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Appendix 1 Scientific Names of Organisms Mentioned in the Text

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					                                        Appendix 1
                               Scientific Names of Organisms
                                   Mentioned in the Text

This is an alphabetical list of the organisms whose scientific names may not be mentioned in the text. The common names are
listed alphabetically along with the scientific names. Common and scientific names of organisms mentioned in Appendices 2
through 4 are provided within the respective appendices.




    Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
    COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME                              COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME

    Aardvark                      Orycteropus spp.                             Algae, bark                   Pleurococcus spp. and others (see
    Abrasives, horsetail                                                                                     footnote under Bark, green algae
      source of                   Equisetum spp.                                                             that inhabit)
    Absinthe liqueur, source      Pimpinella anisum, Artemisia                 Algae, brown                  members of Phylum Chromophyta,
      of ingredients              absinthium, and others                                                     Kingdom Protista
    Acacia                        Acacia spp.                                  Algae,                        Chondrus crispus, Eucheuma spp.,
    Aconite, source of            Aconitum spp.                                  carrageenan-producing       and others
    Actinomycetes                 Actinomyces spp. and others                  Algae, coralline              Bossiella spp., Corallina spp.,
    Adder’s tongue fern,          Ophioglossum reticulatum                                                   Lithothamnion spp., and others
      reticulate                  (has highest known diploid                   Algae/cyanobacteria,          Chlorella, Irish moss (Chondrus
                                  chromosome number—1,260)                       edible1                     crispus), kelp (Laminaria spp.),
    Adder’s tongue ferns          Ophioglossum spp.                                                          laver or nori (Porphyra spp.),
    Afghanistan pine              Pinus eldarica                                                             spirulina (Spirulina spp.), wakame
                                                                                                             (Undaria spp.), and others
    Aflatotoxin, source of        Aspergillus flavus
                                                                               Algae/cyanobacteria,          Anabaena sp., Caulerpa sp., Chlorella
    African sausage tree          Kigelia pinnata                                toxic                       sp., Chondria armata, Gambierdiscus
    Agar, source of               Chondrus crispus, Eucheuma spp.,                                           toxicus, Hizikia sp., Lyngbya
                                  Gelidium spp., Gracilaria spp., and                                        majusculis, Oscillatoria nigroviridis,
                                  other red algae                                                            Protogonyaulax (Gonyaulax) sp.,
    Agave                         Agave angustifolia, A. palmeri,                                            Prototheca sp., Prymnesium parvum,
                                  A. tequilana, and other Agave spp.                                         Ptychodiscus (Gymnodinium brevis),
    Air plant—see also                                                                                       Schizothrix calcicola, and others
       Bromeliad                  Kalanchoë spp.                               Algae/cyanobacteria used      Anabaena azollae,
    Alder                         Alnus spp.                                     as fertilizers or soil      Chlamydomonas mexicana, kelps,
    Alfalfa                       Medicago sativa                                conditioners                and others
    Alfalfa caterpillar           Colias philodice                             Algae, flatworm               Platymonas spp.
    Algae                         members of Kingdom Protista—all              Algae, golden brown           members of Phylum Chromophyta,
                                  phyla                                                                      Kingdom Protista
    Algae, agar-producing         Acanthopeltis spp., Ahnfeltia spp.,          Algae, green                  members of Phylum Chlorophyta,
                                  Gelidium spp. (principal source),                                          Kingdom Protista
                                  Gracilaria spp., Pterocladia spp.,           Algae, green colonial         Chaetopeltis spp., Eudorina spp.,
                                  and others                                                                 Pandorina spp., Pediastrum spp.,
    Algae,                        Ascophyllum spp., Durvillea spp.,                                          Scenedesmus spp., Volvox spp.,
      alginate-producing          Ecklonia spp., Laminaria spp.,                                             and others
                                  Macrocystis spp., and others


1
 More than 150 species of algae and cyanobacteria are known to be edible, but most of the approximately half million tons of dried algae con-
sumed annually consists of species of Laminaria, Porphyra, and Undaria. Most commercially grown nori consists of the fronds of Porphyra tenera,
but other species of Porphyra are edible. During their life cycles, Porphyra spp. alternate between the familiar frond (bladed) form and a relatively
inconspicuous filamentous form that was discovered after a British phycologist germinated spores of Porphyra umbilicaulis in a culture dish
in her laboratory. The filamentous form previously had been considered a distinct species that had been named Conchocelis rosea. Species of
Ascophyllum, Fucus, Laminaria, and Macrocystis are harvested for animal and poultry feeds. Dunaliella bardawil is cultured commercially as a
source of beta-carotene and glycerol. Spirulina spp. (cyanobacteria) have a protein content of up to 70%; they are commercially cultivated for
human consumption, particularly in Mexico and Israel, and have a been a staple food of natives of the Lake Chad region in Africa for centuries.

510
                                                               Scientific Names of Organisms Mentioned in the Text                               511




   Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
   COMMON NAME                    SCIENTIFIC NAME                             COMMON NAME                    SCIENTIFIC NAME

   Algae, green filamentous       Oedogonium spp., Spirogyra spp.,            Arrowroot                      Maranta arundinacea, Tacca
                                  Ulothrix spp., Zygnema spp., and                                           leontopetaloides
                                  others                                      Arrowroot, Florida,
   Algae, medicinal               Laminaria spp., Digenia spp., and             source of                    Zamia floridana
                                  many others                                 Artichoke, Chinese
   Algae, metal-removing          Chlamydomonas reinhardtii                     (Crosne)                     Stachys affinis
   Algae, red                     members of Phylum Rhodophyta,               Artichoke, globe               Cynaria scolymus
                                  Kingdom Protista                            Artichoke, Jerusalem           Helianthus tuberosus
   Algae, snowbank                Chlamydomonas nivale and others             Arum Lily (Arum) Family        Araceae
   Algae, sponge                  Chlorella spp., Zoochlorella spp.           Ascomycete                     member of Phylum Ascomycota,
   Algae, yellow-green            members of Phylum                                                          Kingdom Fungi
                                  Chromophyta, Kingdom Protista               Ash, blue                      Fraxinus quadrangulata
   Almond                         Prunus amygdalus                            Ash, Oregon                    Fraxinus latifolia
   Aloe juice, source of          Aloe barbadensis, A. ferox,                 Ash, white                     Fraxinus americana
                                  A. vera, and others                         Asparagus                      Asparagus officinalis
   Amaranth                       Amaranthus spp.                             Aspen, quaking                 Populus tremuloides
   Amaryllis                      Amaryllis spp.                              Aspergillosis, causal          Aspergillus fumigatus and other
   Ama’uma’u                      Sadleria cyatheoides                          agent(s) of                  Aspergillus spp.
   American chestnut              Castanea dentata                            Aster                          Aster spp.
   American elm                   Ulmus americana                             Astringent, horsetail          Equisetum arvense, E. debile, and
   Amoeba                         Amoeba proteus and others                     source of                    others
   Amoeba, fungal internal        Cochlonema verrucosum and                   Athlete’s foot, fungal
     parasites of                 others                                        causal agent of              Trichophyton spp.
   Amoeba, fungal trappers of     Dactylella spp. and others                  Autograph tree (Fig. 8.15C)    Clusia rosea
   Anabaena                       Anabaena spp. (including nitrogen-          Avocado                        Persea americana and others
                                  fixing spp. such as A. azollae)             Azalea                         Rhododendron spp.
   Anemone                        Anemone spp.                                Baby blue eyes                 Nemophila menziesii
   Angelica                       Angelica archangelica                       Baby powder, ground pine
   Anise                          Pimpinella anisum                             source of                 Lycopodium clavatum
   Anise swallowtail butterfly    Papilio zelicaon                            Bacteria,                   Clostridium acetobutylicum and
   Annatto                        Bixa orellana                                 acetone-producing         others
   Ant                            Formica spp. and many others                Bacteria, acidophilus       Lactobacillus acidophilus
   Anteater                       Myrmecophaga jubata                         Bacteria, ammonifying       Clostridium spp., Micrococcus spp.,
   Ants, bullhorn Acacia          Pseudomyrmex ferruginea                                                 Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and
   Aphid                          Anuraphis spp., Aphis spp., and                                         others
                                  others                                      Bacteria, anthrax           Bacillus anthracis
   Aphid, root (pest of                                                       Bacteria, blue-green—see Cyanobacteria
     grape vines)                 Phylloxera spp.                             Bacteria, botulism          Clostridium botulinum
   Apple2                         Malus domestica (= Malus pumila)2           Bacteria, brucellosis       Brucella abortus, B. suis,
   Apple brown rot,                                                                                       B. melitensis
     causal agent                 Monolinia fructigena                        Bacteria, Bt                Bacillus thuringiensis
   Apple scab, causal agent       Venturia inaequalis                         Bacteria, bubonic plague    Yersinia pestis
   Apricot                        Prunus armeniaca                            Bacteria, buttermilk        Streptococcus lactis, S. cremoris,
   Apricot brown rot              Sclerotinia fructicola                                                  Leuconostoc citrovorum, and others
   Arabidopsis                                                                Bacteria, butyl alcohol     Clostridium acetobutylicum and
     (Mouse-ear cress)            Arabidopsis thaliana                                                    others
   Arborvitae                                                                 Bacteria, cholera           Vibrio cholerae
     (American/Northern)         Thuja occidentalis                           Bacteria,                   Clostridium spp., Micrococcus spp.,
   Archaebacteria                members of Phylum                              decay/decomposer          Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and
                                 Archaebacteria, Kingdom Archaea                                          others
   Archaefructus, extinct plant believed                                      Bacteria, denitrifying      Micrococcus denitrificans,
     to be the earliest flowering plant                                                                   Thiobacillus denitrificans, and others



2
 There are more than 1,000 varieties of apples, mostly of hybrid origin. The principal ancestors of Malus pumila probably include M. sylvestris,
M. dasyphylla, and M. praecox. Some authorities include Malus within the genus Pyrus and refer to most cultivated apples as Pyrus malus. Others
distinguish between the two genera on the basis of leaf pubescence and stone cells within the fruit, referring those cultivars with leaf pubescence
and sclereids to Malus and those without these features to Pyrus.
512                           Appendix 1




    Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
    COMMON NAME                      SCIENTIFIC NAME                           COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME

    Bacteria, dextran                Leuconostoc mesenteroides                 Bacteria, pneumonia           Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Bacteria, diphtheria             Corynebacterium diphtheriae                 (some forms of              and others
    Bacteria, ensilage               Lactobacillus delbrueckii,                  pneumonia are viral)
                                     L. plantarum, and others                  Bacteria, PPLO
    Bacteria,                        Bacillus stearothermophilus                 (mycoplasmas)               Mycoplasma pneumoniae
      ethanol-producing              (mutant form)                             Bacteria, pseudomonad         Pseudomonas spp.
    Bacteria, frost-damage                                                     Bacteria, purple nonsulfur    Rhodomicrobium spp.,
      preventing                     Pseudomonas syringiae                                                   Rhodopseudomonas spp.,
    Bacteria, gas gangrene           Clostridium novyi, C. perfringens,                                      Rhodospirillum spp.
                                     C. septicum                               Bacteria, purple sulfur       Amoebobacter spp., Lamprocystis
    Bacteria, giant                  Epulopiscium fishelsonii                                                spp., Rhodothece spp., and others
    Bacteria, glutamic               Arthrobacter spp., Brevibacterium         Bacteria, salmonella (food-
      acid-producing                 spp., Micrococcus spp.                      poisoning bacteria)         Salmonella spp.
    Bacteria, gonorrhea              Neisseria gonorrhoeae                     Bacteria, salt                Halococcus spp.,
    Bacteria, grease- and                                                                                    Halobacterium spp.
      oil-dissolving                 Pseudomonas aeruginosa                    Bacteria,   sauerkraut        Leuconostoc spp. and others
    Bacteria, green sulfur           Chlorobium spp.,                          Bacteria,   sorbose           Acetobacter suboxydans
                                     Chloropseudomonas spp.,                   Bacteria,   spotted fever     Rickettsia rickettsii
                                     Prosthecochloris spp., and others         Bacteria,   strep throat      Streptococcus spp.
    Bacteria, hot water                                                        Bacteria,   sulfolobus        Sulfolobus spp., Thermoplasma spp.,
      (Sulfolobus)                   Pyrodictium spp.                                                        Thermoproteus spp.
    Bacteria, human                                                            Bacteria, sulfur              Desulfovibrio spp., Thiobacillus
      ulcer-causing                  Heliobacter pylori                                                      spp., and others
    Bacteria, hydrogen               Hydrogenomonas spp.                       Bacteria, syphilis            Treponema pallidum
    Bacteria, ice-minus              Pseudomonas syringiae                     Bacteria, tetanus             Clostridium tetani
    Bacteria, iron                   Gallionella spp., Sphaerotilus spp.       Bacteria, tularemia           Francisella tularensis
    Bacteria, kefir                  Lactobacillus bulgaricus,                 Bacteria, typhoid fever       Salmonella typhi
                                     Streptococcus lactis                      Bacteria, typhus fever        Rickettsia prowazeki and others
    Bacteria, lactic acid            Lactobacillus delbrueckii and others      Bacteria, vinegar             Acetobacter spp.
    Bacteria, Legionnaire’s                                                    Bacteria, whooping cough      Bordetella pertussis
      disease                        Legionella pneumophilia                   Bacteria, yogurt              Streptococcus thermophilus
    Bacteria, luminescent            Achromobacter spp., Flavobacterium        Bald cypress                  Taxodium distichum
                                     spp., Photobacterium spp.,                Balsa                         Ochroma lagopus
                                     Pseudomonas spp., Vibrio spp.,            Balsam fir                    Abies balsamea
                                     and others
                                                                               Bamboo                        Bambusa spp., Phyllosytachys spp.
    Bacteria, meningitis             Neisseria meningitidis and others
                                                                               Banana                        Musa paradisiaca and others3
    Bacteria, methane                Methanobacterium spp.,
                                                                               Banana Family                 Musaceae
                                     Methanococcus spp.,
                                     Methanosarcina spp., and others           Banyan tree                   Ficus spp.
    Bacteria, milky spore                                                      Baobab, African               Adansonia digitata
      disease                        Bacillus popilliae                        Baobab, Australian            Adansonia gregorii
    Bacteria, mosquito-killing       Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis   Barbasco                      Lonchocarpus nicou var. utilis,
    Bacteria, nitrate (nitrifying)   Nitrobacter spp.                                                        Derris elliptica, and others
    Bacteria, nitrite                                                          Barberry                      Berberis verruculosa and other
      (nitrosifying)            Nitrosomonas spp.                                                            Berberis spp.
    Bacteria, nitrogen-fixing   Azorhizobium spp., Azotobacter                 Barberry,
                                spp., Brachyrhizobium spp.,                      Common/European             Berberis vulgaris
                                Clostridium pasteurinum, Rhizobium             Bark, green algae that
                                spp., Sinorhizobium spp., and others             inhabit                     Protococcus spp.4
    Bacteria, paratyphoid fever Salmonella paratyphi                           Barley                        Hordeum vulgare
                                                                               Barn swallow                  Hirundo rustica erythrogaster



3
 The domestic banana was developed from hybrids between Musa acuminata and M. balbisiana, and its genetic history is complex.
N. W. Simmonds, a recognized authority on the genus Musa, believes that only cultivars and not species of domestic banana should be recognized;
others prefer to retain Linnaeus’s species name of Musa paradisiaca.
4
 These algae are known under several names (Desmococcus, Phytoconis, Pleurococcus, Protococcus), and uncertainty exists as to which name has
priority. The green algal component of certain lichens, Trebouxia, also occurs independently on bark.
                                                                Scientific Names of Organisms Mentioned in the Text                           513




    Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
    COMMON NAME                  SCIENTIFIC NAME                           COMMON NAME                  SCIENTIFIC NAME

    Barrel cactus                Ferocactus spp., Mammillaria spp.,        Big tree                     Sequoiadendron giganteum
                                 and others                                Birch                        Betula papyrifera and others
    Barrel cactus, Coville’s     Ferrocactus covillei                      Bird’s-nest fungus
    Basil                        Ocimum basilicum                             (Fig. 19.24)              Crucibulum levis
    Basswood                     Tilia spp.                                Birth control pills, fungi
    Basswood, American           Tilia americana                              used in manufacture of    Rhizopus nigricans, R. arrhizus
    Bat                          Eidolon spp., Epomophorus spp.,           Bison                        Bison bison
                                 and others                                Bittersweet                  Celastrus scandens
    Bat (Fig. 23.17)             Leptonycteris sanbornii                   Blackberry                   Rubus argutus, R. laciniatus,
    Bay, California (also known                                                                         R. procerus, R. ursinus, and others
      as Oregon myrtle)         Umbellularia californica                   Blackbird                    Euphagus spp. and others
    Bay laurel                  Lauris nobilis                             Black bread mold             Rhizopus stolonifer and others
    Bay, sweet                  Laurus nobilis                             Black locust                 Robinia pseudo-acacia
    Beach strawberry            Fragaria chinensis                         Black stem rust of wheat     Puccinia graminis
    Bean, broad                 Vicia faba                                 Bladderwort                  Utricularia minor and other
    Bean, castor                Ricinus communis                                                        Utricularia spp.
    Bean Family                 Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae)            Blazing star                 Liatris ligulistylis
    Bean, garbanzo              Cicer arietinum                            Bleeding, ground pine
    Bean, garden                Phaseolus vulgaris                           used to arrest            Lycopodium clavatum
    Bean, green                 Phaseolus vulgaris                         Bleeding heart              Dicentra spp.
    Bean, jequirity             Abrus precatorius                          Bleeding heart, eastern     Dicentra eximia
    Bean, kidney                Phaseolus vulgaris                         Bleeding heart, Pacific     Dicentra formosa
    Bean, lima                  Phaseolus lunatus                          Bloodroot                   Sanguinaria canadensis, S. isabellinus
    Bean, mescal—see Mescal button                                         Blueberry                   Vaccinium spp.
    Bean, Mexican jumping       Sebastiana spp. and others                 Blue curls                  Trichostema spp.
    Bean, mung                  Phaseolus aureus (= Vigna radiata)         Blue-green algae—see Cyanobacteria
    Bean, navy                  Phaseolus vulgaris                         Blue-green bacteria—see Cyanobacteria
    Bean, pinto                 Phaseolus vulgaris                         Blue jay                    Cyanocitta cristata
    Bean, scarlet runner        Phaseolus coccineus                        Bobcat                      Felis rufus
    Bean, tepary                Phaseolus acutifolius var. latifolius      Bolete                      Boletus spp., Suillus spp., and others
    Bean, winged                Psophocarpus tetragonolobus                Bollworm                    Pectinophora gossypiella
    Bear                        Ursus spp. and others                      Bowstring fibers, source of Sansevieria metalaea
    Bear, polar                 Thalarctos maritimus                       Bowstring hemp,
    Bearberry (Kinnikinick)     Arctostaphylos uva-ursi                      source of                 Sansevieria spp.
    Beaver, mountain            Aplodontia rufa                            Box elder                   Acer negundo
    Bedstraw                    Galium spp.                                Boysenberry                 Rubus hybrids, with R. ursinus as
                                                                                                       one parent
    Bee, honey                  Apis mellifera
                                                                           Bracken fern                Pteridium aquilinum
    Beech, American             Fagus grandifolia
                                                                           Brazil nut                  Bertholettia excelsa
    Beefsteak morel             Helvella sp.
                                                                           Breadfruit                  Artocarpus altilis
    Beet, garden                Beta vulgaris
                                                                           Bridalwreath                Spiraea vanhouttei hybrids and others
    Beet, sugar                 Beta vulgaris (horticulturally
                                selected strains)                          Broccoli                    Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
    Beetle                      member of Order Coleoptera,                Bromeliad (“Air plant”)     Member of the Bromeliad Family
                                Class Insecta, Phylum Arthropoda,                                      (Bromeliaceae)5
                                Kingdom Animalia                           Broomrape                   Orobanche spp.
    Beetle, scarab              member of Family Scarabaeidae—             Brown algae                 Member of Phylum Chromophyta,
                                see Beetle                                                             Kingdom Protista. Representative
    Begonia                     Begonia spp.                                                           genera include Ascophyllum,
                                                                                                       Durvillea, Ecklonia, Ectocarpus,
    Belladonna, source of       Atropa belladonna
                                                                                                       Hizikia, Laminaria, Undaria, and
    Bermuda grass               Cynodon dactylon
                                                                                                       others
    Betel nut                   Areca catechu
                                                                           Brussels sprouts            Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera
    Betony, wood                Pedicularis canadensis



5
 There are more than 2,000 species of bromeliads, which include pineapple (Ananus comosus), Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides), and many
popular house plants in genera such as Aechmea, Bilbergia, Cryptanthus (not to be confused with Cryptantha, which is in the Boraginaceae),
Neoregelia, Nidularium, Quesnelia, and Vriesia.
514                            Appendix 1




      Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
      COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME                          COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME

      Bryophyte (see also           member of Phyla Anthocerotophyta,        California poppy              Eschscholzia californica6
        individual listings)        Hepaticophyta, or Bryophyta,             Camel                         Camelus spp.
                                    Kingdom Plantae                          Camelina                      Camelina sativa
      Bryopsid                      member of Phylum Chlorophyta,            Camellia7                     Camellia spp.7
                                    Kingdom Protista                         Camphor, source of            Cinnamomum camphora
      Bt                            Bacillus thuringiensis                   Candelilla                    Euphorbia antisyphilitica
      Buckeye                       Aesculus spp.                            Candlenut                     Aleurites moluccana
      Buckwheat                     Fagopyrum esculentum                     Cankerworm                    Alsophila pometaria and others
      Buffalo                       Bison bison                              Canna                         Canna edulis and other Canna spp.
      Bullhorn acacia               Acacia cornigera                                                       and hybrids
      Bunchberry                    Cornus canadensis                        Cantaloupe                    Cucumis melo
      Burn treatment, horsetail                                              Caraway                       Carum carvi
         source of ashes for        Equisetum hyemale and others             Cardamon/Cardamom             Elettaria cardamomum
      Butcher’s broom               Ruscus aculeata                          Caribou                       Rangifer tarandus
      Buttercup                     Ranunculus spp.                          Carnation                     Dianthus caryophyllus
      Buttercup, European                                                    Carnaubalike wax,
         bulbous                    Ranunculus bulbosa                         source of                   Stipa tenacissima
      Buttercup Family              Ranunculaceae                            Carnauba wax, source of       Copernicia cerifera
      Butterfly                     member of Superfamily                    Carob                         Ceratonia siliqua
                                    Papilionoidea, Order Lepidoptera,        Carpetweed Family             Molluginaceae
                                    Phylum Arthropoda, Kingdom
                                                                             Carrot                        Daucus carota
                                    Animalia
                                                                             Carrot Family                 Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae)
      Butterwort                    Pinguicula grandiflora, P. vulgaris,
                                    and other Pinguicula spp.                Cashew                        Anacardium occidentale
      Button snakeroot              Eryngium spp.                            Cassava                       Manihot esculenta
      Cabbage (green or red)        Brassica oleracea var. capitata          Cassia8                       Cinnamomum cassia8
      Cabbage, Chinese              Brassica chinensis                       Catalpa                       Catalpa spp.
      Cabbage Family                Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae)       Caterpillar                   larval stage of member of Order
                                                                                                           Lepidoptera, Phylum Arthropoda,
      Cabbage looper                Trichoplusia ni
                                                                                                           Kingdom Animalia
      Cabbage worm                  Pieris rapae
                                                                             Catnip                        Nepeta cataria
      Cacao                         Theobroma cacao
                                                                             Cattail                       Typha spp.
      Cactus (Fig. 24.14A)          Hamatocactus setispinus
                                                                             Cattle—see Cow
      Cactus, barrel                Mamillaria spp., Ferocactus spp.,
                                                                             Cauliflower                     Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
                                    and others
                                                                                                             (= B. oleracea var. cauliflora)9
      Cactus, cholla                Opuntia spp. (cylindrical forms)
                                                                             Caussu wax, source of           Calathea lutea
      Cactus family                 Cactaceae
                                                                             Cedar, Atlantic white           Chamaecyparis thyoides
      Cactus, giant saguaro         Carnegia gigantea
                                                                             Cedar, eastern red              Juniperus virginiana
      Cactus, hedgehog              Echinocereus spp. and others
                                                                             Cedar, northern white           Thuja occidentalis
      Cactus, living rock           Ariocarpus fissuratus and others
                                                                             Cedar, incense                  Calocedrus decurrens
      Cactus, organ-pipe            Lemaireocereus spp.
                                                                             Cedar, southern white           Chamaecyparis thyoides
      Cactus, prickly pear          Opuntia spp.
                                                                             Cedar, western red              Thuja plicata
      Cajuput, source of            Melaleuca cajuputi
                                                                             Celery, Celeriac                Apium graveolens
      Calabash                      Lagenaria siceraria
                                                                             Cell-from-hell (dinoflagellate) Pfiestera piscicida
      Calabazilla                   Cucurbita foetidissima
                                                                             Cellular slime mold             member of Phylum
      California bay (also known                                                                             Dictyosteliomycota, Kingdom Protista
        as Oregon myrtle)        Umbellularia californica
                                                                             Century plant                   Agave americana and others



6
Although the generic name was given in honor of Johann Friedrich Eschscholtz, an early 19th century German naturalist and surgeon, the name
was first published as Eschscholzia, making the spelling Eschscholtzia an orthographic variant.
7
 More than 80 species of Camellia and 2,000 horticultural varieties are recognized, with most of the ornamental varieties having been derived from
C. japonica and C. sasanqua. The late George Petersen of Chico, California, produced 700 of the horticultural varieties. Other important members
of the genus include C. sinensis (tea), and C. oleifera, whose seeds yield tea tree oil.
8
  This should not be confused with the genus Cassia, the source of senna in the Legume Family, or cassie, a perfume oil whose source is Acacia
farnesiana, another member of the Legume Family.
9
    Broccoli and cauliflower are two different forms of the same variety.
                                                        Scientific Names of Organisms Mentioned in the Text                        515




Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
COMMON NAME                SCIENTIFIC NAME                        COMMON NAME                 SCIENTIFIC NAME

Chamise                   Adenostoma fasciculatum                 Club moss (Fig. 21.3A)      Lycopodium cernuum
Chara                     Chara spp.                              Club moss (Fig. 21.3B)      Lycopodium obscurum
Chard                     Beta vulgaris var. cicla                Coastal redwood             Sequoia sempervirens
Cheese bacteria—see Bacteria, buttermilk                          Cobra plant                 Darlingtonia californica
Cheese fungi              Penicillium camembertii (for            Coca/Cocaine, source of     Erythroxylum (often
                          Camembert cheese), P. roquefortii                                   misspelled Erythroxylon) coca.
                          (for blue, Gorgonzola, Roquefort,                                   E. novogravatense is a lesser source.
                          and Stilton cheeses)                    Cochineal insect            Dactylopius coccus
Cherry, sour              Prunus cerasus                          Cocklebur                   Xanthium strumarium
Cherry, sweet             Prunus avium                            Cockroach                   Blatta orientalis, Blatella germanica,
Chestnut, American        Castanea dentata                                                    and others
Chia                      Salvia columbariae                      Cockroach plant             Haplophyton cimicidum
Chickadee, mountain       Parus gambeli                           Cockscomb                   Celosia spp.
Chickpea                  Cicer arietinum                         Coffee, Arabian             Coffea arabica
Chickweed (Himalayan)     Stellaria decumbens                     Coffee, Liberian            Coffea liberica
Chicle, source of         Manilkara zapota                        Coffee, robusta             Coffea canephora
Chicory                   Cichorium intybus                       Coffee Family
Chimpanzee                Pan troglodytes and others                (= Madder Family)         Rubiaceae
China grass               Boehmeria nivea                         Coleus                      Coleus blumei, C. x hybrida, and
Chinese vegetable tallow  Sapium sebiferum                                                    others
Chipmunk                  Eutamias spp., Tamias spp.,             Columbine                   Aquilegia spp.
                          and others                              Columbine (Fig. 24.3A)      Aquilegia formosa
Chlamydomonas             Chlamydomonas spp.                      Compass plant (Fig. 7.13)   Lactuca serriola; (Silphium laciniatum
Chloroxybacteria          member of Chloroxybacteriae,                                        is also known as Compass plant)
                          Phylum Eubacteria, Kingdom              Coneflower                  Rudbeckia sp.
                          Bacteria                                Coneflower, Asian           Strobilanthes spp.
Chocolate, source of      Theobroma cacao                         Copal, sources of           Agathis alba, Copaifera demeussei,
Chokecherry               Prunus virginiana var. melanocarpa                                  Hymenea coubaril, Trachylobium
Cholla (cactus)           Opuntia spp. (cylindrical forms)                                    verrucosum, and others
Christmas flower          Euphorbia pulcherrima                   Copperhead                  Ancistrodon contortrix
Chrysanthemum             About 160 spp.; many garden cultivars   Coral tree                  Erythrina crista-galli
                          are hybrids of Chrysanthemum            Cordage fibers, source of   Agave sisalina, A. heterocantha,
                          frutescens and C. morifolium                                        A. lophantha, Phormium tenax, and
Chuckwalla                Sauromalus obesus                                                   others
Chufa                     Cyperus esculentus                      Coriander                   Coriandrum sativum
Chytrid                   Allomyces arbusculus and                Corn (Maize)                Zea mays
                          many other members of Phylum            Corn borer, European        Pyrausta nubialis
                          Chytridiomycota, Kingdom Fungi          Corpse flower               Amorphophallus titanum
Cilantro                  Coriandrum sp.                          Cotton                      Gossypium arboreum,
Cinnamon, cassia          Cinnamomum cassia, C. burmannii,                                    G. barbadense, G. herbaceum,
                          C. loureii                                                          G. hirsutum, G. raimondii
Cinnamon, true            Cinnamomum zeylanicum                   Cottonwood                  Populus deltoides, P. fremontii,
Citric acid,                                                                                  and others
   fungal producers of    Aspergillus niger and others            Cow                         Bos sp.
Citronella oil, source of Cymbopogon nardus                       Cow parsnip                 Heracleum lanatum
Citrus                    Citrus spp.                             Cowslip                     Caltha palustris
Citrus Family             Rutaceae                                Crabapple                   Crataegus spp., Malus cortonaria
Cladophora                Cladophora spp.                                                     (= Malus sylvestris?)
Clematis                  Clematis spp.                           Crab grass                  Digitaria sanguinalis
Clover                    Trifolium spp.                          Cranberry, American         Vaccinium macrocarpon
Clover, bur               Medicago polymorpha                     Cress, garden               Lepidium sativum, Barbarea verna,
Cloves                    Syzygium aromaticum (formerly                                       and others
                          Eugenia caryophyllus)                   Cress, rock                 Arabis spp.
Club fungus               member of Phylum Basidiomycota,         Crocus, autumn/fall         Colchicum autumnale and other
                          Kingdom Fungi                                                       Crocus spp.
Club moss                 member of Phylum Lycophyta,             Crown of thorns             Euphorbia milii var. splendens and
                          Kingdom Plantae                                                     others
516                       Appendix 1




  Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
  COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME                          COMMON NAME                 SCIENTIFIC NAME

  Crozier, tropical tree fern                                            Digitalis, source of        Digitalis purpurea, D. lanata
    (Chapter 11 opener)         Sadleria cyatheoides                     Dill                        Anethum graveolens
  Crustacean                    member of Class Crustacea, Phylum        Dinoflagellate              member of Phylum Dinophyta,
                                Arthropoda, Kingdom Animalia                                         Kingdom Protista. Representative
  Cryptomonad                   member of Phylum Cryptophyta,                                        genera include Gambierdiscus,
                                Kingdom Protista                                                     Gonyaulax, and Gymnodinium
  Cucumber                      Cucumis sativus                          Dinoflagellate,
  Cucumber, squirting           Ecballium elaterium                        midnight-bioluminescent   Gonyaulax polyedra
  Cyanobacteria                 member of Kingdom Bacteria;              Dischidia                   Dischidia rafflesiana
                                common genera include Anabaena,          Divi-divi                   Caesalpinia coriaria
                                Lyngbya, Oscillatoria, Phormidium,       Dodder                      Cuscuta spp.
                                Schizothrix, and Spirulina               Dogbane                     Apocynum spp.
  Cyanobacteria,                                                         Dogwood                     Cornus spp.
    Lake Chad edible            Spirulina sp.                            Douglas fir                 Pseudotsuga menziesii
  Cyanobacteria, Red Sea        Trichodesmium erythraeum                 Dove                        member of Family Columbidae,
  Cyanobacteria, thermal        Bacillosiphon induratus,                                             Class Aves, Phylum Vertebrata,
                                Synechococcus spp., and others                                       Kingdom Animalia
  Cycad (Chapter 22                                                      Dove, mourning              Zenaidura macroura
    opener)                     Cycas sp.                                Downy mildew of grape       Plasmopora viticola
  Cycad (Fig. 22.12A)           Dioon edule                              Dragon’s blood              Dracaena spp., Daemonorops spp.
  Cycad (Fig. 22.12B)           Encephalartos altensteinii               Drimys                      Drimys winteri and other Drimys spp.
  Cycadeoid (extinct                                                     Duckweed                    Lemna spp., Wolffia spp., and others
    gymnosperm with                                                      Dulse                       Rhodymenia spp.
    palmlike leaves)            Cycadeoidea and other genera
                                                                         Dung mosses
  Cyclamen                      Cyclamen spp.                               (on dung of carnivores) Tayloria spp.
  Cypress                       Cupressus spp.                           Dung mosses (on dung of
  Cypress, bald                 Taxodium distichum                          herbivores)              Splachnum spp.
  Daffodil                      Narcissus spp. (see note under           Dutch elm disease,
                                Narcissus)                                  causal agent of          Ophiostoma ulmi/O. nova-ulmi
  Dahlia                        Dahlia spp.                              Dutchman’s breeches         Dicentra cucullaria
  Daisy                         Dimorphotheca spp., Layia spp.,          Dyer’s woad                 Isatis tinctoria
                                and others                               Dyes, sources of—see listing in Appendix 3
  Daisy fleabane                Erigeron spp.                            Eagle, golden               Aguila chrysautos
  Dandelion                     Taraxacum officinale (Scandinavia        Earth star                  Geaster spp. and others
                                only), elsewhere, Taraxacum sp. aff.
                                                                         Earthworm                   Lumbricus spp. and others
  Dandruff, fern(s) used in     Adiantum capillus-veneris,
                                                                         Ebony                       Diospyros ebenum
    treatment of                Polystichum munitum
                                                                         Eelworm (nematode)          member of Class Nematoda, Phylum
  Date                          Phoenix dactylifera
                                                                                                     Aschelminthes, Kingdom Animalia
  DDT-like compound, algal
                                                                         Eelworm (nematode)
    producers of                Laurencia spp. and others
                                                                            fungi, those that trap   Dactylaria spp., Arthrobotrys
  Death angel (Death cap)       Amanita spp.                                with constricting rings  actyloides
  Deer                          Odocoileus spp. and others               Eelworm (nematode)
  Deer, mule                    Odocoileus hemionus                         fungi, those that trap
  Dendrobium (orchid)           Dendrobium spp. and hybrids                 with passive rings       Dactylella spp.
  Desmids                       Closterium spp., Cosmarium spp.,         Eggplant                    Solanum melongena
                                and others                               Elephant                    Elephas spp., Loxodonta spp.
  Destroying angel              Amanita virosa                           Elephant ears               Colocasia spp.
  Dewberry                      Rubus hybrids with R. ursinus as         Elk                         Cervus canadensis
                                one parent                               Elm, American               Ulmus americana
  Diatom                        Biddulphia spp., Cymbella spp.,          Elm bark beetle             Hylurgopinus rufipes, Scolytus
                                Navicula spp., Cymatopleura solea                                    multistriatus
                                (Fig. 18.14); Thalassiosira elsayedii,
                                                                         Endive                      Cichorium endivia spp. divaricatum
                                Delphineis karstenii, Pseudonitzchia
                                australis, and many others               Endive, Belgian             Cichorium intybus
  Dicot                         member of Class Magnoliopsida,           Ergot                       Claviceps purpurea
                                Phylum Magnoliophyta, Kingdom            Ermine                      Mustela erminea
                                Plantae (see note on p. 290 of the       Eucalyptus, source of
                                text)                                       bark/wood for tannins    Eucalyptus wandoo
                                                         Scientific Names of Organisms Mentioned in the Text                      517




Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
COMMON NAME                 SCIENTIFIC NAME                        COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME

Eucalyptus, Tasmanian giant Eucalyptus regnans                     Fern, lady                    Athyrium filix-femina
Eucalyptus oil, source of   Eucalyptus spp.; there are more than   Fern(s) used as laxative      Asplenium trichomanes,
                            250 spp. of Eucalyptus                                               Polypodium vulgare
Euglenoid                   member of Phylum Euglenophyta,         Fern used in treating
                            Kingdom Protista                         leprosy                     Marsilea quadrifolia
Fennel                      Foeniculum vulgare                     Fern, licorice                Polypodium glycyrrhiza
Fenugreek                   Trigonella foenum-graecum              Fern(s) poisonous to          Onoclea sensibilis, Pteridium
Fern(s), adder’s tongue     Ophioglossum spp.                        livestock                   aquilinum
Fern(s), amphibious         Marsilea spp. and others               Fern, edible Malaysian        Athyrium esculentum
Fern(s), aquatic (floating) Azolla spp., Salvinia spp.               (relative of Lady fern)
Fern(s), source of          Actiniopteris radiata, Drynaria        Fern, male                    Dryopteris filix-mas
  astringent                quercifolia, Pteridium aquilinum,      Fern, mosquito                Azolla caroliniana
                            and others                             Fern, nest                    Asplenium nidus
Fern, bird’s foot           Pellaea mucronata                      Fern used to arrest
Fern, bird’s nest           Asplenium nidus                          nosebleeds                  Pellaea mucronata
Fern, Boston                Nephrolepis exaltata                   Fern(s) used for
Fern, bracken               Pteridium aquilinum                      orchid bark                 Cibotium spp., Osmunda spp.
Fern, Brazilian tree                                               Fern, Oriental water          Ceratopteris thalictroides
  (Fig. 21.25)              Cyathea sp.                            Fern, ostrich                 Matteuccia struthiopteris
Fern used in treating burns Polystichum munitum                    Fern used as poison
Fern, chain                 Woodwardia fimbriata                     antidote                    Polystichum squarrosum
Fern, cinnamon              Osmunda cinnamomea                     Fern(s) used in               Asplenium ruta-muraria,
Fern, climbing (Asian)      Lygodium salicifolium                    treating rickets            Osmunda regalis
Fern(s) used in treating    Adiantum aethiopicum, A. lunulatum,    Fern(s) used for stuffing
  coughs                    Polypodium glycyrrhiza                   mattresses, pillows,
                                                                     upholstery                  Cibotium spp., Sadleria spp.
Fern(s) used in             Adiantum capillus-veneris,
  treating dandruff         Polystichum munitum                    Fern, sword                   Polystichum munitum
Fern used in treating                                              Fern used in treating
  diabetes                  Adiantum caudatum                        toothache                   Pentagramma triangularis
Fern(s) used in treating    Botrychium lunaria, B. ternatum,       Fern(s), Hawaiian tree        Cibotium spp., Sadleria spp.
  diarrhea                  Pteridium aquilinum, and others        Fern, tree                    Cyathea spp., Ctenitis spp.,
Fern(s) used as diuretic    Adiantum venustum, Lygodium                                          Dicksonia spp., Marattia spp.,
                            japonicum                                                            Sphaeropteris spp., and others
Fern(s) source of dyes      Sadleria cyatheoides (trunk),          Fern, tropical (Fig. 21.18)   Dicranopteris linearis
                            Sphenomeris chusana (fronds)           Fern, tropical tree
Fern(s) used in treating    Botrychium lunaria, B. ternatum,          (Fig. 21.25)               Cibotium sp.
  dysentery                 Pteridium aquilinum, and others        Fern used for expelling
Fern used in treating                                                 worms                      Dryopteris filix-mas
  eczema                    Lygodium flexuosum                     Fern(s) used for treating     Lygodium circinatum, Ophioglossum
Fern used in treating eye                                             wounds                     vulgatum
  diseases                  Asplenium adiantum-nigrum              Fevers, fern used to reduce   Marsilea quadrifolia
Fern used to reduce fevers Marsilea quadrifolia                    Fevers, ground pine used
Fern, five-finger           Adiantum pedatum                          to reduce                  Lycopodium clavatum
Fern(s) used as food        Athyrium filix-femina, Dryopteris      Fig, common                   Ficus carica
                            austriaca, D. filix-mas, Polystichum   Fig, tropical                 Ficus spp.
                            munitum, and others                    Fig, tropical (Fig. 5.14)     Ficus macrophyllus
Fern(s), fossil             Psaronius spp., Thamnopteris spp.,     Figwort Family                Scrophulariaceae
                            and others                             Filaree                       Erodium spp.
Fern, goldback              Pentagramma triangularis               Fir, balsam                   Abies balsamea
Fern, holly                 Polystichum lonchitis                  Fir, Douglas                  Pseudotsuga menziesii
Fern(s) used by             Cyathea arborea, Lophosoria            Fir, white                    Abies concolor
  hummingbirds              quadripinnata, Nephelea mexicana       Fireweed                      Epilobium angustifolium
Fern used for treating                                             Fish                          member of Class Pisces, Phylum
  insect stings and bites   Adiantum capillus-veneris                                            Vertebrata, Kingdom Animalia
Fern used for easing                                               Fish, flashlight              Anomalops katoptron,
  labor pains               Athyrium filix-femina                                                Photoblepharon palpebratus
                                                                   Fish molds                    Saprolegnia spp. and others
518                         Appendix 1




  Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
  COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME                      COMMON NAME                  SCIENTIFIC NAME

  Five-finger fern              Adiantum pedatum                     Fungi, hallucinogenic        Amanita muscaria, Conocybe spp.,
  Flashlight powder,                                                                              Panaeolus spp., Psilocybe spp., and
     ground pine source of      Lycopodium spp.                                                   others
  Flatworm                      Convoluta roscoffensis               Fungi, horse dung            Pilobolus spp.
  Flax                          Linum spp.                           Fungi, industrial
  Flax, New Zealand             Phormium tenax                         alcohol-producing         Aspergillus spp.
  Flea                          member of Order Siphonaptera,        Fungi, insect-parasitizing  members of Order Laboulbeniales,
                                Phylum Arthropoda, Kingdom                                       Phylum Ascomycota, Kingdom
                                Animalia                                                         Fungi, and others
  Flicker                       Colaptes spp.                        Fungi, meat-tenderizing     Thamnidium spp.
  Florida arrowroot             Zamia integrifolia                   Fungi, ringworm             Epidermophyton spp., Microsporium
  Flour, Hopi Indian                                                                             spp., Trichophyton spp.
     horsetail source of        Equisetum laevigatum                 Fungi, shelf—see Fungi, bracket
  Flowerpot leaf plant          Dischidia rafflesiana                Fungi, shoyu                Aspergillus oryzae, A. soyae
  Fly                           member of Order Diptera, Phylum      Fungi used in silvering
                                Arthropoda, Kingdom Animalia           of mirrors                Aspergillus spp.
  Fly agaric                    Amanita muscaria                     Fungi used in
  Flycatcher                    Empidonax spp., Myiarchus spp.,        manufacturing soap        Penicillium spp.
                                and others                           Fungi, soil                 Fusarium spp., and others
  Fly, tsetse                   Gossinia morsitans, G. palpalis      Fungi, soy sauce            Aspergillus oryzae, A. soyae
  Fly, white                    Aleurocanthus woglumi and others     Fungi, sufu                 Actinomucor elegans, Mucor spp.
  Fossil, compression                                                Fungi, teonanacatl          Conocybe spp., Panaeolus spp.,
     (Fig. 21.26)               Annularia radiata                      (sacred)                  Psilocybe spp., and others
  Fossil, ground pine                                                Fungus, bolete (Fig. 19.21) Serillus pungens
     (Lycopodium) (Fig. 21.9)   Lepidodendron                        Fungus, bracket
  Four-o’clock Family           Nyctaginaceae                          (Fig. 19.14C)             Phacolus sp.
  Fox, arctic                   Alopex lagopus                       Fungus, bracket/shelf       Grifola sulphurea
  Fox, gray                     Urocyon cinereoargentus              Fungus, downy
  Fox, red                      Vulpes fulva                           mildew of grape           Plasmopora viticola
  Foxglove                      Digitalis purpurea                   Fungus, “foolish seedling”
  Frangipanni                   Plumeria rubra and other               (of rice)                 Gibberella fujikuroi
                                Plumeria spp.                        Fungus used in Beadle
  Frog                          Rana spp., and others                  & Tatum genetic
                                                                       experiments               Neurosopora crassa
  Fruit fly, common             Drosophila melanogaster (there are
                                many other species of fruit fly)     Fungus, jelly               Auricularia spp., Exidia spp.,
                                                                                                 Tremella spp., and others
  Fuchsia, California           Epilobium canum
                                                                     Fungus, kidney bean leaf
  Fumitory, Himalayan           Corydalis gerdae
                                                                       (production of fungal
  Fungi that produce            Penicillium spp., Cephalosporium
                                                                       inhibitors stimulator)    Colletotrichum lindemuthianum
    antibiotics                 spp., and others
                                                                     Fungus, miso                Aspergillus oryzae
  Fungi that cause              Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida
                                                                     Fungus, causal agent of
    aspergilloses               albicans, Coccidiodes immitis, and
                                                                       Panama disease (of
                                others
                                                                       bananas)                  Fusarium oxysporum
  Fungi that cause
                                                                     Fungus used in producing
    athlete’s foot              Trichophyton spp.
                                                                       plastics                  Aspergillus terreus
  Fungi used by beetles
                                                                     Fungus, sac (Fig. 19.7)     Caloscypha fulgens
    for food                    Ambrosiella spp., Monilia spp.
                                                                     Fungus, tempeh              Rhizopus oligosporus
  Fungi, bird’s-nest            Nidularia spp., Crucibulum levis
                                                                     Fungus used in
  Fungi used in
                                                                       manufacturing toothpaste Aspergillus niger
    manufacturing birth
    control pills               Rhizopus nigricans, R. arrhizus      Fungus, white piedra        Trichosporon beigeli
  Fungi, cap-thrower            Pilobolus spp.                       Fungus used in
                                                                       manufacturing yellow
  Fungi, cheese                 Penicillium camembertii (for
                                                                       food-coloring agent       Blakeslea trispora
                                Camembert cheese), P. roquefortii
                                (for blue, Gorgonzola, Roquefort,    Funori, source of           Gloiopeltis spp.
                                and Stilton cheeses)                 Fur, green algae that
  Fungi, flavor-producing       Aspergillus spp.                       inhabit animal            Trentepohlia spp.
                                                                     Gentian, source of          Gentiana spp.
                                                               Scientific Names of Organisms Mentioned in the Text                             519




     Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
     COMMON NAME                 SCIENTIFIC NAME                             COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME

     Geranium                    Geranium spp., Pelargonium spp.             Ground pine used to
     Geranium Family             Geraniaceae                                   arrest bleeding             Lycopodium clavatum
     Gila monster                Heloderma suspectum                         Ground pine used as
     Ginger                      Zingiber officinale and others                intoxicant                  Lycopodium selago
     Ginseng, source of          Panax quinquefolium and others              Ground pine used for          Lycopodium clavatum,
     Giraffe                     Giraffa camelopardalis                        ornaments                   L. complanatum, L. obscurum, and
                                                                                                           other Lycopodium spp.
     Gladiolia/Gladiolus         Gladiolus spp.
                                                                             Ground pine used to
     Gloeocapsa                  Gloeocapsa spp.
                                                                               reduce fevers               Lycopodium clavatum
     Goat                        Capra spp.
                                                                             Guava                         Psidium guajava
     Goldback fern               Pentagramma triangularis
                                                                             Gum arabic, source of         Acacia senegal
     Golden brown algae          members of Phylum Chromophyta,
                                                                             Gum tragacanth,               Astragalus echidenaeformis,
                                 Kingdom Protista
                                                                               source of                   A. gossypinus, A. gummifer,
     Golden chain tree           Laburnum anagyroides
                                                                                                           and others
     Goldenrod                   Solidago spp.
                                                                             Guppy                         Lebistes reticulatus
     Goldenseal                  Hydrastis canadensis
                                                                             Hairy cap moss (p. 382)       Polytrichum commune
     Goldenweed                  Haplopappus gracilis10
                                                                             Haptophyte                    member of Phylum Prymnesiophyta,
     Goose                       Branta spp. and others                                                    Kingdom Protista
     Gooseberry                  Ribes spp.                                  Hawk                          Buteo spp., Falco spp., and others
     Goosefoot Family            Chenopodiaceae                              Hazelnut                      Corylus spp.
     Gopher plant                Euphorbia lathyrus                          Hazelnut, European            Corylus avellana
                                 (E. lathyris = E. lathyrus)
                                                                             Heath                         Erica spp. and others
     Gopher, pocket              Geomys bursarius, Thomomys spp.,
                                                                             Heath Family                  Ericaceae
                                 and others
                                                                             Hemlock, eastern              Tsuga canadensis
     Gourd                       Lagenaria siceraria and others
                                                                             Hemlock, mountain             Tsuga mertensiana
     Grape                       Vitis spp.
                                                                             Hemlock, poison               Conium maculatum
     Grapefruit                  Citrus paradisi
                                                                             Hemlock, water                Cicuta spp.
     Grape, wine/table           Vitis vinifera
                                                                             Hemlock, western              Tsuga heterophylla
     Grass (including
       lawn grasses)             Bromus spp. and others11                    Hemp                          Cannabis sativa
     Grass, Bermuda              Cynodon dactylon                            Hemp, Manila                  Musa textilis
     Grass, crested wheat        Agropyron cristatum                         Hemp, Mauritius               Furcraea gigantea
     Grass Family                Poaceae (formerly Gramineae)                Henbit                        Lamium amplexicaule
     Grass, Indian               Sorghastrum nutans                          Henna                         Lawsonia inermis
     Grass, pampas (Fig. 7.5)    Cortaderia selloana                         Hepatica                      Hepatica spp.
     Grass tree (Australian)     Xanthorrhea spp.                            Hepatica (Fig. 24.3B)         Hepatica americana
     Gray pine12                 Pinus sabiniana                             Hickory                       Carya spp.
     Green algae                 member of Phylum Chlorophyta,               Hog                           Sus scrofa, and others
                                 Kingdom Protista; representative            Hog fennel                    Lomatium spp.
                                 genera include Caulerpa, Chlorella,         Holly, American               llex opaca
                                 Codium, Dunaliella, Enteromorpha,           Honey bee                     Apis mellifera
                                 Hydrodictyon, Microcystis, Pandorina,       Hop hornbeam                  Ostrya virginiana
                                 Pithophora, Scenedesmus, Spirogyra,         Hops                          Humulus lupulus
                                 Tetraselmis; there are more than 200        Horehound                     Marrubium vulgare
                                 genera and about 7,500 species              Hornwort                      Anthoceros spp.
     Greenbrier                  Smilax spp.                                 Horse                         Equus caballus
     Ground pine                 Lycopodium spp.                             Horse chestnut                Aesculus hippocastanum
     Ground pine, fossil         Baragwanathia spp.,                         Horsetail                     Equisetum spp.
       relatives of              Drephanophycus spp., Proto-
                                                                             Horsetail (Fig. 21.10A)       Equisetum hyemale
                                 lepidodendron spp., and others
                                                                             Horsetail (Fig. 21.10B)       Equisetum telmateia
     Ground pine used for
                                                                             Horsetail used as abrasive    Equisetum (all spp.)
       baby powder               Lycopodium clavatum

10
 This species has a diploid number of 2n = 4; i.e., each body cell has four chromosomes.
11
  The Grass Family (Poaceae) comprises about 4,500 species of grasses. Some plants with grass in their name are in other families and are not true
grasses, e.g., Grass of parnassus (Parnassia californica); Grass pink (Petrorhagia dubia).
12
 Gray pines were formerly known as Digger pines. The common name was changed in deference to Native Americans who consider digger a
derogatory term.
520                        Appendix 1




   Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
   COMMON NAME                     SCIENTIFIC NAME                            COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME
   Horsetail used as               Equisetum arvense, E. debile, and          Jacaranda                     Jacaranda spp.
     astringent                    other Equisetum spp.                       Jaeger                        Stercorarius spp.
   Horsetail used for                                                         Japanese yew (Fig. 22.9)      Taxus cuspidata
     treating burns                Equisetum hyemale and others               Jicama                        Pachyrhizus erosus
   Horsetail used for                                                         Jimson weed (Fig. 8.6)        Datura stramonium
     treating diarrhea             Equisetum hyemale                          Jojoba                        Simmondsia californica, S. chinensis
   Horsetail used as diuretic      Equisetum arvense, E. debile, and others   Joshua tree                   Yucca brevifolia
   Horsetail used for                                                         Jumping mouse                 Zapus hudsonius, Napaeozapus
     treating dysentery            Equisetum hyemale                                                        insignis
   Horsetail, field                Equisetum arvense                          Junco                         Junco spp.
   Horsetail, fossil               Equisetites spp., Hyenia spp.,             Junco, slate-colored          Junco hyemalis
                                   Sphenophyllum spp., and others             Juneberry                     Amelanchier spp.
   Horsetail, giant                Equisetum telmateia                        Juniper                       Juniperus spp.
   Horsetail, Hopi Indian                                                     Juniper, dwarf                Juniperus communis and others
     flour source                  Equisetum laevigatum
                                                                              Jute                          Corchorus capsularis and others
   Horsetail, treelike fossil      Calamites spp.
                                                                              Kauri pine/resin              Agathis australis, A. robusta
   Horsetail used as hair wash     Equisetum hyemale
                                                                              Kelp                          Alaria spp., Dictyoneurum spp.,
   Horsetail used as                                                                                        Ectocarpus spp., Egregia spp.,
     water source                  Equisetum telmateia                                                      Laminaria spp., Lessoniopsis spp.,
   Hot springs, blue-green         Bacillosiphon induratus,                                                 Nereocystis spp., and others
     bacteria (cyanobacteria) of   Synechococcus spp., and others             Kelp, giant                   Macrocystis pyrifera
   “Human hair” slime mold         Stemonitis spp.                            Knotweed                      Polygonum aviculare, P. arenastrum
   Hummingbird                     Archilocus spp. and others                 Kohlrabi                      Brassica oleracea var. caulorapa
   Hummingbird, Oasis                                                                                       (= B. oleracea var. gongyloides)
     (Fig. 23.15)                  Rhodopis vesper                            Koonwarra angiosperm (extinct angiosperm whose fossil was
   Hummingbirds, ferns used        Cyathea arborea, Lophosoria                discovered in Australia) (appears to be similar to members of the
     by (for nest material)        quadripinnata, Nephelea mexicana           pepper family—Piperaceae)
   Hummingbirds, tropical          Chlorostilbon maugaeus and others          Kudzu                         Pueraria thunbergiana (= P. lobata)
   Hyacinth                        Hyacinthus orientalis and other            Kumquat                       Fortunella japonica
                                   Hyacinthus spp.                            Lamb’s ears                   Stachys byzantina
   Hyacinth, grape                 Muscari spp.                               Larch, eastern                Larix laricina
   Hyacinth, water                 Eichhornia crassipes                       Larch, European               Larix decidua
   Hyssop                          Hyssopus officinalis                       Larch, western                Larix occidentalis
   Ice plant                       Carpobrotus spp. (esp. C. edulis),         Larkspur, blue                Delphinium spp.
                                   Mesembryanthemum crystallinum,
                                                                              Larkspur, red                 Delphinium nudicaule
                                   and others
                                                                              Late blight of potato         Phytophthora infestans
   India, toxic blue-green
      bacteria (cyanobacteria) of Lyngbya majuscula                           Laurel                        Laurus nobilis
   Indian pipe                     Monotropa uniflora                         Laurel Family                 Lauraceae
   Indian warrior                  Pedicularis densiflora                     Lavender                      Lavandula officinalis, L. angustifolia
   Indigo                          Indigofera tinctoria                       Leaf hopper                   member of Order Homoptera, Phylum
                                                                                                            Arthropoda, Kingdom Animalia
   Insects—see individual entries
                                                                              Leaf miner                    Agromyza spp. and others
   Insects, fern used for treating
      stings and bites of          Adiantum capillus-veneris                  Leaf roller                   Archips argyrospila and others
   Ipecac, source of               Cephaelis ipecacuanha                      Leafy liverwort—see Liverwort, leafy
   Iris                            Iris spp.                                  Legume Family                 Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae)
   Iris, butterfly                 Moraea spp.                                Lemming                       Lemmus spp., Dicrostonyx
                                                                                                            groenlandicus
   Iris Family                     Iridaceae
                                                                              Lemon                         Citrus limon
   Ironwood, South American Krugiodendron ferreum
                                                                              Lemongrass oil, source of     Cymbopogon citratus, C. flexuosus
   Isopyrum                        Isopyrum occidentale
                                                                              Lentil                        Lens esculenta (= Lens culinaris)
   Ivy, Algerian                   Hedera canariensis
                                                                              Lettuce                       Lactuca sativa
   Ivy, Boston                     Parthenocissus tricuspidata
                                                                              Lichen (symbiotic
   Ivy, English                    Hedera helix
                                                                                 association of an alga     member of Phylum Ascomycota,
   Ivy, poison                     Toxicodendron radicans (formerly              and a fungus)              Kingdom Fungi13
                                   Rhus toxicodendron)

13
   The lichens are arbitrarily treated under Phylum Ascomycota within Kingdom Fungi because (1) the vast majority of fungal components of each
species are ascomycetes, and (2) the fungal component of each species of lichen is unique to the species, while the algal component is often com-
mon to more than one species of lichen.
                                                                    Scientific Names of Organisms Mentioned in the Text                          521




     Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
     COMMON NAME                     SCIENTIFIC NAME                           COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME

     Lichen, foliose (Fig. 19.35)    Physcia sp.                               Logwood                       Haematoxylon campechianum
     Lichen, foliose (Fig. 19.36B)   Parmelia sp.                              Loon                          Gavia spp.
     Lichen, fruticose                                                         Lotus, Oriental sacred        Nelumbo nucifera
        (Fig. 19.36C)                Usnea sp.                                 Louse                         Orders Mallophaga and Anaplura,
     Lichen, grazed by North                                                                                 Class Insecta, Phylum Arthropoda,
        African sheep                Lecanora spp.                                                           Kingdom Animalia
     Lichen, litmus                  Rocella spp.                              Love-lies-bleeding            Amaranthus caudatus
     Lichen, natural dye             Parmelia spp., Usnea spp., and others     Lucerne—see Alfalfa
     Lichen, perfume stabilizer      Evernia spp.                              Luffa                         Luffa cylindrica, L. acutangula
     Lichen, reindeer (reindeer                                                Lupine                        Lupinus spp.
        moss)                        Cladonia spp., Cetraria islandica         Lupine, tree with
     Lichens, crustose                                                           seed valves                 Lupinus arboreus
        (Fig. 19.36A)                                                          Madder Family                 Rubiaceae
        black                        Rinodina sp.                              Magnolia                      Magnolia spp.
        chartreuse                   Acarospora citrina                        Magnolia Family               Magnoliaceae
        gray                         Psora sp.                                 Mallow                        Malva spp.
        orange-red                   Caloplaca elegans
                                                                               Mallow Family                 Malvaceae
        yellow                       Candelariella vitellina
                                                                               Mango                         Mangifera indica
     Lichens used as miniature
        trees and shrubs             Cladonia spp. and others                  Mangrove                      Rhizophora mangle, R. candelaria,
                                                                                                             and others
     Licorice, source of             Glycyrrhiza glabra
                                                                               Mangrove, black               Avicennia germinans, A. nitida
     Lignum vitae                    Guaiacum officinale
                                                                                                             (Fig. 5.10)
     Lilac, common                   Syringa vulgaris
                                                                               Manila hemp                   Musa textilis
     Lily                            Lilium spp. and others
                                                                               Manioc—see Cassava
     Lily                            Lilium regale, L. auratum, L. martagon
                                                                               Manroot                       Marah spp.
     Lily, giant water               Victoria amazonica
                                                                               Maple                         Acer spp.
     Lily, kaffir                    Clivia sp.
                                                                               Maple, bigleaf (Fig. 8.17)    Acer macrophyllum
     Lily, tiger                     Lilium pardalinum
                                                                               Maple, hard                   Acer saccharum
     Lily, wood                      Lilium superbum
                                                                               Maple, red                    Acer rubrum
     Lily Family                     Liliaceae
                                                                               Maple, silver                 Acer saccharinum
     Lime                            Citrus aurantifolia
                                                                               Maple, sugar                  Acer saccharum
     Litchi                          Litchi sinensis
                                                                               Marigold                      Tagetes erecta and other Tagetes spp.
     Litmus indicator dye,
                                                                               Marijuana                     Cannabis sativa
        source of                    Rocella spp.
                                                                               Marjoram                      Majorana hortensis
     Live oak                        Quercus chrysolepis, Q. virginiana,
                                                                                                             (= Origanum majorana), pot
                                     Q. wislizenii, and others
                                                                                                             marjorum = Origanum onites
     Liverwort                       member of Phylum Hepaticophyta,
                                                                               Maté                          Ilex paraguariensis
                                     Kingdom Plantae
                                                                               Meadow foam                   Limnanthes spp.
     Liverwort, leafy (Fig. 20.8)    Porella sp.
                                                                               Mealy bugs                    Pseudococcus spp.
     Liverworts, leafy               Calopogeia sp., Bazzania trilobata,
                                     Frullania spp., Jungermannia spp.,        Melon                         Cucumis melo
                                     Porella spp., and others14                Melon, honeydew               Cucumis melo (variety)
     Liverworts, thalloid            Conocephalum spp., Lunularia spp.,        Melonette                     Melothria pendula
                                     Marchantia spp., and others               Mermaid’s wineglass           Acetabularia spp.
     Lizard                          Sceloporus spp. and others                Mescal bean                   Sophora secundiflora
     Lobeline sulfate, source of                                               Mesquite                      Prosopis glandulosa
        (used in formulas to assist                                            Milkweed                      Asclepias syriaca and other
        in stopping smoking)        Lobelia inflata                                                          Asclepias spp.
     Locoweed                       Astragalus mollisimus and other            Milkweed, swamp               Asclepias incarnata
                                    Astragalus spp.                            Millet15
     Locust, black                  Robinia pseudo-acacia                      Millipede                     member of Class Diplopoda, Phylum
     Loganberry                     Rubus hybrids, with R. ursinus as                                        Arthropoda, Kingdom Animalia
                                    one parent; Rubus vitifolius


14
 There are thousands of species of leafy liverworts assigned to about 200 genera.
15
   Several species of grain are called millet, but the most extensively cultivated taxa are Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet) and Eleusine coracana
(finger millet). Other millets, some of which are used as pasturage, include Panicum milliaceum (broomcorn millet); P. maximum; P. obtusum;
P. purpurascens; P. ramosum; P. texanum; P. virgatum; Echinochloa colona; E. crus-galli; Paspalum sp.; Eragrostis sp.; Setaria italica; and others.
522                            Appendix 1




      Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
      COMMON NAME                    SCIENTIFIC NAME                              COMMON NAME                    SCIENTIFIC NAME

      Mint—see Peppermint, Spearmint, etc.                                        Moss rose                      Portulaca grandiflora
      Mint Family               Lamiaceae (formerly Labiatae)                     Moss, saline (salty) soil
      Mistletoe                 Phoradendron spp.                                  indicator                     Pottia spp.
      Mistletoe, dwarf          Arceuthobium spp.                                 Moss, seasonal
      Mite                      member of Order Acarina, Phylum                    running-water indicator       Fontinalis spp.
                                Arthropoda, Kingdom Animalia                      Moss, sphagnum                 Sphagnum spp.
      Mock orange               Philadelphus x virginalis and other               Moth                           member of Order Lepidoptera,
                                Philadelphus spp. and hybrids                                                    Class Insecta, Phylum Arthropoda,
      Mollusc                   member of Phylum Mollusca,                                                       Kingdom Animalia
                                Kingdom Animalia                                  Moth, Argentine, used to
      Monkey                    Ateles dariensis and many others                   control cactus in Australia   Cactoblastus cactorum
      Monkey flower             Mimulus spp.                                      Moth, codling                  Carpocapsa pomonella
      Monkshood                 Aconitum columbianum                              Moth, gypsy                    Porthetria dispar
      Monocot                   member of Class Liliopsida, Phylum                Moth, Mexican jumping
                                Magnoliophyta, Kingdom Plantae                     bean                          Carpocaps asaltitans
      Moose                     Alces americana, A. alces                         Moth, Yucca                    Pronuba spp., Tegeticula spp.
      Morel                     Morchella esculenta and other                     Moth mullein                   Verbascum blattaria
                                Morchella spp.                                    Mountain beaver                Aplodontia rufa
      Morel, false              Helvella sp.                                      Mouse                          Mus musculus, Peromyscus spp.,
      Morning glory             Ipomoea violacea and others                                                      and others
      Mosquito                  Anopheles spp., Culex spp., and others            Mouse, jumping                 Zapus hudsonius, Napaeozapus
      Moss                      member of Phylum Bryophyta,                                                      insignis
                                Kingdom Plantae                                   Mulberry                       Morus spp.
      Moss, annual (bare soil)  Acaulon spp., Ephemerum spp., and                 Mulberry, red                  Morus rubra
                                others                                            Mulberry, white                Morus alba
      Moss, antler and bone     Tetraplodon spp.                                  Mule ears                      Wyethia spp.
      Moss used by Indians                                                        Mullein                        Verbascum thapsus
        to treat burns          Bryum spp., Mnium spp.                            Mullein, moth                  Verbascum blattaria
      Moss, copper-rich         Mielichhoferia spp.,                              Mushroom16                     Agaricus spp. and others
        substrate-inhabiting    Scopelophila spp.                                 Mushroom, common red
      Moss, carnivore                                                              (Fig 19.14A)                  Russula
        dung-inhabiting         Tayloria sp.                                      Mushroom, fairy ring
      Moss, calcium absence     Andreaea spp., Rhacomitrium                        (Fig. 19.20)                  Marasmius oreades
        indicator               lanuginosum                                       Mushroom, common
      Moss, calcium presence    Didymodon spp., Desmatotodon                       cultivated edible             Agaricus bisporus
        indicator               spp., and others                                  Mushroom, fly agaric           Amanita muscaria
      Moss, exceptionally                                                         Mushroom, inky cap             Coprinus spp.
        desiccation-resistant   Tortura ruralis                                   Mushroom, oyster               Pleurotus ostreatus
      Moss, European roof-                                                        Mushroom, pore
        waterproofing           Dicranoweisia sp.                                  (Fig. 19.21)                  Serillus pungens
      Moss, extinguisher        Encalypta spp.                                    Mushroom, portabella           Agaricus bisporus (variety)
      Moss, hair(y) cap         Polytrichum spp.                                  Mushroom, shaggy mane          Coprinus comatus
      Moss , herbivore                                                            Mushroom, shiitake             Lentinus edodes
        dung-inhabiting         Splachnum spp.                                    Muskrat                        Ondatra zibesthicus
      Moss, luminous            Schisostega pennata, Mittenia sp.                 Mustard                        Brassica campestris, B. nigra, and
      Moss, mammal dung-                                                                                         others
        inhabiting              Splachnum luteum                                  Mustard, cultivated            Brassica alba, B. juncea, and others
      Moss, peat                Sphagnum spp.                                     Mustard Family                 Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae)
      Moss, pollution-sensitive Hypnum spp. and others                            Myrrh, source of               Commiphora abyssinica
      Moss, pygmy—see Moss, annual                                                Myrtle17                       Umbellularia californica17
      Moss, rock                Andreaea spp., Grimmia spp., and
                                others


16
 Mushroom is a term generally applied to the fruiting bodies with stalked, caplike structures produced by members of Phylum Basidiomycota,
Kingdom Fungi. The term is also loosely applied to some of the fruiting bodies of members of other classes of true fungi. There are thousands of
known species.
17
     This plant, also known as the California bay, is in the Laurel Family (Lauraceae). True myrtles are in the Myrtle Family (Myrtaceae).
                                                                 Scientific Names of Organisms Mentioned in the Text                                523




     Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
     COMMON NAME                  SCIENTIFIC NAME                               COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME

     Narcissus                    Narcissus spp. and hybrids18                  Orchid,
     Nasturtium (garden)          Tropaeolum majus                                underground-flowering       Rhizanthella gardneri
     Nectarine                    Prunus persica                                Orchid, vanilla               Vanilla planifolia and others
     Neem tree                    Azadirachta indica                            Orchid Family                 Orchidaceae
     Nematode                     member of Class Nematoda, Phylum              Oregano                       Origanum vulgare and others
                                  Aschelminthes, Kingdom Animalia               Oregon grape                  Berberis aquifolium (= Mahonia
     Nettle                       Urtica spp.                                                                 aquifolium) and other Mahonia spp.
     Nicotine relative            Duboisia hopwoodii, Nicotiana                 Organpipe cactus              Lemaireocereus spp.
       (nornicotine), source of   tabacum                                       Osage orange                  Maclura pomifera
     Nightshade, deadly           Atropa belladonna                             Oscillatoria                  Oscillatoria spp.
     Nightshade Family            Solanaceae                                    Our Lord’s Candle             Yucca whipplei
     Nori—see Purple laver                                                      Owl, snowy                    Nyctea scandiaca
     Nostoc                       Nostoc spp.                                   Painted lady                  Echeveria derenbergii
     Nutmeg                       Myristica fragrans                            Palm, coconut                 Cocos nucifera
     Nutmeg, California           Torreya californica                           Palm, date                    Phoenix dactylifera
     Nutmeg Family                Myristicaceae                                 Palm, oil                     Elaeis guineensis
     Oak                          Quercus spp.                                  Palm, panama hat              Carludovica palmata
     Oak, black                   Quercus velutina                              Palm, Seychelles Island       Lodoicea maldivica
     Oak, blue                    Quercus douglasii                             Palm, carnauba wax            Copernicia cerifera
     Oak, cork                    Quercus suber                                 Palm Family                   Arecaceae (formerly Palmae)
     Oak, Hooker                  Quercus lobata                                Pansy                         Viola tricolor
     Oak, live (Fig. 9.7)         Quercus wislizenii (other live oaks           Papaya                        Carica papaya
                                  include Quercus chrysolepis and               Pará rubber tree              Hevea brasiliensis
                                  Q. virginiana)                                Parsley                       Petroselinum crispum
     Oak, poison                  Toxicodendron diversilobum                    Parsley Family                Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae)
     Oak, red                     Quercus borealis                              Parsnip                       Pastinaca sativa
     Oak, white                   Quercus alba                                  Passion fruit                 Passiflora edulis, P. mollissima, and
     Oak wilt                     Ceratocystis fagacearum                                                     other Passiflora spp.
     Olibanum tree                Boswellia spp.                                Patchouli oil, source of      Pogostemon cablin and others
     Olive                        Olea europaea                                 Pea (garden)                  Pisum sativum
     Onion                        Allium cepa                                   Pea, sweet                    Lathyrus odoratus
     Oomycete                     member of Phylum Oomycota,                    Peach                         Prunus persica
                                  Kingdom Fungi                                 Peach leaf curl               Taphrina deformans
     Opuntia—see Prickly pear                                                   Peanut                        Arachis hypogaea
     Orchid                       Cattleya spp., and many others19              Pear                          Pyrus communis
     Orchid, bamboo               Arundina graminifolia                         Peat moss                     Sphagnum spp.
     Orchid, Bletilla                                                           Pecan                         Carya illinoensis
       (Fig. 8.15B)               Bletilla sp.                                  Peccary                       Pecari angulatus, Tayassus pecari
     Orchid, bucket               Coryanthes spp.                               Penicillin mold20             Penicillium spp.20
     Orchid “bark,” fern                                                        Pennyroyal                    Hedeoma pulegioides
       sources of                 Cibotium spp., Osmunda spp.
                                                                                Peony                         Paeonia spp.
     Orchid with cladophylls      Epidendrum spp.
                                                                                Peperomia                     Peperomia spp.
     Orchid, showy                Orchis spp.
                                                                                Pepper                        Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens21



18
 The 27 known species of Narcissus (native to Europe and the Mediterranean regions) have been extensively cultivated and hybridized. There is a
botanical classification for wild forms and a horticultural classification based primarily on the extent of the corona, flower color, and fragrance. The
horticultural forms are known by common names such as narcissi, daffodils, jonquils, pheasant’s eye, angel’s tears, etc.
19
  Depending on which authorities are followed, the number of known orchid species (all in the family Orchidaceae) may exceed 30,000. Popularly
cultivated orchids include species of Cattleya, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Odontoglossum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum, Phalaenopsis, Vanda, and
both interspecific and intergeneric hybrids.
20
  The original producer of penicillin discovered by Sir Alexander Fleming was Penicillium notatum; current commercially used producers of penicillin
are strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. Other commercially cultivated Penicillium species include P. roquefortii (used to make roquefort cheese), P. cam-
embertii (used to make blue cheese), and P. griseofulvum (used for the production of a ringworm and athlete’s foot antibiotic known as griseofulvin).
21
  The drug capsicum, whose active ingredient is the oleoresin capsaicin, is derived from these species, and garden peppers include these and other
species of Capsicum.
524                          Appendix 1




     Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
     COMMON NAME                  SCIENTIFIC NAME                            COMMON NAME                 SCIENTIFIC NAME

     Pepper, black                Piper nigrum                               Pine, stone—see Pine, European stone; and Pine, Mexican stone
     Pepper, red                  Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum,              Pine, sugar                Pinus lambertiana
                                  C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens   Pine, western white        Pinus monticola
     Peppergrass                  Lepidium spp.                              Pine, western yellow       Pinus ponderosa
     Peppermint                   Mentha piperita                            Pine, Wollemi              Wollemia nobilis
     Persimmon                    Diospyros spp.                             Pineapple                  Ananas comosus
     Petitgrain oil, source of    Citrus aurantium var. amara                Pinedrops                  Pterospora spp.
     Petunia                      Petunia spp. and hybrids                   Pistachio                  Pistacia vera
     Peyote                       Lophophora williamsii                      Pitcher plant              Sarracenia spp. and others
     Phoebe                       Sayornis phoebe                            Pitcher plant, Asian       Nepenthes spp. and others
     Pigweed22                    Amaranthus spp., Chenopodium spp.          Plantain                   Plantago spp. (cooking bananas,
     Pigweed Family22             Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae                                         also called plantains, are mostly
     Pillbug                      Cylisticus convexus and others                                        Musa x paradisiaca)
     Pine                         Pinus spp.                                 Plastic, fungus used in
     Pine, Afghanistan            Pinus eldarica                                production of           Aspergillus terreus
     Pine, Aleppo                 Pinus halepensis                           Plasticizers,
     Pine, bristlecone            Pinus longaeva                                source of oil for       Euphorbia agascae
     Pine, Chilghoza              Pinus gerardiana                           Plover                     Charadrius spp. and others
     Pine, Colorado                                                          Plum, European23           Prunus domestica23
        bristlecone               Pinus   aristata                           Podocarps, New Zealand
     Pine, Coulter                Pinus   coulteri                              timber                  Podocarpus dacrydoides, P. totara
     Pine, eastern white          Pinus   strobus                            Podocarps, ornamental      Podocarpus macrophylla, P. nagi,
                                                                                                        and others
     Pine, European stone         Pinus   pinea
                                                                             Poinsettia                 Euphorbia pulcherrima
     Pine, gray
        (formerly Pine, digger)    Pinus sabiniana                           Poison ivy                 Toxicodendron radicans
     Pine, jack                    Pinus banksiana                           Poison oak                 Toxicodendron diversilobum
     Pine, jeffrey                 Pinus jeffreyi                            Poison sumac               Toxicodendron vernix
     Pine, kauri                   Agathis australis, A. robusta             Polyanthus                 Primula polyanthus and hybrids
     Pine, knobcone                Pinus attenuata                           Pomegranate                Punica granatum
     Pine, loblolly                Pinus taeda                               Poor man’s pepper          Lepidium virginicum
     Pine, lodgepole               Pinus contorta                            Popcorn                    Zea mays (horticultural variety)
     Pine, longleaf                Pinus palustris                           Poplar                     Populus spp.
     Pine, Merkus                  Pinus merkusii                            Poppy—see also
                                                                                California poppy        Papaver spp. and others
     Pine, Mexican pinyon          Pinus cembroides
                                                                             Poppy Family               Papaveraceae
     Pine, Mexican stone           Pinus cembroides
                                                                             Poppy, bush                Dendromecon rigida
     Pine, Monterey                Pinus radiata
                                                                             Poppy, Mexican             Hunnemannia spp.
     Pine, pinyon                  Pinus edulis, P. monophylla,
                                   P. quadrifolia                            Poppy, opium               Papaver somniferum
     Pine, pitch                   Pinus rigida                              Poppy, Oriental            Papaver orientale
     Pine, ponderosa               Pinus ponderosa                           Poppy, prickly (Fig. 24.5) Argemone glauca
     Pine, red                     Pinus resinosa                            Porcupine                  Erethizon spp., Hystrix spp.24
     Pine, Scotch                  Pinus sylvestris                          Portulaca Family           Portulacaceae
     Pine, shortleaf               Pinus echinata                            Potato, Irish              Solanum tuberosum
     Pine, Siberian white          Pinus sibirica                            Potato, sweet              lpomea batatas
     Pine, slash                   Pinus caribaea, P. elliottii              Potato vine                Solanum jasminoides
     Pine, southern yellow—see Pine, loblolly; Pine, longleaf; Pine,         Powderpuff flower
        shortleaf; and Pine, slash                                              (Fig. 24.11C)           Calliandra inaequilatera



22
  Species of Amaranthus in the Amaranth family (Amaranthaceae) and Chenopodium in the Goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae) have been called
pigweeds, and both families have also been referred to as the Pigweed family. Because of this, many botanists prefer to refer to the Amaranthaceae
as the Amaranth family and the Chenopodiaceae as the Goosefoot family. Most Amaranthus spp. are called amaranths and most Chenopodium spp.
are called goosefoot, although the widespread weed Chenopodium album is popularly called lamb’s quarters. Pig’s weed (Oryza sp.) is completely
unrelated to either of the two families just mentioned; it is a grass related to rice.
23
  Although the European plum was involved in the development of the majority of older plum varieties, more than 600 varieties of plum have been
developed from American plums such as Prunus subcordata and P. americana, along with various hybrids involving at least one American parent.
24
 Hystrix is also a name for a genus of grasses.
                                                                Scientific Names of Organisms Mentioned in the Text                              525




     Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
     COMMON NAME                 SCIENTIFIC NAME                              COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME

     Powdery mildew              Erysiphe spp. and others                     Redbud, eastern               Cercis canadensis
     Prayer plant                Maranta spp.                                 Redbud, western               Cercis occidentalis
     Preferns                    Cladoxylon spp., Protopteridium              Redwood, coastal              Sequoia sempervirens
                                 spp. and others                              Redwood, dawn                 Metasequoia glyptostroboides
     Prickly pear                Opuntia spp.                                 Redwood, giant                Sequoiadendron giganteum
     Primrose                    Primula vulgaris and about 400               Reindeer                      Rangifer spp.
                                 other Primula spp.                           Reserpine, source of          Rauvolfia serpentina
     Pronghorn                   Antilocarpa americana                        Resurrection plant            Selaginella lepidophylla
     Psyllium                    Plantago ovata                               Rhododendron                  Rhododendron spp.
     Ptarmigan                   Lagopus spp.                                 Rhubarb                       Rheum rhaponticum
     Pteridosperms               Lyginopteris spp., Medullosa spp.,           Rice25                        Oryza sativa25
                                 and others                                   Rice-paper plant              Tetrapanax papyriferus (some
     Puffball                    Calvatia cyathiformis and other                                            authors refer to Fatsia japonica
                                 Calvatia spp., Lycoperdon spp.                                             [F. papyrifera] as rice-paper plant
     Pulque, source of           Agave spp.                                   Rice, wild                    Zizania aquatica
     Pumpkin                     Cucurbita pepo                               Robin                         Turdus migratorius
     Pumpkin Family              Cucurbitaceae                                Rock cress                    Arabis sp.
     Puncture vine               Tribulus terrestris                          Rock-rose, European           Helianthemum vulgare
     Purple laver (Fig. 18.29)   Porphyra tenera                              Rock tripe                    Umbilicaria spp.
     Puya (rare)                 Puya raimondii                               Rockweeds                     Fucus spp., Pelvetia spp., and others
     Pyrethrum                   Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium,               Rose                          Rosa odorata and other Rosa spp.
                                 C. coccineum, C. marschallii                                               (there are more than 25,000 rose
     Quillwort                   Isoetes spp.                                                               cultivars)
     Quillwort, fossil           Cinchona ledgeriana and other                Rose, damask                  Rosa damascena
       relatives of              Cinchona spp.                                Rose Family                   Rosaceae
     Quince                      Cydonia oblonga                              Rose, Sitka (Fig. 24.8)       Rosa rugosa
     Quinine, source of          Cinchona officinalis, C. ledgeriana          Rosemary                      Rosmarinus officinalis
     Quinoa                      Chenopodium quinoa                           Rotenone, source of           Derris elliptica, Lonchocarpus nicou
     Rabbit                      Oryctolagus cuniculus                        Rotenone, relative of         Tephrosia vogelii
     Rabbit, cottontail          Sylvilagus spp.                              Rubber, Pará                  Hevea brasiliensis
     Rabbit, jack                Lepus spp.                                   Rubber plant                  Ficus elastica
     Raccoon                     Procyon lotor                                Ruellia                       Ruellia portellae and others
     Radish                      Raphanus sativus                             Rust, black stem of wheat     Puccinia graminis
     Rafflesia (Fig. 8.2)        Rafflesia micropylora                        Rust, cedar-apple             Gymnosporangium juniperi-
     Ragweed                     Ambrosia spp.                                                              virginianum
     Rape/rapeseed               Brassica napus                               Rust, corn                    Puccinia sorghi
     Raspberry, red              Rubus idaeus, R. strigosus, and their        Rust, poplar leaf spot        Melampsora medusae
                                 hybrids                                      Rust, rock cress              Puccinia monoica
     Rat                         Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus, and            Rust, white pine blister      Cronartium ribicola
                                 others                                       Rutabaga                      Brassica campestris var.
     Rat, kangaroo               Dipodomys spp.                                                             napobrassica (= Brassica napus)
     Rat snake, black            Elaphe obsoleta                              Rye                           Secale cereale
     Rattlesnake                 Crotalus spp.                                Ryegrass                      Lolium spp.
     Red algae                   Member of Phylum Rhodophyta,                 Safflower                     Carthamus tinctorius
                                 Kingdom Protista; representative             Saffron (true)                Crocus sativus
                                 genera include Chondrus,                     Saffron, meadow               Colchicum autumnale
                                 Eucheuma, Gelidium, Gigartina,
                                                                              Sage26                        Salvia officinalis26
                                 Gracilaria, Polysiphonia, Porphyra,
                                 and Pterocladia; there are about             Sagebrush                     Artemisia tridentata
                                 3,900 spp. of red algae                      Sage, Jerusalem               Phlomis fruticosa




25
  At the beginning of the year 2000, the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines had in storage the seeds of 20 species and more than
81,000 different varieties of rice. The staple food of nearly 2 billion people, rice cultivation presently occupies 11% of agricultural land. Rice has
been cultivated in Asian countries for more than 7,000 years. Although the great majority of rice cultivated is Oryza sativa, some forms of Oryza
glaberrima are also cultivated.
26
 This sage, which is in the Mint Family (Lamiaceae), should not be confused with sagebrush, which is in the Sunflower Family (Asteraceae).
526                            Appendix 1




     Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
     COMMON NAME                 SCIENTIFIC NAME                         COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME

     Saguaro                     Carnegia gigantea                       Sorghum                       Sorghum bicolor and other
     Salmon                      Oncorhynchus spp., Salmo salar,                                       Sorghum spp.
                                 and others                              Sorrel                        Oxalis spp.
     Salmonberry                 Rubus spectabilis                       Southern yellow pine—see Pine, loblolly; Pine, longleaf; Pine,
     Salsify                     Tragopogon spp.                            shortleaf; and Pine, slash
     Saltbush/Saltscale          Atriplex spp.                           Soybean                       Glycine max
     Salvia                      Salvia spp.                             Spanish moss                  Tillandsia usneoides
     Sansevieria                 Sansevieria trifasciata and other       Sparrow, savannah             Passerculus sandwichensis
                                 Sansevieria spp.                        Sparrow, song                 Melospiza melodia
     Santonin, source of         Artemisia cina                          Sparrow, vesper               Pooecetes gramineus
     Sargassum (Fig. 18.18)      Sargassum sp.                           Spearmint                     Mentha spicata
     Sarsaparilla, source of     Smilax spp.                             Spiderwort                    Tradescantia virginiana and other
     Sassafras                   Sassafras albidum                                                     Tradescantia spp.
     Sausage tree, African       Kigelia pinnata                         Spiderwort, European          Tradescantia paludosa
     Savory                      Satureia hortensis                      Spike moss                    Selaginella spp.
     Saxifrage                   Saxifraga spp.                          Spike moss,                   Lepidodendron spp., Sigillaria spp.,
     Screw pine                  Pandanus veitchii and other                fossil relatives of        and others
                                 Pandanus spp.                           Spinach                       Spinacia oleracea
     Sea anemone                 Stephanauge spp. and others             Spirogyra                     Spirogyra spp.
     Sea hare                    Aplysia californica                     Sponge                        Spongilla spp. and others
     Sea lettuce                 Ulva spp.                               Sponge, vegetable             Luffa cylindrica
     Sea palm                    Postelsia palmaeformis                  Spring beauty                 Claytonia virginica
     Sea rocket                  Cakile edentula                         Spruce, black                 Picea mariana
     Sedge                       Carex spp. and others                   Spruce, Norway                Picea abies
     Seed ferns                  Lyginopteris spp., Medullosa spp.,      Spruce, red                   Picea rubens
        (Pteridosperms)          and others                              Spruce, Sitka                 Picea sitchensis
     Senna                       Cassia senna and others                 Spruce, white                 Picea glauca
     Sensitive plant             Mimosa pudica                           Spurge                        Euphorbia spp.
     Sesame                      Sesamum indicum                         Spurge (Fig. 24.13)           Euphorbia peplus
     Shallot27                   Allium cepa27                           Spurge Family                 Euphorbiaceae
     Sheep                       Ovis spp.                               Squash                        Cucurbita maxima, C. mixta,
     Shepherd’s purse            Capsella bursa-pastoris                                               C. moschata, C. pepo, and others
     Shrimp                      Crago spp. and others                   Squawroot                     Perideridia spp.
     Sisal                       Agave sisalina                          Squill                        Scilla spp.
     Skunk                       Mephitis spp.                           Squills                       Urginea maritima
     Slime mold                  member of Phyla Myxomycota and          Squirrel                      Citellus spp., Sciuris spp., and others
                                 Dictyosteliomycota, Subkingdom          Squirrel corn                 Dicentra canadensis
                                 Myxobionta, Kingdom Protista            Squirrel, gray                Sciurus carolinensis
     Slime mold (Fig. 18.32A)    Lamproderma sp.                         Squirting cucumber            Ecballium elaterium
     Slime mold (Fig. 18.32B)    Lycogala epidendrum                     Stapelia (Fig. 23.14)         Stapelia similis
     Slime mold, cellular        member of Phylum Acrasiomycota,         Stinkhorn                     Mutinus spp., Phallus impudicus,
                                 Kingdom Protista                                                      and others
     Slime mold, human-hair      Stemonitis spp.                         Stinkhorn, common
     Sloth                       Bradypus spp., Choleopus spp.              (Fig. 19.13)               Mutinus caninus
     Smut                        Ustilago spp. and others                Stonecrop                     Sedum spp., Crassula spp., and others
     Smut, corn                  Ustilago maydis                         Stoneseed                     Lithospermum ruderale
     Snail                       Haplotrema concava and others           Stonewort                     Chara spp., Nitella spp.
     Snapdragon                  Antirrhinum majus                       Strawberry                    Fragaria ananassa and other Fragaria
     Snowplant                   Sarcodes sanguinea                                                    spp. and hybrids
     Snowy owl                   Nyctea scandiaca                        String-of-pearls              Senecio rowellianus
     Soaproot, California        Chlorogalum pomeridianum                Strychnine, source of         Strychnos nox-vomica and other
                                                                                                       Strychnos spp.


27
  Linnaeus applied the name Allium ascalonicum to what was probably an Allium cultigen believed to have originated in Asia Minor, and the
name Allium ascalonium since has generally been applied to shallots. Shallots seldom set seed, however, and seeds sold under the name Allium
ascalonicum have sometimes proved to be those of other Allium spp. The current practice of considering shallots to be a form of Allium cepa
should lessen the confusion.
                                                                Scientific Names of Organisms Mentioned in the Text                               527




     Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
     COMMON NAME                 SCIENTIFIC NAME                               COMMON NAME                   SCIENTIFIC NAME

     Sugar cane                  Saccharum officinarum                         Tree fern, small Hawaiian
     Sumac                       Rhus spp.                                        (Fig. 21.16D)              Sadleria cyatheoides
     Sunbird                     Anthodiaeta spp., Notiocinnyris               Tree-of-heaven                Ailanthus altissima
                                 spp., and others                              Trillium                      Trillium spp.
     Sundew                      Drosera spp.                                  Truffles                      Tuber spp.
     Sundew relative used                                                      Tulip                         Tulipa spp.
       for flypaper              Drosophyllum lusitanicum                      Tulip tree                    Liriodendron tulipifera
     Sunflower                   Helianthus annuus, H. debilis                 Tumbleweeds                   Amaranthus albus, Salsola pestifera,
     Sunflower Family            Asteraceae (formerly Compositae)                                            and others
     Sweet pea                   Lathyrus odoratus                             Tung oil, source of           Aleurites fordii
     Sword fern                  Polystichum munitum                           Turmeric, source of           Curcuma longa, C. domestica
     Sycamore                    Platanus occidentalis and others              Turnip                        Brassica rapa
     Tamarack                    Larix spp.                                    Turtle                        Chelydra spp., Chrysemys spp.,
     Tamarisk                    Tamarix spp.                                                                and others
     Tangerine                   Citrus reticulata                             Twinflower                    Linnaea borealis
     Tapir                       Tapirus spp.                                  Ulothrix                      Ulothrix spp.
     Taro                        Colocasia esculenta                           Ultraviolet light, flowers    Rudbeckia sp.
     Tarragon                    Artemisia dracunculus                           seen in (Fig. 23.13)
     Tarweed                     Grindelia spp.                                Unicorn plant                 Proboscidea spp.
     Tarweed, western                                                          Venus’s flytrap               Dionaea muscipula
       (Fig. 4.13A)              Calycadenia sp.                               Vetch                         Vicia spp.
     Tea                         Camellia sinensis                             Vetchling, yellow             Lathyrus aphaca
     Tent caterpillar            Malacosoma americanum and others              Vinegar weed                  Trichostema spp.
     Teosinte (annual)           Zea mexicana                                  Violet                        Viola odorata and other Viola spp.
     Teosinte (perennial)        Zea diploperennis                             Violet, African               Saintpaulia ionantha and other
     Tequila, source of          Agave spp.                                                                  Saintpaulia spp.
     Termite                     Odontotermes spp., Reticulitermes             Violet, gold                  Viola douglasii
                                 spp., and others                              Virginia creeper              Parthenocissus quinquefolia
     Thalloid liverworts         Marchantia spp., Conocephalum                 Virus29
                                 spp., and others                              Vole                          Microtus spp. and others
     Thimbleberry                Rubus parviflorus                             Wahoo                         Euonymus alata and others
     Thistle                     Cirsium spp. and others                       Wake-robin                    Trillium spp.
     Thistle, Canada             Cirsium arvense                               Wallflower, western           Erysimum capitatum
     Thrasher                    Toxostoma spp.                                Walnut                        Juglans spp.
     Thyme                       Thymus vulgaris and others                    Walnut, black                 Juglans nigra
     Ti (Ki) plant               Cordyline fruticosa                           Warbler                       Dendroica spp. and others
     Tiger                       Panthera tigris                               Watercress                    Nasturtium officinale
     Toad                        Bufo americanus                               Water fern, oriental          Ceratopteris thalictroides
     Tobacco                     Nicotiana tabacum, N. rustica                 Watermelon                    Citrullus lanatus
     Tomato28                    Solanum esculentum                            Water mold                    member of Phylum Oomycota,
     Tomato fruitworm            Heliothis armigera                                                          Subkingdom Mastigobionta, Kingdom
     Tomato, Galápagos           Solanum esculentum var. minor,                                              Protista
                                 S. pimpinellifolium, S. cheesmanii            Water net                     Hydrodictyon spp.
                                 (salt tolerant sp.)                           Watersilk                     Spirogyra spp.
     Tomato hornworm             Protoparce quinquemaculata                    Water weed                    Elodea spp.
     Toothwort                   Dentaria spp.                                 Water weed, yellow            Ludwigia repens
     Tortoise, giant Galápagos   Testudo elephantopus porteri                  Wattle                        Acacia decurrens, A. mearnsii, and
     Touch-me-not                Impatiens glandulifera and others                                           others
     Tree fern (Fig. 21.25B)     Cibotium glaucum                              Weaver birds                  Anaplectes spp., Hyphantoris spp.,
                                                                                                             and others



28
 DNA evidence indicates the tomato, long known as Lycopersicum esculentum, belongs in the genus Solanum and should be transferred to that
genus, making the correct name Solanum esculentum.
29
  Depending on the classification used, viruses may not have a scientific name. Many are named after the disease they cause; e.g., tobacco mosaic
virus causes tobacco mosaic disease. One classification attempts to give them at least a Latin prefix, so that the virus for warts is Papavovirus; for
smallpox, Poxvirus; for polio, Picornavirus; for measles and mumps, Paramyxovirus.
528                            Appendix 1




     Common Names and Scientific Names of Organisms
     COMMON NAME                 SCIENTIFIC NAME                             COMMON NAME                  SCIENTIFIC NAME

     Webworm, fall               Hyphantria cunea                            Woad, dyer’s                 Isatis tinctoria
     Welwitschia                 Welwitschia mirabilis                       Woadwaxen                    Genista tinctoria
     Whale, sperm                Physeter catodon                            Wolfsbane                    Aconitum vulparia
     Wheat30                                                                 Wolverine                    Gulo luscus, G. gulo
     Wheel tree                  Trochodendron aralioides                    Woodpecker                   Dendrocopus spp. and others
     Whisk fern                  Psilotum spp.                               Wormwood                     Artemisia annua, A. absinthium
     Whisk fern,                 Asteroxylon spp., Psilophyton spp.,         Yam                          Dioscorea alata, D. cayensis,
       fossil relatives of       Rhynia spp., and others                                                  D. composita, D. esculenta, D.
     Whisk fern, living                                                                                   floribunda, D. rotundata, D. trifida
       relatives of              Tmesipteris spp.                            Yareta                       Azorella yareta
     White pine blister rust     Cronartium ribicola                         Yarrow, American             Achillea lanulosum
     Willow                      Salix spp.                                  Yarrow, European             Achillea millefolium
     Willow Family               Salicaceae                                  Yeast, baking/brewing        Saccharomyces cerevisiae
     Window leaves,                                                          Yellow-green algae           member of Phylum Chromophyta,
       plants with               Fenestraria spp. and others                                              Kingdom Protista
     Wintergreen oil,                                                        Yew                          Taxus spp.
       sources of                Gaultheria procumbens and others            Yew, Japanese (Fig. 22.9)    Taxus cuspidata
     Wisteria                    Wisteria sinensis and other                 Zebra                        Equus zebra and others
                                 Wisteria spp.                               Zinnia                       Zinnia elegans and others
     Witch hazel                 Hamamelis virginiana


30
  More than 20,000 varieties of cultivated bread wheat, which has a history dating back thousands of years, are presently recognized. The
ancestry and cytology are complex and still not fully understood. The principal ancestors appear to have been Triticum monococcum (which,
after mutant forms were incorporated, became known as einkorn wheat) and species of Aegilops, especially A. speltoides, with several other
mutations and natural hybridizations having occurred throughout the past several thousand years. Emmer wheat has been recognized as
Triticum dicoccom or T. turgidum var. dicoccum; durum wheat as T. durum or T. turgidum var. durum; Polish wheat (also known as Jerusalem
rye) as T. polonicum; and common bread wheat as T. aestivum (which is believed to be have been derived from T. turgidum and a genome
from Aegilops tauschii). Other taxa believed to have played a role in the development of cultivated wheat include T. longissima and T. searsii.
Uncertainty as to the precise evolutionary history of wheat persists, however, and awaits further investigation.

				
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