, prior experience of business and attitude
                                                               towards risk. According to Jesselyn (2004) [9] developing
                                                               countries should also tap the potential of women
                                                               entrepreneurs. Women are generally more serious
                                                               entrepreneurs in developing countries, even though their
                                                               businesses are small. They repay loans more reliably than
                                                               men, and use their earnings for the benefit of families and
                                                               for reinvestment.
                                                               Barshefsky, the U.S. Government's chief trade negotiator,
                                                               noted that the U.S. Trade Representative's work "rests on
                                                               a simple foundation: the commitment to open markets,
                                                               freer trade, and the rule of law in world commerce." She
                                                               pointed out that the day of her speech, June 16,
                                                               commemorated the 70th anniversary of the Smoot-
                                                               Hawley Act, which she described as the "largest single
                                                               restriction on trade in American history" and a major
                                                               contributor to the Great Depression of the 1930s. She
                                                               went on to say that the free trade policies of President
Figure 1: The Reason of women becoming entrepreneurs           Franklin D. Roosevelt and successive administrations
Women entrepreneurship has come a long way in India.           have led to:
In urban areas, more and more women are successfully
running day care centers, placement services, floriculture,       Growth and Rising Living Standards - Since the
beauty parlors and fashion boutiques. Even in rural areas,         1950s, trade has expanded fifteen-fold, world
self-help groups are empowering women to start their               economic production has grown six-fold, and per
own micro business. In her study Anju (1994)                       capita income has nearly tripled. The result,
emphasized       on value    orientation among       women         Barshefsky said, has been "historically unprecedented
entrepreneurs [6]. She argued that women entrepreneurs             social progress: since the 1950s, world life
had a preference for values like achievement,                      expectancy has grown by 20 years, infant mortality
independence, leadership effectiveness and conformity to           dropped by two-thirds, and famine receded from all
social obligations, which change the scale of success in           but the most remote or misgoverned corners of the
favor of entrepreneurs. Problems, however, are plenty for          world."
a female business enthusiast who wishes to start her own
unit. In general, whatever problems men might face in             Economic Security - In 1997-99, with 40 percent of
setting up a small-scale unit are accentuated in the case of       the world in an economic recession, the "system of
women. In certain businesses that are traditionally male           mutual benefit and the rule of law represented by the
dominated, women are looked at with suspicion on their             WTO helped prevent a cycle of protection and
seriousness of managing the business with a long-term              retaliation like that of the 1930s and ultimately
perspective. Rinkal (2004) [7] suggested that women of             averted the political strife that can erupt in economic
today are in several ways different from the women of              crisis."
past years. During the present times, they seek social and
                                                                  Peace and Stability - Barshefsky praised the
economic independence and are prepared to take risks for
                                                                   international economic system for its role in
the same.
                                                                   reintegrating Germany and Japan in the 1950s,
Mitchell (2004) [8] found that women entrepreneurs tend
                                                                   nations emerging from colonial rule in the 1960s and
to be motivated by the need to provide security for their
                                                                   1970s, and the nearly 30 nations that have broken
families and by their family circumstances. Women
                                                                   with communist planning systems and sought
entrepreneurs are motivated by the need to be
                                                                   economic integration since the end of the Cold War.
independent,        economically       and       otherwise.
Entrepreneurship allows women to combine caring for            According to the United Nations, nearly half of the
their family with bringing in the money needed for day-        world's business owners are women, and they are
to-day survival. This trend has also been visible in several   responsible for more than half of the economic activity in
Asian countries including Indonesia and Singapore. In          developing nations. Despite this, according to the U.N.,
the opinion of Watson (2003) there are quite a number of       only one-third of the work that women do in the
potential systematic differences between male and female

Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012                                                                      Page 57
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: Email:,
Volume 1, Issue 4, November – December 2012                                    ISSN 2278-6856

developing world is measured and counted in national            enough time to perform all their responsibilities in
economic reports.                                               priority.
Mr. Heinrich Kolb, Secretary of State, Ministry of
                                                                c) Market-oriented risks – Stiff competition in the
Economy, Germany "We need to improve the
                                                                market and lack of mobility of women make the
environment for SMEs, because they are creating scope
                                                                dependence of women entrepreneurs on middleman
for more growth employment, broad space innovation,
                                                                indispensable. Many business women find it difficult to
better skills in the local and global markets. SMEs have to
                                                                capture the market and make their products popular. They
be more forward-looking. In Germany, those women who
                                                                are not fully aware of the changing market conditions and
use government incentives are doing as well as men in
                                                                hence can effectively utilize the services of media and
creating enterprises. Women bring fresh motivation.
Women will fit better into the new service society than in
the old industrial society. Our countries can no longer do      d) Motivational factors – Self motivation can be realized
without the expertise, skills and experience of women           through a mind set for a successful business, attitude to
entrepreneurs."                                                 take up the risk and behavior towards the business society
Ms. Ann Diamantopoulou, Secretary of State, Ministry of         by shouldering the social responsibilities. Other factors
Development, Greece "Women and SMEs constitute the              are family support, Government policies, financial
main weapons for helping us to build a future without           assistance from public and private institutions and also
discrimination. We fight for our rights, and not for            the environment suitable for women to establish business
privileges, because the business has no gender. What is a       units.
natural success for men is a conquest of women.
Women’s participation in any kind of economic activity          e) Knowledge in Business Administration – Women
is of a complementary              nature to their family       must be educated and trained constantly to acquire the
incomes; their participation in no ways reduces their           skills and knowledge in all the functional areas of
family duties."                                                 business management. This can facilitate women to excel
Ms. Barbara Prammer, Federal Minister for the                   in the decision making process and develop a good
Condition of Women, Austria "Women provide an                   business network.
essential opportunity for economic and social
development and progress. They have a different vision          f) Awareness about the financial assistance – Various
thanks to the delays they are currently remediation, a          institutions in the financial sector extend their maximum
vision which is new and different, realistic, modern, and       support in the form of incentives, loans, schemes etc.
enthusiastic. When social structures leave them no              Even then every woman entrepreneur may not be aware of
possibility of evolving in their careers, and when civil        all the assistance provided by the institutions. So the
society closes its doors to them, women take their own          sincere efforts taken towards women entrepreneurs may
initiatives. They are quite naturally drawn to initiative, to   not reach the entrepreneurs in rural and backward areas.
creation and to the management of businesses.
                                                                      g) Exposed to the training programs -
                                                                      Trainingprograms and workshops for every type of
3. THE WOMEN                     ENTREPRENEURS
                                                                entrepreneur is available through the social and welfare
CONSTRAINTS                                                     associations, based on duration, skill and the purpose of
The women in advanced nations are recognized and are            the training program. Such programs are really useful to
more prominent in the business world. But the Indian            new, rural and young entrepreneurs who want to set up a
women entrepreneurs [10] are facing some major                  small and medium scale unit on their own.
constraints like-
                                                                h) Identifying the available resources – Women are
a) Lack of confidence – In general, women lack                  hesitant to find out the access to cater their needs in the
confidence in their strength and competence. The family         financial and marketing areas. In spite of the
members and the society are reluctant to stand beside           mushrooming growth of associations, institutions, and the
their entrepreneurial growth. To a certain extent, this         schemes from the government side, women are not
situation is changing among Indian women and yet to             enterprising and dynamic to optimize the resources in the
face a tremendous change to increase the rate [11] of           form of reserves, assets mankind or business volunteers.
growth in entrepreneurship.
                                                                Highly educated, technically sound and professionally
b) Socio-cultural barriers – Women’s family and                 qualified women should be encouraged for managing
personal obligations are sometimes a great barrier for          their own business, rather than dependent on wage
succeeding in business careers. Only few women are able         employment outlets. The unexplored talents of young
to manage both home and business efficiently, devoting          women can be identified, trained and used for various
                                                                types of industries to increase the productivity in the
                                                                industrial sector [12]. A desirable environment is

Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012                                                                       Page 58
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: Email:,
Volume 1, Issue 4, November – December 2012                                    ISSN 2278-6856

necessary for every woman to inculcate entrepreneurial         century Women are an emerging economic force that
values and involve greatly in business dealings [13]. The      policymakers cannot afford to ignore However
additional business opportunities that have recently been      governments and institutions promoting democratic
approaching for women entrepreneurs are empowering             values make a real difference in women s business
women entrepreneurs is essential for achieving the goals       organizations in newly emerging market democracies
of sustainable development and the bottlenecks hindering       [20] In the global economy of the 21st century
their growth must be eradicated to entitle full                international trade will be a key source of economic
participation in the business [14]. Apart from training        growth and development. A recent survey conducted in
programs, Newsletters, mentoring, trade fairs and              several countries by the National Foundation of Women
exhibitions also can be a source for entrepreneurial           Business Owners NFWBO indicates that women owned
development. As a result, the desired outcomes of the          firms involved in the global marketplace. Women
business are quickly achieved and more of remunerative         Entrepreneurs in the Global Economy have greater
business opportunities are found. Henceforth, promoting        revenues are more optimistic about their business
entrepreneurship among women is certainly a shortcut to        prospects and are more focused on business expansion
rapid economic growth and development. Let us try to           obviously expanding into international trade can pay off
eliminate all forms of gender discrimination and thus          for women owned firms. However it is not clear that
allow [15] women to be an entrepreneur at par with men.        smaller enterprises are benefiting from these potential as
                                                               much as larger firms [21] Women s business associations
4. PUSH-PULL FACTORS AND WOMEN                                 can and should ensure that their members are equipped to
IN BUSINESS                                                    reap the rewards of expanding into the international
The women in business are a recent phenomenon in               arena. Women must learn how to play the international
India. By and large they had confided themselves to petty      trade game and a global network of women s business
business and tiny cottage industries [16]. Women               associations can help them do that Information
entrepreneurs engaged in business due to push and pull         technology can help identify markets provide industry
factors. Which encourage women to have an independent          [22] information and spotlight trends about. What's the
occupation and stands on their own legs. A sense towards       role of women in national economies can be Today
independent decision-making on their life and career is        women in advanced market economies own more than 25
the motivational factor behind this urge. Saddled with         of all businesses and women owned businesses in Africa
household chores and domestic responsibilities women           Asia [23] Eastern Europe and Latin America are growing
want [17] to get independence under the influence of           rapidly. In some regions of the world transformation to a
these factors the women entrepreneurs choose a                 market economy threatens to sharpen gender inequality
profession as a challenge and as an urge to do something       Some of these changes are simply the legacy of a gender
new. Such situation is described as pull factors. While in     imbalance that existed prior [24].
push factors women engaged in business activities due to
family compulsion and the responsibility is thrust upon        An economist once said that the country's total gross
them [18].                                                     domestic product would go down if he married his
                                                               housekeeper, Rachel Kurian, the course convener, said.
                                                               She cited a 1995 Human Development Report by the
                                                               United Nations Development Program, that work outside
5. GROWING ROLE      OF                        WOMEN           of that valued by the market mostly women's work in the
ENTREPRENEURS IN INDIA                                         home reached a value of US$9 trillion, or three [25]
                                                               fourths of the world's gross domestic product. Such
In the context of Indian economy, Women owned
                                                               estimates are based, for instance, on the cost of paying for
businesses are highly increasing in the economies of
                                                               your laundry or meals.
almost all countries The hidden entrepreneurial potentials
of women have gradually been changing with the growing
sensitivity to the role economic status in the society Skill
                                                               6. STRUCTURE OF THE                        ECONOMY
Knowledge adaptability in [19] business are the main           AFTER GLOBALIZATION
reason for women to take up entrepreneurship They span
                                                               Due to globalization not only the GDP has increased but
generations and are there in every field From Tractors to
                                                               also the direction of growth in the sectors has also been
television from biscuits to banking from HR to hospitals
                                                               changed. Earlier the maximum part of the GDP in the
Denied entry into a male bastion they create another
                                                               economy was generated from the primary sector but now
industry like Kiran Mazumdar Shaw of Biocon According
                                                               the service industry is devoting the maximum part of the
to her hard work commitment and caring in word and
                                                               GDP. The services sector remains the growth driver of the
deed helps people overcome obstacles Women
                                                               economy with a contribution of more than 57 per cent of
Entrepreneurs in the Global Economy As technology
speeds up lives and the new millennium is now upon us it
is useful to take time to reflect on what will surely be one
of the driving forces of the global economy of the 21st
Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012                                                                       Page 59
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: Email:,
Volume 1, Issue 4, November – December 2012                                    ISSN 2278-6856

India is ranked 18th among the world’s leading exporters      [2] Jesselyn and Mary (2004), "The Formal Institutional
of services with a share of 1.3 per cent in world exports          Framework of Entrepreneurship In The Philippines:
[26]. The services sector is expected to benefit from the          Lessons for Developing Countries", The Journal of
ongoing liberalization of the foreign investment regime            Entrepreneurship, vol. 13 (2), pp. 185-203.
into the sector. The software and the ITES-BPO sectors        [3] John J. , "Development of India: Gender Dimensions",
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7. A COMPRASION   WITH                          OTHER         [4] Rinkal, Divya and Sneha. , "Women Entrepreneurs--
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES                                               Critical Issues." , Proceedings of the 11th Summer
                                                                   Camp on Entrepreneurial Stimulation for Children
• The Consider global trade India’s share of world                 from May 2-7, 2004.
  merchandise exports increased from .05% to .07% over        [5] Matlay, & Harry , "Researching Entrepreneurship
  the past 20 years. Over the same period China’s share            and Education", Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., vol.
  has tripled to almost 4%.                                        48 (8/ 9), pp. 704-718, 2006.
                                                              [6] Chinonye Okafor and Roy Amalu, (2010),
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                                                              [9] Jesselyn and Mary (2004), "The Formal Institutional
The all women are endowed with innate power that can
                                                                   Framework of Entrepreneurship In The Philippines:
make      them     successful   entrepreneurs.     Women
                                                                   Lessons for Developing Countries", The Journal of
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                                                              [10] Vijay and B. (1997), “Problems and Prospects of
into this world, it contributes to the society. When an
                                                                   Women Entrepreneurs” , The Indian            Journal of
entrepreneur creates an enterprise it generates
                                                                   Commerce, Golden Jubilee 193(IV), pp. 218-221.
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                                                              [11] Levent.T. ,Masurel. E & Nijkampo, P. (2003),
prerequisite for the development of any nation. The
                                                                   “Diversity in entrepreneurship: Ethnic and Female
independence brought the promise of equality of
                                                                   Roles in Urban Economic Life” , International
opportunity in all spheres to the Indian women and laws
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guaranteeing for their equal rights of participation in the
                                                              [12] Ahl and H. (2006), “Why research on women
political process and equal opportunities and rights in
                                                                   entrepreneurs        needs        new       directions”,
education and employment were enacted. But
                                                                   Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, vol. 30 no. 5,
unfortunately, the government sponsored development
                                                                   pp. 595-621.
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                                                              [13] Jamali, D., Sidani, Y. and Safieddine, A. (2005),
The large majority of them are still unaffected by the
                                                                   “Constraints facing working women in Lebanon: an
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                                                                   1(3), pp. 381-397, 2005.
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   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: Email:,
Volume 1, Issue 4, November – December 2012                                    ISSN 2278-6856

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Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012                                            Page 61

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