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Historical Development of IOs


									   Historical Development of IOs
• The origins of the idea of “international society” and international
  institutions goes back to Ancient China, the Greek City-States, and
  Renaissance Italy.
• Concert of Europe can be seen as the first international organization
  in the modern sense. It was established in the Congress of Vienna
  in 1815 to restore the old system in Europe after Napoleonic wars.
• It is important because it is the first forum for multilateral diplomacy
  for great powers.
• It has no formal structure and organize ad-hoc meetings when
• It reflects the need for collective diplomacy, mutual consultations
  among Great Powers, and their special status.
• Convened last time in 1878 in Berlin and divided Africa among
  Great Powers.
• It was the precursor to the idea of both League of Nations and the
  United Nations.
              History continued…
• Public international unions such as International Telegraph Union
  (est. 1865) and Universal Postal Union (est. 1874) are among the
  first of their kinds. Others such ILO, Interpol etc. followed.
• They were established to deal with problems emanating from
  technological change, industrialization, expanding commerce, and
  communications in 19th century.
• Hague conferences (convened in 1899 and 1907) aimed at finding
  peaceful ways of settling international disputes.
• It lead to the establishment of Convention for the Pacific Settlement
  of International Disputes and also Permanent Court of Arbitration,
  which still exists.
• For the first time European and non-European powers were given
  equal status and voice, establishing the universality and sovereign
  equality of states. Hague conferences also created most of the
  procedures that are being used in moderns international
  organizations such as electing chairs, taking roll call votes etc.
             League of Nations
•    Established in 1919 after the First World War. The U.S.
     President Woodrow Wilson and his Fourteen Points
     were the driving force behind its founding.
•    Based on two key principles:
a.   Respect for territorial integrity and political indepence
     of member states.
b.   Collective security.
•    LoN has three permanent organs ( the Council,
     Assembly, and Secretariat) as well as two autonomous
     organizations ( Permanent Court of International
     Justice [PCİJ] and International Labour Organization
                League of Nations
• LoN is the first permanent international organization that has a
   general scope and a permanent Secretariat. In other words, it was
   the first modern international organization, a precursor to UN, OSCE
• Although it achieved a degree of success in settling territorial
   disputes in Europe after WWI and establishing the mandate system,
   LoN finally collapsed. There are three reasons for the eventual
   failure of LoN:
a. The US Congress failed to ratify the Covenant, thus the US was
   never a member. This American absence seriously undermined
   LoN’s capacity and ability to deal with crises as well as its credibility.
b. LoN’s definition of collective security was impractical and idealistic.
c. The League failed to respond territorial aggression properly
   (Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, Italian invasion of
   Ethiopia in 1935, and Hitler’s occupation of Austria and
   Czechoslovakia) and thus lost its legitimacy and credibility.

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