Business Ethics Manuel Velasquez’s view • Rights- individuals’ basic needs to welfare • Justice- how the cost and benefits of an action can be distributed fairly among a group • Utility- concerns the positive and negative effects that an action or a policy has on the public • Care-the relationships we have with other individuals; we owe care and consideration to all people Code of conduct • It protects the interest of the public rather than the interests of the members of the organization or profession • It is specific and comprehensive • It is enforceable Code of Ethics for Engineers • Engineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duties, shall: • Hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public. • If engineers' judgment is overruled under circumstances that endanger life or property, they shall notify their employer or client and such other authority as may be appropriate. • Engineers shall disclose all known or potential conflicts of interest that could influence or appear to influence their judgment or the quality of their services. • Engineers shall not complete, sign, or seal plans and/or specifications that are not in conformity with applicable engineering standards. If the client or employer insists on such unprofessional conduct, they shall notify the proper authorities and withdraw from further service on the project. Principles of medical ethics • A physician shall be dedicated to providing competent medical care, with compassion and respect for human dignity and rights. • A physician shall uphold the standards of professionalism, be honest in all professional interactions, and strive to report physicians deficient in character or competence, or engaging in fraud or deception, to appropriate entities. • A physician shall respect the law and also recognize a responsibility to seek changes in those requirements which are contrary to the best interests of the patient. Challenger • Mistaking groupthink for teamwork • Allowing person bias to influence judgment Critical thinking • How can I know the “right action” in this situation? • What are my obligations, and to whom, in this situations? • What values or ideals do I want to stand for in this situation? • What is likely to happen if I do X or Y? Ethical Relativism • Obligations- the responsibilities we have to everyone involved • Ideals- values that we believe in • Consequences- the beneficial, or harmful, results of our actions Case Studies- What would you do? • It is late April and you need a summer job. In a local newspaper you see an ad for a potential job. The only problem is that the ad specifically mentions that “this is a continuing, full-time position.” You know that you will be returning to college in the fall. – Is it ethical for you to apply for the job without mentioning this fact? Why or Why not? Case Studies- What would you do? • If you received a final grade of “A” by mistake, would you inform your professor? • Would you allow a friend to submit a paper you’ve written for some other course? • Would you tell the cashier if he/she gave you too much change? Case Studies- What would you do? • While traveling on an assignment that is being paid for by your employer, you visit an area in which you would really like to live and work, an area in which you have lots of contacts but never can find time to visit on your own because your job keeps you so busy. You have five days to complete your assignment, and then you must report on your activities. You complete the assignment in three days. – Should you spend the remaining two days checking out other job possibilities, without reporting this activity? Legal Guidelines • Laws against deception • Libel law • Laws protecting employee privacy • Copyright law • Law against electronic theft • Laws against fraudulent, deceptive, or misleading advertising Justified Whistleblowing strong evidence that the organization is hurting or will hurt other parties employee has made a serious but unsuccessful attempt to prevent the wrongdoing by going through internal channels external whistleblowing is reasonably certain to prevent or stop the wrongdoing wrongdoing is serious enough to warrant the consequences for the employee, his/her family and any other parties
"Business Ethics Presentation"