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1.    Security Environment                                                       1

2.    Organisation and Functions of the Ministry of Defence                      9

3.    Indian Army                                                                17

4.    Indian Navy                                                                33

5.    Indian Air Force                                                           43

6.    Coast Guard                                                                49

7.    Defence Production                                                         57

8.    Defence Research and Development                                           93

9.    Inter Service Organizations                                                113

10.   Recruitment and Training                                                   131

11.   Resettlement and Welfare of Ex-Servicemen                                  153

12.   Cooperation between the Armed Forces and Civil Authorities                 167

13.   National Cadet Corps                                                       177

14.   Defence Relations with Foreign Countries                                   189

15.   Ceremonial, Academic and Adventure Activities                              199

16.   Activities of Vigilance Units                                              213

17.   Empowerment and Welfare of Women                                           219


      I      Matters dealt with by the Departments of the
             Ministry of Defence                                                 227
      II     Ministers, Chiefs of Staff and Secretaries who were in              231
             position from January 1, 2011 onwards
      III    Summary of latest Comptroller & Auditor General                     232
             (C&AG) Report on the working of Ministry of Defence
      IV     Position of Action Taken Notes (ATNs) as on 31.12.2011 in respect   245
             of observations made in the C&AG Reports/PAC Reports


   IAF SU-30s dominating the air space

           The    emergence of ideology linked terrorism, the
           spread of small arms and light weapons(SALW), the
           proliferation of WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction)
           and globalisation of its economy are some of the factors
           which link India’s security directly with the extended
1.1    India has land frontiers extending               Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. The Andaman
more than 15,500 kilometres and maritime                & Nicobar Islands located 1300 km away from
boundaries overlooking three major shipping             the nearest point on our East Coast assume
lanes. The country is strategically located vis-        strategic predominance with respect to the
à-vis both continental Asia and the Indian              entrance to the Malacca Straits. In the Arabian
Ocean Region. It has a landmass of 3.3 million          Sea, the Lakshadweep and Minicoy islands,
square kilometres and is home to over a billion         situated on the sea-lanes of communication
people with varying ethnic, linguistic, religious       running eastwards from the Persian Gulf and
and cultural backgrounds.                               the Red Sea are 450 km away from the nearest
                                                        point on the West Coast. India is, thus, a
1.2    The topography of India is diverse,
                                                        maritime as well as a continental entity.
ranging from the snow clad Himalayas with
peaks over 28,000 feet to deserts, thick jungles        1.3    The geographical and topographical
and vast plains. The Siachen Glacier in the             diversity, especially on the land borders which
North is the world’s highest battle-field, with         we share with seven neighbouring countries
posts located as high as 21,000 feet. India’s           (viz., Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China,
Western border runs through deserts, fertile            Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan) poses unique
plains and thickly forested mountains.       The        challenges to our Armed Forces.           India’s
North-Eastern frontier also comprises steep,            peninsular dimension places it adjacent to
high ranges and dense tropical forests.       To        one of the most vital sea-lanes of the world
the South, there are ranges close to the sea,           stretching from the Suez Canal and the Persian
inland plateaus interspersed with river valleys,        Gulf to the Straits of Malacca through which
coastal plains, and far-flung island territories        55,000 ships and much of the oil from the Gulf
such as the Lakshadweep to the West and the             region transit each year.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the East. On
                                                        1.4    India’s location at the base of continental
three sides, from Gujarat to West Bengal, the
                                                        Asia and the top of the Indian Ocean gives
country is bordered by the Arabian Sea, Indian
                                                        it a vantage point in relation to both Central


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