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Northern Europe Physical Map

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									               Northern Europe
 Background
  – Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland
  – close relationships with each other historically
 Regional   Characteristics
  – only highly developed, populated region so far north
    (latitude of Alaska)
  – westerly winds warmed by North Atlantic Drift
  – ocean cools in summer
  – above freezing in January; 50-60 degrees in July
  – peaceful cooperation of countries since early 19th C
  – languages mutually intelligible except for Finnish
  – Evangelical Lutheran Church 90% of population
  – small size, resource limitation have made for highly
    specialized economies
  – very high standards of education, physical safety,
    creative achievement
  – most governments attracted to moderate socialism and
    substantial welfare systems
 Denmark
  – Copenhagen (1.7 mil) largest city in North Europe
          on island of Sjaelland (Zealand) at eastern margin of
      lies
       Denmark
      Sweden only 12 across the Sound
Northern Europe
 Physical Map
   transitand entrepot business
   industries include imported/exported foods, chemicals,
    engineering services
– Factors in Denmark’s Agricultural Success
   agriculture very important in overall economy
   3/5’s of total land cultivated, largest of any European
    country
   agriculture so efficient that it only employed 5% of
    population
   1/3 of exports are agricultural products

   highly specialized with animal husbandry, dairy farming,
    sale of animals for meat
   important role of cooperative societies in production,
    processing, standards, and marketing
   very high level of education
 Norway
  – Physical Characteristics
      long  western coast stretched 1000 miles
      extremely rugged, no soil, scraped bare by glaciation

      70% of mountainous wasteland;25% forest;5% arable
       pastureland
      terrain hinders agriculture and transportation

  – Fjords
      much of population scattered in small isolated clusters
      hydroelectricity produces 99% of all power

  – Urban Areas
      Three  main cities on West coast are Bergen, Trondheim, and
       Stavanger
      Oslo capital, largest city, industrial, commercial and cultural
       center
     half   of population lives in southeast core near Oslo
  – Economy
     extensive  agricultural land and large forests
     saw mills, pulp and paper, metallurgy, electrochemical
      industries and consumer goods
     rich in natural resources, spectacular scenery, water power,
      fish, minerals
     discovery of oil and gas in North Sea have made Norway one
      of the most affluent countries in Europe
 Sweden
  – Background
     largest  country in area and population (8.7 million)
     shares mountains of Scandinavian Peninsula with Norway;
      fertile farm lands in south; ice-scoured forests in north
– Economy and Resources
   high development of engineering and metallurgical industries
   mining and smelting in Bergslagen region

   handicapped by lack of coal originally, now use of
    hydroelectric power to produce highest quality steel
   new sources of iron ore from Kiruna and Gallivare above
    Arctic circle
   fabricating industries, exports of autos (Volvo and Saab)
    industrial machinery, ball bearings, cutlery, tools, surgical
    instruments, glassware, and furniture
   Swedish manufacturing in Central Lowland

   much of land naturally forested with coniferous softwoods

   saw milling, pulp and paper making, wood chemicals,
    synthetic fabrics, plywood
    lessspecialized export-orientated agriculture than Denmark
    some good agricultural land in Skane on southern tip

    high GNP per capita

    most markets for Swedish products in Norway, UK,
     Denmark, Netherlands
– Stockholm and Goteberg
    Stockholm   (1.5 mil) second largest city in North Europe
    administrative, financial, and cultural center

    increasing importance of Goteberg as trading port

    Goteborg harbor ice-free year round, closer to European
     markets
– Swedish policy of neutrality and preparedness
    in 17th C Sweden was powerful, imperialistic country
    rising power checked by Russian and Prussia in 18th C
      no experience with warfare since 1814
      successful policy of neutrality and cooperative diplomacy

      heavily armed but not a NATO country

      1994 referendum on joining the EU favorable

      construction of tunnel between Sweden and Denmark;
       building major road links to all Nordic countries
 Finland
  – Background
      conquered and Christianized by Swedes in 12th C
      ceded by Sweden to Russia in 1809

      developed own culture and nationalistic feelings under
       Russian control
      opportunity for independence after collapse of Tsarist system
       in 1917
– Economy
    most of Finland is sparsely populated, glacially scoured,
     subartic wilderness
    land of a thousand lakes and marshes

    agricultural land in fertile and warmer south

    hay, oats, barley, livestock production and dairying

    dependent on exports of forest products (spruce and pine)

    hydroelectric, thermal, and nuclear power

– Helsinki
    population  of 1 million
    located on Gulf of Finland

    largest city, main seaport, main commercial and cultural
     center
  – Problems of a Buffer State
      buffer between Russia, Scandinavia and Germany
      “winter war” with Soviet Union in 1939-1940

      fought with Nazi Germany in 1941 to regain lost territory
       but was defeated
      economy heavily burdened by outcome of war with Russia

      rapid recovery due to metalworking industries

      metal industries now as important as forest industries

 Iceland
  – Background
      large,mountainous island in Atlantic Ocean
      very rugged surface from glaciation and vulcanism

      tundra vegetation with few trees
   strong winds
   cool summers averaging 50 degrees F

– Economy
   no mineral resources
   good hydro and geothermal resources

   most population lives in coastal settlements

   Reykjavik, capital with 150,000 population, warmed by
    North Atlantic Drift
   Reykjavik has same average January temperatures as New
    York city
   fishing, farming, cattle, sheep

   production of hardy vegetables like potatoes

   manufacturing mainly consists of food processing
  – Politics
      Iceland a colony of Denmark for centuries
      independence since 1918 under Kind of Denmark until 1944
       when Iceland became a republic
      occupied by US and UK in WW II

      member of NATO alliance

      no military forces of its own

 Greenland,     Faeroes, and Svalbard
  – Denmark holds Greenland, largest island off North
    America and Faeroes islands between Norway and
    Iceland
      Greenland   about 1/4 size of US with 85% of land covered by
       ice; about 60K population
    fishing, hunting, trapping, sheep grazing, mining of zinc and
     lead important to Greenland
    radar installation at Thule in remote NW

– Faeroes are group of treeless islands
    approximately 50K people
    people of Norwegian descent

    make living by fishing and grazing sheep

– Svalbard
    group of island in Arctic Ocean
    covered with ices

    deposits of high-grade coal mined by Norwegian and
     Russian companies

								
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