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ETUCO's Tutor Manual   1
table of contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                            1

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION                                      9

1.0 - Introduction to ETUCO                                  10

1.1 - The ETUCO Training Context                             12

1.2 - What does this manual aim to do?                       13
  Background                                                 13
  A common instrument                                        13
  Flexibility and Quality Assurance                          14

1.3 - Who is this manual for ?                               15

TRANS-NATIONAL CONTEXT?                    16

2.0 - Overview.                                              17

2.1 - ETUCO’s aims and objectives                            18

2.2 - The ETUCO pedagogical process                          19

2.3 - The learners                                           22

2.4 - Communication in a multilingual context                25

2.5 - Cultural diversity                                     26

2.6 - Working in a transnational team                        27

2.7 - Using Experts                                          28

TRAINING                                                     29

3.0 - Overview                                               30

3.1 - Teaching strategies and methods                        32

  3.1.0 - Introduction                                       32
  3.1.1 - Setting course aims and objectives                 33
  3.1.2 - Using active learning methods; Working in groups   35
    Active learning methods                                  35
    Working in groups                                        36

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                          2
    Some activities for small group work                           37

  3.1.3   -   Getting to know each other                           39
  3.1.4   -   Handling communication in a multilingual context     40
  3.1.5   -   Managing cultural difference                         47
  3.1.6   -   Making presentations on transnational courses        51
  3.1.7   -   Using Audio-Visual Methods                           53
  3.1.8   -   Organising cultural and workplace visits             54
  3.1.9   -   Checklist : What to give course participants         56

3.2 - Designing materials for transnational training               58

  3.2.0 - Overview                                                58
    Teaching activities                                           59
    Resources                                                     59
  3.2.1 - Preparing teaching activities                           60
    Designing transnational teaching activities                   62
  3.2.2 - Preparing resources                                     63
    ETUCO's collection of resources                               63
    Materials produced by course participants prior to commencement
    of the course                                                 64
    Materials produced by course participants during the course   64
    Post-course materials                                         65
  3.2.3 - Background briefing papers                              65

3.3 - Evaluation                                                   69

  3.3.0 - Overview                                                 69
  3.3.1Types of Evaluation                                         69
    What to evaluate                                               71
  3.3.2 - The Course Report                                        73
  3.4.0 - Overview                                                 75
  3.4.1 - ETUCO Education Officer                                  75
  3.4.2 - The Host Country Tutor                                   76
  3.4.3 - The Tutor                                                76
  3.4.4 - Interpreters                                             78
  3.4.5 - Experts                                                  78
  3.5.0 - Overview                                                 81
  3.5.1 -Recruitment and selection procedures                      81
  3.5.2 - Appointing the course tutors, interpreters and experts   82
  3.5.3 - Liasing with the host organisation                       83
  3.5.4 - Compiling the course report                              83

CHAPTER 4. TUTORING ON ONLINE COURSES                              86

4.0 - Introduction                                                 87

Computer-mediated distance learning                                87
  Online conferencing                                              89

4.1 - CMDL and the trade union context                             91
  Benefits of CMDL                                                 91
  Possible difficulties with CMDL                                  92
  ETUCO’s approach to CMDL                                         93
    Pedagogic approach                                             93
    Mode of delivery                                               93

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    Learning resources                                                 94
    Communication modes                                                94
    Capturing dialogues                                                94
  Some open questions                                                  94
    Learning goals                                                     95
    Assessment and accreditation                                       95
    Support for learners                                               95
    Types of conferencing                                              95
    Tutor training and recruitment                                     95

4.2 - The role of the tutor                                            97
  Online tutoring on ETUCO courses                                     98
  The experience of online teaching                                    99

4.3 - Teaching online                                                100
  4.3.1 - The life-cycle of developing and delivering an online course
    Preparing the course                                              100
       Defining objectives, content, course structure                  100
       Constructing activities and assignments                         100
       Identifying and/or developing learning resources                101
       Booking resources and organising the classroom                  101
       Registering students                                            102
    Delivering the course                                             102
       Introducing the course                                          102
       Introducing the students                                        102
       Introducing the technology                                      102
       Setting up activities                                           103
       Developing skills and confidence                                103
       Facilitating discussion                                         103
       Monitoring group work                                           103
       Reviewing work and offering feedback                            104
    Completing the course                                             104
       Evaluating the course                                           104
       Documenting the course                                          104
       Archiving and housekeeping                                      104
  4.3.2      Courseware                                               105
    What is ‘courseware’?                                             105
    Tutor skills for producing courseware                             106
    Designing the virtual classroom                                   107
  4.3.3      Preparing and supporting the learner                     108
    Pre-course preparation                                            108
    Initial meeting                                                   109
    Support tools                                                     110
    Ongoing support                                                   111
  4.3.4 -Technical support                                            112
  4.3.5 - Language                                                    113
  4.3.6 - Evaluation                                                  115
    What should be evaluated?                                         115
    When should evaluation take place?                                116
    Who should evaluate?                                              116
    Collecting and interpreting data                                  117
  4.3.7 - Time                                                        118
    For the tutor:                                                    118
    For the learner:                                                  119

CHAPTER 5. RESOURCES                                                120

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                    4
5.1 - Course preparation and delivery                      121

5.2 - Training Needs Analysis and Evaluation Questionnaires 131

5.3 - Course report form                                   132

5.4 - Course Resources                                     133

5.5 - Contracts (Ana)                                      134

5.6 - Administration                                       135

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                          5

ETUCO's Tutor Manual   6
         How to use this Manual

         This Tutors’ Manual contains five main sections. Part 1
         contains an introduction to the background of the
         manual, its aims and specific target group. In Part 2 we
         outline the specific features of training in a trans-
         national context, while Part 3 deals with strategies and
         methods for delivering training in this context. Part 4
         provides an introduction to computer-mediated distance
         learning, and deals with the special challenge of tutoring
         on online courses in a trade union context. Part 5
         contains a series of resources which can be adapted
         and used to support trade union training.

         The manual has been produced in an electronic format
         to enable users to add their own notes, and to facilitate
         general updating. Further language versions will be
         produced at a later date. We hope that every user will
         be able to find what is relevant to their particular
         needs, which will vary according to different levels of
         experience. A comprehensive cross-referencing system
         will help you find all the relevant references to a
         particular subject.

         Parts of the Tutors’ Manual will be used as a basis for
         ETUCO Training Trainers courses, as well as in Planning
         Meetings for all courses.

         Part 1 provides a general introduction to the purpose
         behind this manual and the context within which ETUCO
         works and plans its educational programmes.

         Part 2 reviews the specific nature and features of
         training in a transnational context and the issues this
         raises for tutors with experience of working in a national

         Part 3 looks at the delivery of training in a transnational
         context. Based on ETUCO’s experience we provide some
         guidance on teaching strategies and methods, on
         designing materials for both contact and distance
         learning situations on evaluation methods; roles in the
         course team and course administration. Finally there is
         a section on course finance.

         Part 4 of the Manual gives an introduction to computer-
         mediated distance learning (CMDL, and provides an
         overview of online learning from the tutor's perspective,

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                              7
         highlighting some of the ways in which this differs from
         classroom teaching. It also considers the key
         implications of teaching online in a transnational

         Part 5 of the Manual contains a number of resource files
         and blank forms for use as working documents to help
         in planning and preparation of courses.

         Finally, there is a glossary of training terminology.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             8
Chapter 1.


                       1.0   Introduction to   ETUCO

                       1.1   The ETUCO Training Context

                       1.2   What does this manual aim to do ?

                       1.3   Who is this manual for ?

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                         9
1.0 - Introduction to ETUCO
         The policy of the European Trade Union Confederation
         (ETUC) on education and training recognises the need to
         develop a European trade union cultural identity and to
         provide practical training for the leading actors in the
         European trade union movement. In concrete terms, the
         ETUC is endeavouring to implement this policy by:

             Offering advice and pedagogical support to national
              trade union education centres

             Providing training on European issues and
              appropriate skills to trade union leaders, officers
              and representatives with European responsibilities.

         To achieve these objectives the ETUC has established a
         training institution, the European Trade Union College
         (ETUCO), whose role it is to respond to the training
         needs of the ETUC and its affiliated organisations at the
         national and European levels.

         ETUCO was formally set up in 1991 and is the body
         responsible for devising the ETUCs training programmes
         as a whole and for ensuring that proper account is taken
         of the European dimension in trade union education at
         all levels.

         In partnership with ETUC's affiliated organisations,
         ETUCO has offered hundreds of European courses for
         trade union officers and representatives which reflect
         key ETUC policy priorities, thereby providing a unique
         opportunity for developing a European trade union
         cultural identity.

         Training at a European level presents trade union
         educators with a whole new set of challenges:

             How can we assist trade unionists to compare their
              respective national systems and understand the
              latest European developments effectively and

             How are we to enhance learning in a multilingual
              and multicultural context ?

             How are trade union tutors from different
              pedagogical traditions and cultures to work
              together in delivering this training ?

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         In order to improve the quality of our European training
         activities and to strengthen the European dimension of
         national trade union education, ETUCO has undertaken
         a series of important initiatives to assist trade union
         educators in addressing these questions:

             We are developing networks of European trainers
              by organising workshops which provide the
              opportunity for   tutors to share best pedagogical
              practice and to update their own knowledge and

             We are developing methodologies and materials in
              some cases in partnership with other trade union
              organisations. These and other materials are now
              catalogued within the European Trade Union
              Education Resource Centre at ETUCO, and many
              are     available    on    our    website      at

             We have also developed a series of co-operative
              partnerships between ETUC affiliated organisations
              to support supplementary trade union education
              activities financed by the different education and
              training programmes of the European Union –
              these partnerships have been underpinned by an
              on-line European Union Information Service which
              provides an information library, help desk and
              partner        search    database       at     add

         The purpose of this new tutors’ manual is to describe
         the approach and methodology developed by ETUCO,
         and to build on the experience gained over recent years
         in delivering trans-European trade union education. This
         experience, while recognising the wealth and diversity of
         training styles and cultures in the different trade union
         organisations across Europe, also acknowledges the
         emergence of an accepted model based              on best
         practice for trans-European trade union education.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           11
1.1 - The ETUCO Training Context
         ETUCO training programmes are planned with the
         context of the training needs of the European Trade
         Union Confederation, its affiliates and their member
         organisations. Based on ETUC political priorities and
         proposals from Education Council members, ETUCO
         Management Committee agrees a draft annual training
         programme which is discussed by the Education Council
         for its complementarity not only between national and
         transnational levels and between sectoral and
         interprofessional levels but also within the framework of
         ETUC political priorities.

         The finalised programme is then circulated to members
         of the Education Council with requests for partner
         organisations to carry out the programme. Planning is
         then carried out with tutors from partner organisations
         to ensure that the specific agreed needs are met.
         Letters of invitation are then sent to participating
         organisations describing the target group and the
         specific course aims and objectives. JEFF TO CHECK

         Where appropriate, separate needs analysis may also be
         carried out.

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1.2 - What does this manual aim to do?


         Since the publication of the original ETUCO Tutors’
         Manual in 1993, there have been many new
         developments both in the delivery of trans-European
         trade union education. This manual reflects these
         changes and the collaborative efforts of the staff of
         ETUCO and partner organisations.

         This new tutors’ manual describes this approach and
         methodology, and builds on the experience gained over
         recent years in delivering trans-European trade union

A common instrument

         This   manual is intended to serve as a common
         instrument for all of the training activities of the
         education services of the ETUC, so that it may serve as
         a guide for all course planning, delivery and evaluation,
         and thus improve the quality of our courses.

         We hope it will provide all ETUCO stakeholders, that is,
         all those with an interest in the process and outcomes of
         European trade union education and training, with a
         yardstick for the delivery of quality courses.

         In order to ensure that all stakeholders’ interests are
         reflected here we have consulted widely using a variety
         of means with the education departments of ETUC
         affiliates, tutors working on ETUCO courses, course
         participants and the experts who make a contribution to
         our courses.

         This manual provides useful guidelines and aids for
         efficient planning and delivery of transnational training
         activities. It also seeks to promote an approach and
         develop training tools at a European level designed to
         support the ETUC and affiliated organisations working
         within the framework of the social dialogue.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           13
Flexibility and Quality Assurance

         Given the wide variety of courses run by ETUCO, with
         this manual we have tried to produce a resource for
         tutors which can be used with maximum flexibility.

         The manual is intended as an aid in the planning and
         delivery of courses. As such, its contents are not
         intended to be prescriptive but rather to point the way
         to good practice based on the experience of others. We
         have tried to cover the whole process of training,
         including identification of needs and target groups,
         course planning, delivery and evaluation. Tutors
         planning a course will choose activities and decide on a
         course programme according to the course aims, the
         course type, and the needs of a particular target group,
         so that each course will be unique.

         However, there are certain principles underlying the
         delivery of all our courses, as well as common
         procedural and administrative arrangements. Sections
         of the manual dealing with these common elements will
         therefore be relevant to all our education activities.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                          14
1.3 - Who is this manual for ?
         This manual is intended principally as a guide for those
         directly involved in the planning and the delivery of
         ETUCO courses. It will serve as a guide to the different
         steps in course implementation, and as such will help
         ensure that some minimum quality criteria are applied
         to these courses.

         This manual is intended for:

             ETUCO Education Officers responsible for courses
              and workshops;

             tutors working with ETUCO in the preparation and
              delivery of courses;

             experts making a contribution to ETUCO'S courses;

             tutors working on other transnational or European-
              level courses;

             the wider European trade union movement from
              which our      course participants are drawn, and
              which should benefit as a result of their

             our external sponsors, as a quality assurance
              mechanism for the delivery and evaluation of

         All tutors will be provided with a copy of the manual at
         their first planning meeting. It will also be used as a
         basis for parts of Training Trainers courses.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                          15
         Chapter 2.

                       What is new
                       about training
                       in a transnational

                       2.0 Overview

                       2.1 ETUCO aims and objectives

                       2.2 The ETUCO pedagogical         process

                       2.3 The learners

                       2.4 Communication        in   a   multilingual

                       2.5 Cultural diversity

                       2.6 Working in a transnational team

                       2.7 Using experts

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2.0 - Overview.
         In attempting to distil ‘best practice’ at European level,
         it is essential to take into account not only the different
         factors which influence the training experience at a
         transnational level but also the diverse traditions in
         trade union education throughout Europe.

         In this part of the manual we will look at these key
         factors which make trade union education at a
         transnational level distinctive from training in a national

         As a tutor you will need to come to terms with at least 7
         key issues when delivering training in a transnational
         context :

             You will be working on behalf of ETUCO which has
              its own    specific overall pedagogical aims and

             These aims and objectives are part of a specific
              pedagogical process at a transnational level.

             Since the learners are multinational it is necessary
              to consider their needs within this context both in
              a collective and individual sense

             Issues of language and communication are of
              central importance on ETUCO courses. This will
              require you to rethink your methodological

             Training of necessity takes place within a diverse
              cultural context

             On thematic courses there may be a greater
              dependency on guest speakers and experts

             You will be working in a transnational team where
              you will encounter different approaches to the
              teaching of trade union issues.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             17
2.1 - ETUCO’s aims and objectives
         The special purpose of trans-European trade union

         All courses offered by ETUCO are trans-European in
         nature, and provide unique opportunities for comparing
         the responses of different organisations and different
         countries to the process of Social Dialogue. Our aim is
         to foster a pedagogical process which will enable such
         inter- and intra-cultural comparisons to lead to the
         initiation of collective transnational trade union
         responses which in turn will contribute to the creation
         and consolidation of a distinctive European trade union

         Consequently    ETUCO has three broad pedagogical

             aims focusing on expanding knowledge about the
              European Economic Area and the role of trade
              unionism and trade union policy within it.

             aims which focus on know-how or skills particularly
              as they relate to effective communication and
              organisation within a transnational context

             aims geared towards changing attitudes and
              breaking down national barriers to create an
              awareness of a European trade union culture.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           18
2.2 - The ETUCO pedagogical process

         ETUCO seeks to develop its pedagogical aims by means
         of a particular process. In order to understand this
         process it is helpful to view the learning initiated on
         trans-European courses as taking place at a number of
         different levels.

         Firstly, there is an awareness-raising stage, where
         participants are made aware of a particular issue and
         encouraged to think about it from their own perspective.
         At this stage, the tutor tries to ensure that the course
         participants are working from a common knowledge
         base about the subjects in hand, or that they have the
         necessary information, resources and instruments to
         seek out what they need.

         At the second stage, once the learner has understood
         his/her own system, and is able to present this
         information in a coherent way, more in-depth learning
         takes place, where participants are encouraged to look
         at relevant European issues, to reach a greater
         understanding of the issue from their own and other
         perspectives on the basis of a comparative analysis.
         This provides the basis for the development of a
         European perspective on domestic issues.

                                                                     Follow up



                  In depth


         Fig 1. Levels of learning

         This understanding leads to a recognition of the skills
         which need to be developed by trade union officers and
         representatives so that they are able to make a more
         effective contribution to the process of social dialogue.
         Some courses will be specifically aimed at such skills

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           19
         development, but during such courses, participants are
         also encouraged to reflect on how these newly acquired
         or developed skills can be used more effectively in a
         variety of trade union contexts, (Language and
         Communications Skills courses, Information Technology
         courses, etc.)

         The exchange of national experience and ideas in
         comparative analysis enables participants to proceed to
         the third level at which they are able to develop a
         European perspective which in turn can contribute to the
         implementation of a collective response and action
         plan for a particular trade union issue.

         Having spent time together in a face-to-face course, the
         course participants will then have a real reason and
         purpose for wanting to keep in touch with each other.
         They will thus further develop their networking skills,
         which will be supported by opportunities for follow up

         These stages are summarised in the following table:

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           20
                    Cultural awareness - break down national barriers
Awareness raising   Awareness of European trade union cultures
Changing            Establish common knowledge basis
attitudes           Develop European dimension--->develop European

in-depth learning     Comparison, e.g. of systems of workplace
                      European trade unionism and industrial relations
                       issues within framework of Social Dialogue
                      European Community law and policy initiatives
                      ETUC policy positions

Improving skills      Communication skills
                      Language skills; communicating across cultures-
                       working in a transnational context
                      Dealing with European institutions
                      (self) Assessment and evaluation
                      Skills for passing on what is learnt to others
                      Skills for working in teams
                      IT skills

Implementation -      Finding European solutions to common national
putting what has       problems, which can be developed into joint Action
been learned into      Plans

Follow-up action      of trade union officers
Establish and         of lay representatives
maintain              of trainers

            Fig 2. The pedagogical process at a transnational level

   ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                               21
2.3 - The learners

         ETUCO runs courses for three main target groups in the
         trade union movement:

             Full time officers in national trade union centres

             Workplace representatives who            serve   as
              delegates to European Works Councils

             Trade union tutors

         Given that participants may be drawn from up to 30
         different European countries, as a tutor you will be
         confronted with a group of learners who will each will
         come from different European countries with different
         cultures, and languages. They may or may not be
         fluent in a second European language. They will come
         from different trade union organisations with different
         ideologies and bring with them their own traditions of
         trade unionism and trade union educational methods.

         Collectively your learners will have a range of
         professional experience in their special area of work,
         as well as being active trade unionists. They will be
         men and women of different ages, with different
         levels of responsibility within their organisations.

         In the case of courses with full-time officers and
         workplace representatives our target group may contain
         learners with widely differing levels of education,
         and different prior learning experiences.

         Course participants will come with a range of different
         learning styles, and different types of motivation
         and expectations.

         As individuals our trade union students bring an
         enormous wealth of professional and trade union
         experience as adult learners which deserves to be
         acknowledged and drawn on as an enriching learning
         resource. Similarly we are beginning to acknowledge
         nationally the tremendous potential which diversity can
         bring to trade union organisation. This is even more the
         case in a transnational context.

         In addition, as you will have no doubt found in your
         national training, you can expect course participants to
         have quite different aims in respect of learning. Some

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           22
         may approach learning very much as activists, keen to
         try out new things and to put into practice what they
         have learned. Others will view the process much more
         as reflectors and will require time to think about
         things. Then there will be those who see themselves
         more as theorists and will want to know how things
         relate to each other. Finally there will be those who see
         themselves as pragmatists who are less interested in
         theory and are concerned with doing what is realistic
         and achievable.

         Learners will thus embark on the process with
         different types of motivation. This will depend very
         much on their own individual learning style but also
         upon their specific trade union role and reasons for
         attending the course.

         For example, a recently elected member of a European
         Works Council might be more goal-oriented in their
         motivation. Their reason for attending the course might
         initially be to develop a communication network with
         their counterparts.

         An officer from a national trade union or confederation
         may on the other hand be more process-oriented i.e.
         is interested in the collective learning experience of
         being in a group with other trade unionists.

         Or the same officer might be more learning-oriented
         i.e. s/he enjoys learning for its own sake. S/he is
         interested in gaining a better understanding of other
         European cultures because this will improve confidence,
         especially when travelling abroad, or when working with
         colleagues from other countries, and this learning
         experience will generally enhance quality of life.

         In addition participants may be used to different
         approaches/methods in trade union education. In
         certain countries trade union education is clearly seen
         as having first and foremost an ideological purpose.
         Elsewhere the main emphasis may be placed much
         more pragmatically on the skills and knowledge
         necessary to carry out the representative’s role more

         Whilst some course participants may be more
         comfortable in transnational seminars than others, it is
         however reasonable to assume that adult learners will
         be initially quite disoriented, finding themselves in
         such a new and challenging learning environment since
         for many they will be in a different cultural and linguistic
         environment. Most of the participants will find

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                              23
         themselves in a foreign country, where the training
         practices will be a little different, and in a training centre
         or hotel a long way from their normal surroundings.
         Communication can be impaired by linguistic problems
         and the interpreters will usually only be available during
         the work sessions.

         Because the learning context will be a strange one they
         are likely to have a need to feel welcomed as soon as
         possible onto the course.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                24
2.4 - Communication in a multilingual

         Language is arguably the most persistent obstacle which
         both tutors and learners need to overcome in a
         transnational learning context. The problems occur at
         four levels.

         Firstly, there is the issue of how formal communication
         is to take place at the training event. Most ETUCO
         events have interpreting facilities on hand and teaching
         materials available in the working languages. This
         presents tutors with certain constraints. On a
         multilingual course communication is slowed down
         particularly when interpreters have to relay in a second

         There is a need to remember that it is tiring for people
         to be working in a language other than their own.

         For some, the informal, social interaction will also have
         to take place in a second or third language, while others
         will have the security of their own language group.
         Tutors need to be aware of those who may need a little
         extra support.

         Secondly, in both the formal and informal oral
         communication that takes place the messages conveyed
         between the speakers are not limited to the actual
         words used. Cross-cultural communication can be
         problematic   where     body     language     leads  to
         misunderstandings (see 3.1.4). Hence we need to be
         aware of the significance of both spoken and non-
         spoken language since cultural differences are embodied
         in both.

         Thirdly, terms and expressions can mean different
         things to different people, even when translated! So you
         will need to check the precise meaning of concepts
         particularly    when   comparative    work     is  being

         Fourthly, and perhaps most significantly for you as a
         tutor, the whole methodology you use has to be
         considered from this vantage point. Traditional
         visualisation techniques are restricted considerably by
         language constraints and you may be required to resort
         to much more creative non verbal visualisation methods
         to achieve your aims and objectives.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           25
2.5 - Cultural diversity

         Cultural diversity is likely to manifest itself in three key
         ways on an ETUCO course:

               The course will be taking place in a location
                with    its  own   cultural  norms     which
                participants need to acknowledge.

         From an organisational point of view certain factors will
         need to be considered by the tutors and course
         organisers and participants will need to be made aware
         of the particular routines and expectations of trade
         union education centres or other training locations.

               ETUCO courses deal with concepts in
                industrial relations and trade unionism
                which differ from one country to the next.

         Cultural values also articulate themselves in the types of
         institutions and processes chosen to deal with the
         employment relationship in each member state.

               Course participants from different cultures
                are encouraged to relate to each other in
                varied learning and social contexts during a

         Tutors need to be aware that course participants will be
         used to different approaches to trade union education in
         keeping with the traditions which have evolved in their
         own countries.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                              26
2.6 - Working in a transnational team
         Working in a transnational team can present the tutor
         with the same challenges as it does the learner:
         problems of language, communication. and culture.
         Generally speaking you will have been chosen to tutor
         an ETUCO course because of your linguistic competence
         and this should assist communication within the course
         team. Cultural differences, however, may surface when
         planning your choice of course methods. Understandably
         Europe is rich in a variety of educational methods and
         this is no less the case in trade union education.

         As a tutor you will also need to consider the
         involvement of additional but crucial team members -
         the interpreters. They may not be available at the early
         stages of planning but their advice will be indispensable
         particularly should you seek to run a significant part of
         your course using small group methods.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           27
2.7 - Using Experts

         Although tutors and participants on a course generally
         have wide experience and knowledge which can be
         exploited throughout the training activity, there are
         occasions when it is necessary to call on a guest
         speaker with specific expertise. For the purposes of
         ETUCO courses, guest speakers are known as experts
         and provision is usually made in course budgets to
         invite such speakers who are generally specialists in a
         particular sector or theme. Experts, too, should be
         considered as part of the course team. Although they
         may only appear for the day on which they have been
         scheduled, it will help them to know where and why
         they fit in the course programme and to have a set of
         the overall course aims and backgrounds of the course
         participants (see section 3.4.5).

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                         28
Chapter 3.


                       3.0   Overview

                       3.1 Teaching       strategies    and

                       3.2 Designing       materials    for
                       transnational training

                       3.3   Evaluation

                       3.4   Roles in the course team

                       3.5   Course administration

                       3.6   Finance

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                     29
3.0 - Overview

         This part of the manual covers the process of actual
         delivering ETUCO courses. The first two sections provide
         some guidance for you as a tutor in dealing with the
         different training challenges which a transnational
         context provides. Sections 3.1 and 3.2 on methods and
         materials offer practical help in designing and running
         courses. There are numerous cross references to model
         or sample documents in the Resources section. Section
         3.3 covers the different opportunities for evaluation and
         makes reference to evaluation techniques.

         In sections 3.4, 3.5, and 3.6 we address the issues of
         roles within a multinational team, general questions
         relating to course administration, and finance.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           30
3.1 - Teaching strategies and methods

                       3.1.0 Introduction

                       3.1.1 Setting course aims and objectives

                       3.1.2 Using active learning methods;
                       Working in groups

                       3.1.3 Getting to know each other

                       3.1.4 Handling   communication        in   a
                       multilingual context

                       3.1.5 Managing cultural difference

                       3.1.6 Making presentations

                       3.1.7 Using audio-visual methods

                       3.1.8 Organising cultural and workplace

                       3.1.9 Checklist:   What   to   give   course

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                              31
3.1 - Teaching strategies and methods

3.1.0 - Introduction

         In this section we consider how you will need to manage
         some of the key methodological issues in trade union
         education in a transnational context. Specifically, these

             establishing clear aims in line with the ETUCO
              pedagogical process

             choosing methods to maximise active learning

             helping participants to get to know each other

             handling  the       issues     of   language     and

             managing cultural difference

             making presentations on transnational courses

             organising workplace and cultural visits

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                            32
3.1.1 - Setting course aims and objectives

         Each ETUCO course should have a clear set of aims and
         objectives. These are generally set out in the letters of
         invitation and confirmation which are sent to course
         participants. This enables a "contract" to be signed with
         the course's sponsor. The latter is thus aware of the
         intended outcome of the activity before investing time
         and money in it. It also enables you to divide the course
         itself into modules and activities, within the given time
         constraints. The clearer the objectives are, the more
         realistic will be your attitude to the allocation of time on
         the course.

         Defining objectives also helps to reassure the learners,
         reducing their resistance to change and encouraging
         them to approach the course on the basis of a common
         understanding of shared goals.

         Moreover, having clear pedagogical objectives helps
         facilitate   evaluation,    communication with  the
         participants and also the subsequent development of
         better training activities.

         The success of a transnational training course depends
         to a large extent on matching the course aims with the
         methodology. If the participants are to play an active
         role in the course it is important that they understand
         clearly and approve the choice of these aims and
         methods. That means that where possible, they need to
         be informed about and consulted on these choices
         throughout the course. At the end of each day's work
         the participants should also be encouraged to assess
         what has been achieved in the various activities (see
         section 3.3). In reality, the participants themselves are
         the main resource and they help determine how the
         course proceeds and which future training activities
         could be developed.

         Depending on the course type, there may often be a
         need to ascertain the participants’ level of, for example,
         computing skills, or competence in a foreign language.
         Therefore it is sometimes necessary to send out a pre-
         course questionnaire or diagnostic test to ensure the
         participants will be able to benefit from a particular
         course. Such questionnaires will also give tutors
         valuable information for course planning. (Examples of
         such pre-course questionnaires can be found in Part 5)

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                              33
         It is only possible to send out pre-course questionnaires
         once participants have been identified. Hence
         invitation/confirmation    letters   must    contain   full
         information about aims and objectives of the particular
         course as well as the profile of the target group In order
         for responses to pre-course questionnaires to be
         collated and analysed, these must be sent out in good
         time before the course begins (at least six weeks

         N.B. Having clear aims and objectives does not of
         course preclude that course participants leave with quite
         different learning outcomes since the learning process at
         both national and transnational level is as much an
         individual as well as a collective experience.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             34
3.1.2 - Using active learning methods;
Working in groups

         From your experience in a national context it is clear
         that choice of a specific method needs to be based on
         aims, target group and time and resources available. In
         a transnational context language is a further important
         consideration in your course planning.

         Sometimes because of the challenge posed by working
         in different languages, there is a need on the part of the
         tutors to have as much material as possible prepared
         and translated in advance. Similarly because the specific
         theme of the course may require an expert input there
         may be a pressure on transnational courses to rely
         excessively on traditional passive educational methods.

Active learning methods

         From a transnational perspective ETUCO would urge
         tutors from countries with specific traditions in trade
         union education methods to be open to a range of
         approaches, particularly those which can be broadly
         described as active learning methods which encourage
         participation from and between course members. Active
         learning methods are central to ETUCO’s pedagogical
         philosophy. Certainly, experience has shown that such
         methods, particularly those involving different types of
         group work can be very effective.

         Whichever form of groupwork is chosen to structure
         transnational learning, it will be necessary to ensure
         that participants are clearly informed about the aims,
         task, content and method of the particular activity.
         This is usuallly done by means of an activity sheet
         (see example and blank form in Part 5).

         Activity sheets prepared in the working languages of the
         course have a unique value for transnational courses,
         helping participants to focus on the activity itself, thus
         avoiding misunderstandings. You will need to ensure
         that terminology and instructions are clearly understood
         at the outset.

         Activity sheets should be used flexibly, and participants
         should be given the opportunity to change the tasks and
         methods as required according to their needs. The
         interpreters will be able to assist you here to make on

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                            35
         the spot changes in different languages. An original
         activity sheet would at least serve as a starting point.

Working in groups

         Generally, activity sheets are associated with some form
         of groupwork. Whereas in a national context the specific
         composition of working groups depends on course aims
         and objectives, in a transnational context there are
         additional logistical factors to consider:

         As a guide however ETUCO recommends the following:

         Country and organisation: it is generally better to put
         participants coming from the same organisation, or
         same country in different groups, to facilitate maximum
         contact between cultures.

         Some flexibility may however be required in early
         activities on a course - for example participants from
         the same country may need to get to know each other
         first - particularly if a key task is to compare national
         systems or if tutors are aware of a lack of confidence
         amongst certain participants.

         National/organisational working groups may of course
         be entirely appropriate if the specific aim of the activity
         requires it.

         Language: The exchanges of experience between
         participants from different countries will be more fruitful
         if the transnational dimension is introduced in working
         groups. The practicalities of handling language issues in
         small group work are considered in 3.1.4 and 3.1.5

         Size and number: In addition to the normal
         considerations you would give to workgroup size the
         optimal number of participants in a working group will
         depend on the number of working languages and the
         number of interpreters available. (See 3.1.4 and 3.1.5

         Level of participants: the degree of experience of
         course participants may not always be clear and tutors
         may need to elicit this information in the early phase of
         a course.

         Changing working groups composition: Generally
         speaking changing working groups can only enhance the

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             36
         interaction between course participants from different
         cultures but your ability to do so as a tutor will depend
         very much on the language resources you have
         available, such as the number of interpreters.

         Timing: You will need to allow more time for tasks or
         reduce the requirements of the task to accommodate for
         the fact that language constraints may slow the process

         Monitoring groups: You will need to check that the
         task has been clearly understood. With a transnational
         course it is probably advisable to stay with the groups at
         least at the beginning of the course since your
         troubleshooting role is likely to be greater.

         Report back: A lack of report back can be frustrating
         for some participants but too long reports may be
         boring and are a waste of time. You will need to find the
         right balance. “Jigsaw” report backs where each groups
         is invited to report on a different aspect or part of the
         task are a good way of overcoming this problem
         Certainly, if report backs are planned, their time-frame
         and structure should be defined in the task so that
         some time for comparison is possible.

Some activities for small group work


         These can be particularly dynamic forms of learning
         which involve an intense form of groupwork, but they
         need careful planning and full course team involvement
         when they are being run. An example of a successful
         simulation is the ETUCO Ferucci role play for use on
         European Works Council training courses. This is
         available along with a tutor’s note from the ETUCO

         The tutor’s note will give you an appreciation of what
         needs to be considered from a trainer’s point of view
         when running this kind of activity in a transnational


         Games can sometimes play a useful role within a
         course, helping participants to relax and get to know

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                            37
         each other in a natural way, as well as developing group
         dynamics which will be useful in later group work.

         Some adult learners can be very dismissive of the value
         of games on a training course, they may perceive such
         activities as childish, or a waste of time.         The
         presentation of the activity should be done with care,
         and the participants need to be aware of the value of
         learning to work with colleagues from different cultural
         backgrounds who speak different languages.

         Games such as Euromaze can help foster a spirit of
         collaboration within a group, where teams have to work
         together to achieve the desired outcome. However they
         will need clear rules based on common principles that
         are easily understood, and should give opportunities for
         all to participate.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                          38
3.1.3    -   Getting to know each other

         Relationships between the team of tutors, the
         participants, the interpreters and other speakers can
         have a decisive effect on the quality of a training
         course. If the participants, interpreters and tutors feel at
         ease, working in an atmosphere of mutual trust, this
         can only benefit the smooth running of the course,
         workshop or project in question.

         In order to develop good group dynamics it is very
         important that everyone should quickly learn the names
         of all the participants, including the tutors and
         interpreters. Hence the beginning of a training event is
         of crucial importance since it sets the tone for the rest
         of the course. A round table with nameplates indicating
         name and organisation- whilst essential - is generally
         not sufficient and you may find that interpreters are not
         available on the day of arrival if the course doesn’t
         actually begin until the following day. It is nevertheless
         important to ensure that the “ice is broken” before more
         formal introductions take place during the first session
         of the course. As a tutor you will need to be resourceful.

         We have included a number of introduction activities in
         the Resource section of the manual. These are intended
         to facilitate memorisation of names and more
         importantly, to ‘break the ice’. (See Part 5)

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                              39
3.1.4 - Handling communication in a
multilingual context

         The main means of overcoming communication
         problems on courses between the various language-
         speakers will of course be the availablity of course
         materials in the various working languages and
         interpretation, so adequate technical equipment and
         sufficient interpreters will be needed.

         Technical equipment

         The room for the plenary sessions of the training course
         should have an interpreting booth (preferably sound-
         proofed) for each working language, together with
         sufficient headphones and microphones for all the
         participants. A technician should be available to ensure
         that the equipment works properly.

         Booths should be positioned to facilitate interpreters'
         clear vision of the speaker, whiteboards, screen, or
         other visual displays.

         Organisers should ensure there is adequate space for
         the booths when booking the rooms for the course.

         For addresses by experts, presentations and working
         group reports to the plenary a mobile microphone
         should be provided.

         In working group sessions the interpreters should either
         use whispering techniques or portable equipment.


         Well-qualified and sufficiently resourced interpreters are
         essential to the success of a transnational training

         The group of tutors and the ETUCO officer in charge
         should ensure:

             that there    are   two   interpreters   per   working

             that the course      uses    established   teams    of

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                              40
              that the interpreters receive the course documents
               before the course starts, so that they can
               familiarise themselves with the special terminology
               to be used. They will also need any additional
               documentation produced during the course.

              that they meet the interpreters before the first
               session in order to pass on any last-minute

              It will help enormously if you yourself have some
               command of a second language and you will need
               good communication skills that transcend linguistic
               barriers, in order to communicate with participants,
               other tutors and local (host) organisers.

         Simultaneous interpretation

         In a majority of cases the interpretation will be
         simultaneous, i.e. direct. The interpreting team should
         cover all language combinations.

         Let us take the example of a course with German-,
         French- and English-speaking participants. When a
         German participant speaks, for example, one interpreter
         should translate directly from the German into English
         and another from the German into French.

         On such a course, the following combinations will arise:

         1   German        translated   into         French
         2   French        translated   into         German
         3   German        translated   into         English
         4   English       translated   into         German
         5   French        translated   into         English
         6   English       translated   into         French

         Interpretation         by        relay     /consecutive

         Interpretation by relay, or consecutive interpretation, as
         opposed to direct (simultaneous) interpretation, should
         be considered for certain language combinations. For
         example, if a course has participants who speak French,
         Swedish and Portuguese it will probably not be difficult
         to recruit interpreters for French into Swedish or French
         into Portuguese. On the other hand, it will probably be
         very difficult, or even impossible, to find interpreters
         who can translate directly from Swedish into Portuguese
         (or vice versa). In such cases an intervention by a

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                            41
         Swedish participant could be translated into French and
         then from French into Portuguese. So it should be borne
         in mind that this will impose restrictions on possible
         language combinations in working groups. In such
         circumstances, a working group with Portuguese and
         Swedish participants would require at least three
         interpreters. It is also important to remember that this
         takes more time.

            Advice to participants

            During the    first session of the course the following
            information and advice could be given to the participants:

                  the number of the channel of each working
                   language (e.g. French 1, English 2, Italian 3)

                  how to use the microphones and interpretation
                   facilities for their interventions, remembering to
                   turn off the "mike" when they finish speaking,

                  remember to speak at a suitable pace to allow for
                   interpretation, i.e. not too fast,

                  take care to be explicit, i.e. to            avoid
                   abbreviations and puns which are             often

                  remember to explain expressions which relate to
                   specific national situations,

                  always speak as concisely as possible.

         Interpreting guidelines for small group work

         The interpretation facilities used in the plenary should
         be made available to the working groups containing the
         most languages. If the interpreters have to whisper
         their translations to groups placed in rooms with no
         technical equipment, such groups should have a
         maximum of 6 or 7 participants. The composition of the
         working groups should be decided on the basis of both
         the pedagogical objectives and the languages spoken by
         the participants, bearing in mind the capabilities of the

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                 42
         Using visualisation in plenary sessions

         Following a speech conveyed by simultaneous
         interpretation can require considerable powers of
         concentration on the part of the participants. If, in
         addition, the speech is backed up by visual aids such as
         transparencies covered with text in a foreign language,
         the communication exercise can soon become
         intolerable for participants who lack competence in the
         language used by the speaker. There are various ways
         of alleviating this problem. The ideal solution is to have
         a visual display consisting of pictures rather than written
         text (see, for example, the ETUCO slides on EWCs and
         on     different   workplace     representation    systems

         You will need to ensure that any symbols used are self
         evident as to their meaning and/or establish a common
         understanding between the course participants. ETUCO
         have prepared a number of slides for use on certain
         courses. These are listed in the resource section of the

         If you are not working in symbols you may be able to
         provide the participants with translations of the
         transparencies prepared in advance. Several types of
         software (e.g. PowerPoint, Lotus Freelance, etc.) allow
         slides to be produced with copies for participants
         containing a space for notes where translations can be
         added. It is also helpful if presentations by experts can
         be structured clearly.

         You can also encourage working groups to prepare
         visual/graphical rather than written presentations of
         their reports back to the plenary. Such creative tasks
         generally have a positive effect on group dynamics

         Working languages and "dominant" languages

         Each course runs the risk of being dominated by one of
         the working languages, particularly if these happen to
         include French and/or English. The team of tutors
         should therefore ensure, when preparing the course,
         that an optimal linguistic balance is kept between the
         experts'    contributions     and      the   introductory
         presentations to the working groups. It is also possible
         that certain participants with a different mother tongue
         will be competent in the dominant language of the
         course and tend to use it in their interventions. In that
         event the tutors should encourage the use of the other

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             43
         working languages of the course, in order to put them
         on a more equal footing.

         Long-winded and pedantic speakers are a problem on
         any trade union training course. You will need to be
         assertive as the chair to avoid such contributions.

         The problems of following speeches via interpretation
         have already been mentioned. The team of tutors
         should remind the participants and other speakers of
         this problem throughout the course and encourage them
         (leading by example) to speak clearly and concisely.

         Check that there is a common understanding of key

         Therefore any translation of this type of term needs to
         be backed up by activities enabling the participants to
         understand the definitions and place them within a
         common framework
         of reference.

     (Are you cold Engström? Cartoon here ?- ASK JEAN-CLAUDE
     Yes, thanks.) . (thought bubble - glass of beer)

  A Swede will understand that the question is a roundabout way
of asking Engström if he would like a glass of alcohol, since
consumption of such products is associated with taboos peculiar
to Nordic cultures

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                          44
         Stress and Intonation

         Stress and intonation play an important part in
         communication, since it is a way of showing that one is
         asking a question or making a statement. Intonation
         also indicates our personal views or feelings on the issue
         in question. However patterns do not transfer easily
         from one language to another. This can lead, for
         example, to a question sounding like a statement, which
         can lead to misunderstandings particularly if the
         listeners interpret it, for instance, as irony, disdain or
         even insolence.

         Body Language

         Communication is not only a question of language.
         Silence and eye contact can be important too. Finns
         have the reputation, even amongst other Nordic people,
         for speaking very little, since silence is a way of showing
         one's interest in what the other person is saying. In
         other cultures interrupting someone by asking questions
         or even making objections can, on the contrary, be seen
         as showing interest. So the same signal, in this case
         silence, can have quite different meanings: in one
         culture it can be read as a sign of interest whereas in
         another it can signify indifference.

         Generally speaking, very intense eye contact is used in
         Nordic cultures rather than interruptions. The speakers
         place themselves in a position from which they can
         "read" each other's reactions. In Mediterranean cultures
         this can be interpreted as insolence or arrogance.

         Certain differences in gestures can lead a listener
         astray. For example, the shake of the head which
         means "no" in most of Europe has exactly the opposite
         meaning in some parts of Italy and in Greece.

         In Germany the participants at a meeting may express
         their approval of a speaker's proposal by tapping their
         knuckles on the table. It is uncertain whether a French
         or Finnish speaker would interpret such a reaction as

         The purely physical distance at which people in certain
         northern countries place themselves in order to speak to
         someone may convey an impression of coldness or
         indifference to Mediterranean listeners.

         Greeting rituals vary from one country to the next. The
         handshake, which is a daily informal greeting between

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             45
         colleagues in France, Italy and Spain, tends to be
         reserved in Nordic countries for formal occasions such
         as presentations or when the people have not seen each
         other for quite a long time. The combination of such
         non-linguistic signals with words can create formidable
         communication barriers: "He is addressing me but why
         didn't he shake my hand?"

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                          46
3.1.5 - Managing cultural difference

         Let us remind ourselves of the main ways culture can
         impact on a transnational course:

             The course will be taking place in a location with its
              own cultural norms which participants may need to

             ETUCO courses deal with concepts in industrial
              relations and trade unionism which differ from one
              country to another.

             Course participants from different cultures are
              encouraged to relate to each other in various
              learning and social contexts during a course.

             The course team members will have different
              approaches to teaching and learning.

         Respecting the culture of the host country

         In most cases ETUCO courses will normally be held in a
         trade union education centre. It is a matter of courtesy
         that the director of the centre is invited to say a few
         words of welcome to the course and to make
         participants aware of specific centre arrangements.

         Often the course will incorporate a “cultural visit”, the
         aim of which is to give the participants the chance to
         see something of the host country.

         Similarly evening events may focus on some of the host
         country customs whereby participants experience the
         particular folklore or music, or take something to drink
         or eat that is typical for that country or region. These
         should be organised in advance, where possible.

         Different concepts

         As has already been stated terms and expressions can
         different things to different people, even when

         The French comité d'enterprise, for instance, denotes an
         information and consultation body (which also may have
         a social function) composed of workers' representatives
         and chaired by an employer. A worker's representative,

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             47
         on the other hand, does the chairing of the equivalent
         German Betriebsrat. The status, rights and tasks of
         trade union representatives vary from one country to
         another. The secretary who is elected at a meeting does
         not, it seems, have exactly the same tasks in Nordic
         countries as in others. The corresponding Swedish term
         applies only to the person in charge of writing the report
         on the meeting, whilst it indicates an explicitly political
         role in other countries

         So you will need to check that there is a common
         understanding of key terms. Where possible use a
         glossary or chart of terms. In some cases it may be
         necessary to acknowledge the original term in its native
         language since there may be in the end no meaningful
         translation of it.

         Similarly there are trans-european terms or “common
         European denominators” which will often need careful

            But what do we mean by 'atypical work'?

            Let us take the example of a course where the
            participants have been asked to list the main forms of
            atypical work in their respective countries. In the report
            to the plenary the participants from a particular country
            choose not only to mention some types of precarious
            employment (time-limited contracts, sub-contracting,
            interim work, part-time work, "black" labour, etc.) but
            also night work and the introduction of teamwork. Many
            trade union organisations in European countries do not
            regard those last two forms of work as examples of
            atypical employment. In those countries such forms of
            work may be introduced following negotiations with the
            works council or union organisation in return for wage-
            related compensation or reductions in working time. The
            proposal to regulate the introduction of night or team
            work through European-level legislation might, in such
            cases, be interpreted by some union reps as an attempt
            to reduce the bargaining autonomy of the social partners,
            which is an almost sacred notion in some countries. In
            such a case the tutors would need to explain the concept
            of social partner bargaining autonomy and encourage the
            participants to concentrate on those forms of work which
            can be defined as atypical by participants from all the
            countries represented on the course.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                 48
         Multicultural course participants.

         You will need to be aware of different cultures when
         dealing with participants, take care not to make
         assumptions based on tutor’s own cultural context.

         Similarly tutors will need to develop their own cultural
         awareness in relation to the following :

             body-language
             codes of dress
             attitudes to age, status, gender; forms of address
             attitudes to gifts;
             attitudes to humour;
             attitudes to appropriate levels of formality and
              informality in different situations;
             different perceptions about appropriate meal-
             and general punctuality;
             attitudes to alcohol and smoking

                'Doing' and 'being'

                One example of how culture manifests itself is around
                the different approaches to “doing” and “being “. In
                northern European cultures, priority tends to be given to
                "doing". Relationships are developed by doing things
                together. In Mediterranean cultures it is more important
                first to establish and confirm the relationship, ensuring
                there is mutual trust, before working together.

                A Nordic participant on a course may, as a result, be
                regarded as rather a blunt speaker, since s/he will tend
                to go straight to the point and to build his/her
                relationship with the others in their shared tasks

                A participant from the South of Europe will generally
                begin their speech by trying to establish and confirm
                relations with the other participants. S/he will often
                recapitulate previous speeches by stressing his or her
                endorsement, as appropriate, of various points: "As our
                German colleague has already said…I totally agree with
                what was said on this matter…". BEING is a prerequisite
                for "DOING". In order to do something together you
                must first be together (i.e. you must have built up some
                mutual understanding and a relationship between the
                members of the group). Certain expressions and turns
                of phrase clearly reveal these different conceptions of
                the order of priority of being and doing.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                   49
         Different approaches to trade union education
         within the course team

         For the tutors differences are likely to occur in terms of
         emphais placed on different educational methods in line
         with the particular traditions prevalent in each of their
         home countries. Significantly, the methodological
         challenges posed by language and culture may see the
         development of a transnational methodology. Hopefully
         this manual represents a start in this process.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                            50
3.1.6 - Making presentations on transnational

         For tutors and experts

         Because courses at a transnational level by their very
         nature break new ground          their focus may to a
         considerable extent be placed on the acquisition of new
         knowledge in relation to supra national developments of
         a technical nature e.g. sectoral overviews, reviews of
         European legislation. Traditionally, the invited expert or
         the tutor her/himself will be called upon to address the
         course by making a presentation to the plenary.

         However in a multilingual context the value of such a
         method, perhaps illustrated with slides, is greatly
         diminished unless the slides rely more on graphics than
         text and with any accompanying text being translated
         for the participants.

         Because this can lead to a somewhat passive learning
         situation special consideration needs to be given to the
         overall role of experts within a course, their liaison with
         interpreters and to how their particular session can be

          Points to remember

          The way the information and the key points are presented
          can sometimes lead to misunderstandings. Interventions at
          trade union meetings are often exercises in argumentation.
          The "Latin" tradition seems to tend towards a thesis-
          antithesis- synthesis structure, whereby the listener is
          drawn into agreeing with the conclusions of the speaker,
          who keeps back her/his opinion or proposal until the end of
          the speech (main message at end). In northern Europe the
          tendency would be, rather, to state one's point of view at
          the start of the speech and develop the arguments
          subsequently (main message at the beginning).

          It can assist comprehension if you outline the structure of
          your presentation before actually commencing with your

          In presentations remember to encourage the least talkative
          participants to get involved by asking them direct questions.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                 51
         Such presentations are more likely to succeed if
         followed by discussion, and even more likely to be
         useful if followed by group-work, or some other
         participatory activity (such as a role play, case study,
         comparative analysis etc.) which allows the participants
         to test what they have heard in some way, and to plan
         how they may put this into practice back at their

         To ensure that experts' contributions fit in well with the
         overall programme, it is helpful to pass on to them
         certain information such as the course programme, the
         "level" of the participants, the precise theme and timing
         of the presentation to be delivered, and other more
         practical details. Specific requests will also need to be
         addressed to experts.

         Using Slides/OHP Transparencies

         Think carefully about the use of OHP slides. As these are
         in one language only they will be meaningless to course
         participants unless they have translated versions of the
         slides as handouts. Allow time for participants to look at
         the screen and listen to the tutor’s explanation/
         clarification, and relate this to any handout.

         Slides should also in general contain as few words as
         possible. The fewer the words, the more useful the slide
         is likely to be for use at the transnational level, and
         there may be the possibility of including key terms in
         two or three languages. The recommended minimum
         font size is 24 pt. and where possible try to use

         It is recommended that participants receive a handout
         containing a reduced version of each slide, with space
         for their own notes (e.g. as in Powerpoint presentations)

         Multi-layered slides to gradually build up a picture can
         be an effective form of presentation.

         Use graphics where possible in presentations .
         ETUCO/AFFET has designed sets of slides which attempt
         to convey information, for example on systems of
         workplace representation and on cultural difference by
         using     graphics      rather     than       text.(see
         /ewc/default.cfm )

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                            52
3.1.7 - Using Audio-Visual Methods


         A well-made professional standard video can be a lively
         stimulus,    especially    for    provoking   debate   on
         controversial issues, for presenting case-studies, and for
         illustrating problems of cultural awareness. Video can
         also be particularly effective for language learning.

         However, the main problem with              video in a
         transnational training context is language. Some
         subtitled versions are available and transcripts in
         different languages can be made available. Certain
         videos may also be effective without the soundtrack.
         Some official videos may be available in different EU
         languages and can be viewed ( in conjunction with
         appropriate tasks) prior to course. Generally, video clips
         need to be chosen with care, and used for short inputs.

         ETUCO has produced videos on certain priority topics for
         European trade union training, such as EU Enlargement,
         and European Economic and Monetary Union.These are
         available in several languages together with training
         materials that suggest a range of activities. The scripts
         are also available for downloading from our


         This can be an efficient and cost-effective method of
         transmitting a large body of information e.g. text of
         European Directives in various language versions. As
         ‘client software’ it has enormous potential for distance
         learning and the possibility of sound and interactivity
         makes it a particularly effective mode of delivery for
         language learning
         T/ewc/default.cfm for example)

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                            53
3.1.8 - Organising cultural and workplace


         The aim of these visits is to enable participants to see
         some practical and or cultural situations which reflect
         the issues addressed on their training course. Such
         visits are intended to show the context in which the
         problems or developments being analysed are actually
         experienced. Case study visits which can be organised
         to industrial plants,     service companies or other
         establishments of particular interest are generally
         recognised as valuable experiences by national and
         European trade union training organisations since they
         provide opportunities to:

             involve the participants more directly in a form of
              training which is not purely theoretical or

             broaden the discussion with the participants who
              actually "experience" the situation they have been
              studying (e.g. changes in technology or work
              organisation, health and safety issues, )

             involve management or other non-unionised staff
              in a useful process of information-sharing and
              social dialogue.

         Structuring of workplace visits

         Based on our experience to date, workplace visits
         should be carried out roughly half way through the
         course, once the issues have been addressed sufficiently
         for the participants to understand the context.

         It is important, right from the preparatory stage of the
         course, to present the case study as an integral part of
         the training activity. It is also important for the team of
         tutors and the participants to prepare the visit
         thoroughly during the course, and to realise that this
         preparatory work is almost as important as the visit

         The case study should clearly be designed to meet its
         objectives (even if reality is always different from
         expectations!), and should stick as far as possible to the
         following structure:

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             54
             Presentation of the group and visits,
             Discussion between the group and the company
              representatives to determine the object of the visit,
             Analysis   and    group   discussion   about     the
              information received,
             Final evaluation aimed at translating the findings
              from the case study into proposals/outcomes for
              the course as a whole.

         The whole process should promote awareness and
         openness to new situations and to finding individual and
         collective responses to these.

            Tips and good practice

            In order for the case study to have a useful impact it is
            clearly necessary to find a local company, service
            organisation or other establishment which provides
            interesting and innovatory examples of the issues to be
            addressed by the course.

            It is also essential to liaise with the workplace/trade union
            contact person(s) as soon as possible, clearly explaining
            the aims of the course and the visit

            It is also helpful to provide the participants in advance
            with a summary of what is to be studied and the tools to
            be used for the analysis (e.g. question/answer grids), in
            order to facilitate the follow-up reporting work.

            N.B. Pay close attention to issues of comprehension since
            workplaces can be particularly noisy. Interpreting will
            need special consideration here.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                    55
3.1.9 - Checklist : What to give course


         1 Course Programme
         2 Aims and objectives (in confirmation letter)
         3 Pre-course preparation activities where applicable
           (e.g. grid for structure of workplace representation)
         4 Background briefing document where applicable
         5 Pre-course questionnaire


         Course file containing the following :


         1.   Information leaflet about ETUCO*
         2.   Information about ETUC*
         3.   Current course brochure*
         4.   Project brochures (ETUDE, etc.)*
         5.   Latest issue of AGORA*

         Course specific

         1.   Course programme
         2.   List of all course participants
         3.   Aims and objectives (in invitation and confirmation
         4.   Activity sheets
         5.   Outline of expert presentation
         6.   Any background briefing papers or resources
              prepared for course
         7.   Any relevant ETUCO training materials*
         8.   List of further resources available, official EU and
         9.   Glossary of terms in working languages of course,
              plus blank column for participants to add in own

         *All items marked with an asterisk can be requested
         from the ETUCO Secretariat by using the form
         Resourceslist which can be found in Part 5. This should
         be done in time for these items to be included in the
         boxes of course materials which will be sent in advance
         to the training centre.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           56
         3.2 - Designing materials for
         transnational training

                       3.2.0 Overview

                       3.2.1 Preparing teaching activities

                       3.2.2 Preparing resources

                       3.2.3 Background briefing papers

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                         57
3.2 - Designing materials for
transnational training

3.2.0 - Overview

         Since course participants come with different languages,
         backgrounds, experiences and perspectives, a set of
         common resources and materials are important to
         create a common basis for debate. These need to be
         carefully chosen or prepared, bearing in mind that all
         materials and resources will need to be made available
         in the working languages of the particular course.

         The tutor’s role in preparing materials for a particular
         course is pivotal. Pre-prepared or published materials
         will normally need to be adapted, selected, and re-
         presented to meet the specific needs of target group.
         Generally, however, the overall choice of teaching
         materials and accompanying resources should be geared
         towards achieving the following :

               Enabling the learner to develop skills and
                knowledge in a structured and progressive way

               Encouraging    a participative, collective approach
                to learning

               Maintaining the learner’s interest

               Providing opportunities for evaluating what has
                been learned

         Materials will need therefore to be focused and relevant,
         and not overwhelming. Too much material is
         discouraging, and not practical since everything must be
         translated into all the working languages of the course.

         Brief, well-structured and attractively presented
         materials play a crucial role in trans-European trade
         union education. These characteristics are especially
         important when it is not always possible to provide them
         in the first language of all participants.

       ETUCO distinguishes between two basic forms of written
       materials :

             Teaching activities

             Resources

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                            58
Teaching activities

         These are directly linked to the learning process and aim

             Give ideas and/or structure individual or groupwork

             Clarify the objectives of seminar activities and
              steps to be taken

             Make reference to resource materials

         They are generally in the form of activity sheets (see
         example in Part 5).


         These cover visual aids and back up materials including
         information on issues relevant to the seminar.
         Resources can be brochures, articles, handouts or
         statements on issues relevant to the seminar.

         In general, resources should always be accompanied by
         activity sheets in order to clarify their use and their
         relevance for the theme of the seminar. Some will be
         ‘essential’, others ‘supplementary’ to the course, and
         may therefore need marking to that effect.

         In this section we provide some guidance for achieving
         the right balance when preparing teaching activities and
         resources for a transnational course:

         The needs of course participants sometimes change
         after they have actually embarked on a course. Their
         perceptions change as to the difficulty of acquiring a
         certain skill or of deepening their knowledge; also, they
         may have a different view on the relevance of different
         parts of the course.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           59
3.2.1 - Preparing teaching activities

         Pre-course activities

         For some courses it is appropriate to circulate some
         teaching material in advance, to ensure that participants
         at a similar level of preparedness are able to benefit
         from and contribute to the training course. Such
         materials need to state explicitly what participants are
         expected to do and clarify the relevance of the materials
         to the course aims and objectives.

         This preparatory work must then be acknowledged and
         followed up by the tutor at the beginning of the course.

         There are also occasions when participants are required
         to find or prepare materials themselves prior to the
         commencement of a course. For example, participants
         on the English language courses are asked to bring
         information on certain topics (working time, collective
         bargaining, systems of workplace representation in their
         countries, etc.) in preparation for an oral presentation
         they will make to other participants. Where this is the
         case, it is important to give clear instructions as to the
         level, type, and extent of information required, and to
         what use this information will be put, so the participant
         can target his/her efforts accordingly.

         For many courses, there are no pre-course materials,
         which avoids the awkward possibility of some
         participants having worked through them and others
         not, which can be frustrating for the tutor as well as for
         the more assiduous participant. This is less likely to
         happen if particular tasks are set for each participant,
         and they have a clear idea of how this will contribute to
         the collective work of the course.

         Activity sheets

         Where some form of activity is expected of the course
         participant ETUCO recommends that the instructions
         are clearly expressed on an activity sheet. (See Part 5)

         Activity sheets should have clearly stated aims, (these
         can be agreed with participants at the beginning of the
         session), and should fit in with the overall aims of the
         course, which in turn should be based on achievable and
         measurable learning outcomes.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                            60
         On occasions, it may be appropriate not to state all of
         the aims at the outset. These might need to be
         discussed after completion of the task, for example in
         activities which involve learning by mistakes, and
         awareness-raising activities.

         The task and the methods for achieving the desired
         outcomes should be clearly indicated, as should the
         timing for the activity and the place.

         The activity sheet should also make explicit reference to
         the resources necessary for its completion. In some
         cases, the resource may be the participants’ own
         experience, or may be an expert presentation that has
         taken place during the course, where the activity is to
         prepare questions to put to the expert.

         Part of the task may be the selection of resources by
         participants themselves, where, for example, they have
         chosen a topic as the basis for their group activity.

         An example of an ETUCO activity sheet can be found in
         Part 5.

         The course tutors should be involved in the preparation
         of the activity sheets, and this work should be
         coordinated to ensure variety of tasks and resources,
         and complementarity of aims. Tutors should also be
         involved in the translation, or at least the checking of
         the translation, which should be of good quality to avoid
         unnecessary confusion and misunderstandings.

         All activity sheets used   on a particular course should be
         included in the course      file submitted to ETUERC after
         the course. The course     report will contain comments on
         any amendments, and        an evaluation of how the sheets
         worked in practice.

         Activity sheets will need to be used flexibly, and
         participants should be given the opportunity to change
         the tasks and methods as required according to their
         needs; an original activity sheet would at least serve as
         a common starting point. Their use also helps in
         evaluating work carried out in different groups, as
         results will be produced according to a common
         structure, thus facilitating comparison.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             61
Designing transnational teaching activities

         Sometimes, useful training material already exists, but
         will usually need adapting to meet the needs of the
         particular target group. This checklist is intended as
         guide in the writing, adapting or selection of materials
         for use on transnational courses.

            Checklist: Designing transnational teaching activities

          Do you need to design a new activity or is there an existing
           one you can adapt ?

          Is it relevant to the needs of the target group(s)

          Specifically, can it be used in a transnational context ?

          Is it clear and concise (remember it has to be translated)

          Are there clear instructions ? Does it contain sufficient
           guidance for learners on their use (notes, exercises,
           activities, answers)

          Does it have clear signposts to the available resources ?

          Can it be structured in such a way as to facilitate
           comparisons, where appropriate ?

          Where necessary, does it have clear objectives and
           identifiable learning outcomes ?

          Does the activity enable you to make use of the
           participants’ own experience as a learning resource ?

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                    62
3.2.2 - Preparing resources

         There is a wealth of information resource material to
         draw on when preparing ETUCO courses. Because of
         this you need to      be very clear about what your
         information needs are before you conduct a search.
         Experience will help you decide which are the most
         accessible, relevant and up-to-date sources of
         information which are available in the appropriate
         working languages. The Internet is a useful source of
         information, and careful selection of reliable sites can
         help avoid information overload.

ETUCO's collection of resources

         A useful starting point is to look at the resources section
         of ETUCO's website, where training materials are
         available for downloading in a number of languages and
         on a variety of subjects, which might be useful for the
         course         you        are        preparing.       (see

         Subjects covered include Trade Unions and Europe,
         European Works Councils, Economic and Monetary
         Union, Equal Opportunities, Enlargement of the
         European Union, among others. Printed copies of some
         of the titles are available from ETUCO on request, as
         well as copies of slides. Also available on the website
         are some web-based interactive resources, which can be
         used by participants individually as pre-course
         preparation or post-course follow-up work. Titles (within
         the collection Europe and the World of Work) include EU
         Institutions; Social Dialogue; Workers' Organisations;
         Employers' Organisations; Economic and Monetary

         In the checklist below we highlight some key points to
         remember when preparing or selecting resources:

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             63
            Checklist: assembling resources for
            transnational courses

               Do the resources reflect a transnational approach,
                or can they be adapted for use on transnational
               Is the information up-to-date?
               Are the resources available in the most suitable
                format (text, electronic file, loose-leaf, video,
                etc.) ?
               Has sufficient use been made of
               Do resources reflect range of experience and
                interests of all trade unionists e.g. young, old,
                male, female, black, white, disabled, blue collar,
                white collar) ?
               Is the language clear, and relatively jargon-free?
                (It may have to be translated)
               Is a glossary of specialist terms available?
               Is country-specific information presented in a
                structured way so as to facilitate comparison?

Materials produced by course participants prior to
commencement of the course

         Course participants may not have access to translation
         facilities for any materials they may develop in advance
         of the course. However on language courses country
         reports prepared in the target language can be an
         excellent way of meeting two course aims at once.

Materials produced by course participants during the

         As we know from national experience course
         participants are invariably a key resource themselves.
         Their experience of the workplace as well as of trade
         union organisation, education and training, and
         collective bargaining for example, can make for very
         valuable structured exchanges and comparisons of this
         type of information form an important starting point for
         many of our courses. The reports of the working groups
         back to the plenary session provide us with useful
         information which is the result of unique transnational
         discussions. This feedback should be recorded in some
         way, and will in any case be included in the course
         report. It provides a useful additional source of
         information for future reference.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                 64
Post-course materials

         The course report and evaluation (see 3.3), which is
         sent to the participants after the course should provide
         them with a useful consolidation of what has been
         learned and provide useful material for disseminating
         the course experience within the participants’
         organisations (e.g. for reports in union newsletters)

Delete whole section?

3.2.3 - Background briefing papers

         The aim of background briefing papers is to identify the
         main issues to be addressed on the course and provide
         a common basis for analysis and discussion by the
         participants. The document should highlight the key
         issues linked to the overall theme of the course. In
         cross-sectoral or sectoral courses the theme will
         generally focus on economic or industrial developments
         which call for responses, such as the delivery of
         appropriate information, the evaluation of existing
         standardisation or support instruments, the provision of
         updates on social partner positions, etc.. Given the
         technical complexity of some of the issues tackled on
         such courses, it can also be very helpful to add a
         glossary of keywords, a brief bibliography of the
         main texts or documents on the subject and separate
         appendices for items such as EU documents and
         resolutions by the ETUC or the European industry

         The primary purpose of a briefing paper is to serve as a
         pedagogical tool and should be drafted and used with
         two basic considerations in mind:

             It should be easy to read, with a simple style, and
              thereby help the course members begin to develop
              some initial thoughts on the theme, which will
              subsequently be fleshed out during the face to face

             The text should be seen an introduction to the
              subject matter. It should be drafted and used
              accordingly. Its primary pedagogical function is to
              establish which issues the course should address.
              So it should aim to feed into and "interact" with all
              the other components of the course, i.e. the
              activity sheets, the participants' contributions, the

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                            65
               materials produced     and   presented,    external
               contributions, etc..

            In addition, the briefing paper can be a useful
            resource in other trade union circles and training
            institutes particularly if it can be made available

         All briefing papers are subsequently archived in the
         European Trade Union Education Resource Centre from
         where they are available for consultation.


         In view of its intended role, the briefing paper needs to
         be written by someone with knowledge of the subject,
         pedagogical skills, and enough time to produce a
         worthwhile document, which should also have an
         attractive layout. Whilst the paper need not necessarily
         be written by one of the tutors, the drafting of the
         document needs to be closely tied in with their overall
         planning of the course. The main sections of the paper
         will generally consist of:

             An introduction summarising the reasons behind
              and main aspects of the theme to be addressed, in
              order to situate/place it within its European

             A more detailed analysis of the main issues
              including, as appropriate, a description of the
              sector and recent developments within it, and/or
              problematic issues and the main economic and
              social implications.

             An evaluation of the role of the European Union -
              and of any other relevant institutions - as regards
              policies, directives and programmes on the subject.

             Issues under discussion by the social partners and
              the positions (where appropriate) of the unions.
              Some initial conclusions - even in the form of open
              questions - to feed into the debate and the
              contributions by the participants.

         Annexes containing (as mentioned above): a brief
         glossary of keywords, a concise bibliography, and,
         where appropriate, a series of texts or references to
         synoptic tables, EU documents and resolutions by the
         ETUC or European Industry Federations, etc..

         An example of a briefing paper is provided in Part 5.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             66
             Background briefing papers

                 A good briefing paper should not be too long.
                  Though there are no hard and fast rules (the style
                  and layout are also important considerations), the
                  basic text should not exceed 25 pages.

                 The language used should be as clear as possible,
                  not least since it is to be translated into other
                  languages, and the graphics should aid
                  comprehension of the text.

                 Above all, a good briefing paper should be
                  designed so as to be clearly relevant to the course
                  theme and able to be used throughout the training
                  cycle owing to its wide range of useful references.

                 Lastly, the briefing paper should be received
                  before the course starts. A briefing paper received
                  by the participants only at the start of their course
                  is unlikely to get the attention it deserves and will
                  thus lose much of its practical impact on the

             NB This will mean a considerable lead time since it
             will need to be translated and checked in advance
             of sending out.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                      67
3.3 - Evaluation

                       3.3.0 Overview

                       3.3.1. Types of evaluation

                       3.3.2. The course report

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                68
3.3 - Evaluation

3.3.0 - Overview

         It is important to have a standard instrument for
         evaluation- to assess quality of           courses in
         developmental way, and for official purposes, as well as
         to provide meaningful feedback to participating
         organisations. Evaluation can be used:

             to check level of achievement of the stated training

             to provide feedback to the training team for future

             to provide information to all stakeholders
              (Commission, ETUC, ETUCO, participants, tutors,

             to check that content, levels, and approach were

             to check degree of exchange of experience (trans-

             to contribute to quality assurance procedures;

3.3.1Types of Evaluation

When to evaluate

         It is practice on ETUCO courses to evaluate at different
         points on the course :

             At the end of each day
             Where a course is longer than a week’s duration a
              mid course evaluation will be appropriate
             At the end of the course
             As a follow up exercise

End of day evaluation

         Often referred to as casting a “flashlight” over the
         course, this should consist of the participants sharing
         but not dwelling on their main thought or feeling in
         relation to the day’s work. This can give the course

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           69
         team an indication of the extent to which the course
         aims and objectives are being met.

Mid Course evaluation

         On longer courses, for example ETUCO language
         courses it is helpful to carry out a more in depth course
         survey at a midway point to see whether corrective
         action needs to be taken in relation to aims, methods,
         content accommodation or any other course related

End-of-course evaluation

         The end-of-course evaluation questionnaire provides
         valuable information on the extent to which participants’
         needs and expectations have been met, and the
         summary evaluation provides a useful starting point for
         the planning of further courses on the same theme, or
         with a similar target group.

         If the course has been based on a task-based approach,
         with clearly defined learning outcomes, this will help
         enormously when it comes to evaluating the success of
         individual activities, and the course as a whole. The
         questionnaire will help ascertain whether learning
         outcomes have been achieved, though this is not always
         apparent immediately at the end of an activity, or even
         at the end of the course. The participant needs to be
         able to assess the usefulness of what has been learned
         once s/he is back in the workplace, and needs space to
         be able to digest new knowledge acquired or to practice
         new skills.

         The final course evaluation should be qualitative as well
         as quantitative. Quantitative evaluation is useful for
         making comparisons and for monitoring progression. It
         is important that participants understand the purpose of
         the evaluation, as well as the individual questions.
         Tutors also need to ensure that participants understand
         the scale being used, as they may not be familiar with
         this particular approach.


         Self-assessment and evaluation is useful for certain
         types of courses (language courses, distance learning),
         and can help participants become more responsible for
         their learning. This process involves asking participants
         to ask themselves questions about what they have
         learned, for example:

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           70
             What have I learned today about xyz?

             How will this be useful to me in my work?

             How can I      pass on    this   information   to    my

             Where can I find out more?

             What have I learned          about   working    in    a
              transnational group?

             I could have achieved more if…..

Evaluation by course team

         The group of tutors will meet at the end of each day's
         work to assess the outcomes, and to amend plans for
         the rest of the course accordingly. They will discuss the
         overall group and small group dynamics, and decided on
         the make-up of groups for activities on the following
         day. They will also discuss timing, to see if any
         adjustments need to made to the programme.

         At the end of the course, the tutors will have a final
         meeting among themselves, and fill in a tutor evaluation

Post-course evaluation

         Sometimes it is useful to send a follow-up questionnaire
         to participants several months after the end of the
         course. By then, participants will have had the
         opportunity to reflect on the true value of what they
         have learned, and to assess its usefulness back in their
         workplace, and whether it has enhanced their job
         opportunities in any way.

         Model evaluation forms/exercises are included in Part 5.

What to evaluate

               Course Aims

                 Were the aims and objectives clear?
                 Were the aims and objectives met?
                 Were the participants' expectations met?

               Themes

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                 Relevance of content
                 Scope and focus
                 Depth/ level of treatment

               Methods

                 Were these appropriate?
                 Were the methods sufficiently varied?
                 Distribution of time within the course

               Groupwork

                 Was the task clear?
                 Were there sufficient resources?
                 Was there sufficient time?
                 Did the group organise itself well?
                 Did they achieve satisfactory results?

               Materials

                 Were the materials appropriate?
                 Were there adequate materials?

               Language

                 Quality of translation (materials)
                 Quality of interpretation

             Tutors

              Did they work well as a team?
              Were they competent?

             Experts

              Was the presentation clear?
              Was it relevant/useful?

             Participants

              Were they committed?
              Were they well integrated?

             Administration and organisation

              Sufficient pre-course information

             Accommodation

              Teaching/learning environment
              Residential facilities

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3.3.2 - The Course Report

         Finally, a course report is written after the course
         synthesising the course evaluation with the course
         team’s assessment of the training event..

         The primary function of the report is pedagogical. Based
         on a dynamic and interactive conception of the course,
         the aim is to look again at all its components and use
         them to assess the quality of the course delivery. Items
         to be considered include: the objectives of the course
         and the expectations of the participants, the course
         content and development, the "value added" from the
         participants (in the plenary and in working groups),
         external contributions and the materials produced or
         presented, as well as a summary of evaluation by
         participants and tutors. The final report thus becomes a
         key element of the course evaluation process.

         See also section 3.5.4, Compiling the course report.

         A model report form is provided in Part 5.

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3.4 - Roles in the course team

                       3.4.0 Overview

                       3.4.1 ETUCO Education Officer

                       3.4.2 Host Country Tutor

                       3.4.3 Tutor

                       3.4.4 Interpreters

                       3.4.5 Experts

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3.4 - Roles in the course team

3.4.0 - Overview
Relationships between the team of tutors, the participants, the
interpreters and other speakers can have a decisive effect on the
quality of a training course. If the participants, interpreters and
tutors feel at ease, working in an atmosphere of mutual trust,
this can only benefit the smooth running of the course, workshop
or project in question. The intensity of the programmes and
relatively short duration of the courses run by ETUCO can in
themselves hinder the development of good relationships. One
way of developing the team is to have a clear understanding of
who is part of the team and their respective roles within it

3.4.1 - ETUCO Education Officer

         Role and Responsibilities

         Following decisions between ETUCO
         Director and ETUC Confederal Secretary
         in the ETUC Secretariat, to discuss the
         initial course proposal with the ETUC
         Confederal     Secretary   or   General
         Secretary of the European Industry

                 Manage the course budget

                 Help    establish   partnerships    for
                  interprofessional courses.

                 Ensure that appropriate course details
                  are ready for ETUCO website and
                  other publicity.

                 Convene and chair initial course
                  planning meetings, the purpose of
                  which is, among other things, to
                  decide on the various teaching,
                  organisational    and   administrative
                  aspects necessary for the successful
                  delivery of the course.

                 Coordinate the training activity, along
                  with the training team.

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                 Attend each ETUCO course to help to
                  solve any training or organisational
                  problems which may arise.

                 Coordinate the process of evaluation
                  and reporting of the course.

3.4.2 - The Host Country Tutor

         Role and Responsibilities

         The tutor from the organisation hosting the seminar has
         some specific responsibilities as follows:

         make all the practical arrangements in advance with the
         trade union education centre (rooms, social activities,
         mealtimes etc. )

         collect all the bills to send them in one integrated
         package to the ETUCO after the end of the course

         liaise with the staff of the trade union education centre
         during the course. Transnational courses require more -
         and more patient - negotiations with the staff of a trade
         union education centre than is normally the case.

         On its own these tasks can already be a heavy burden.
         To avoid this organise as much practical support from
         your organisation or trade union education centre as
         possible. Ideally, a local person should assist you with
         practical on-site problems that occur during the whole

         If this is not possible, it will be helpful to have one or
         two contact persons among the regular staff with
         specific responsibility for the ETUCO course.

3.4.3 - The Tutor

         Role and Responsibilities

         Tutors have a crucial responsibility for ensuring the
         success of the course so should play a leading part in :

             designing and planning the          programme      in
              accordance with the course aims.

             choosing and implementing the most appropriate
              teaching methods,

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             designing    teaching    materials    and   preparing

             devising tasks for participants

             structuring discussions in plenary sessions, giving
            brief introductions and overviews

             deciding and planning expert contributions

             ensuring pedagogical support for working groups

             summarizing report-backs from working groups.

         You will also have certain organisational responsibilities,
         and a much wider role in the pastoral care of
         to ensure that no individual feels isolated during the

         Individual responsibilities will need to be allocated within
         the course team

         The tutors' team will ideally have a common language,
         but inevitably this will not be the mother tongue of all.
         Knowledge of this common language will be variable,
         and it is essential to take this into consideration when
         working together before or during the course.

         You will need to listen carefully to each other in planning
         sessions and not hesitate to ask for clarification if
         anything seems to be unclear.

         Tutors must be able to devote a considerable amount of
         time to the preparation of the course. You will need to
         discuss your responsibilities with your employer to build
         this supplementary activity into your general workload.

         In general, ETUCO tutors are chosen because of their
         specific expertise and/or language abilities and are
         expected to have knowledge of current industrial
         relations   issues      and     contemporary  political
         developments within Europe. However, you are not
         expected to have a detailed knowledge of every aspect
         of the course. This is where invited experts can give
         more detailed specific contributions.

         The Tutor as Moderator

         The success of an ETUCO course will depend amongst
         other things on the way in which sessions are chaired.
         Some course teams may prefer to elect a member of

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         the team to act as moderator for the whole course.
         Others may wish to rotate this responsibility. The role
         will generally involve

             introducing new activities, topics,
             introducing experts, speakers,
             ensuring the time-frame is kept,
             leading debates, question and answer sessions,
              other plenary activities,
             not allowing anybody to dominate all the others,
             ensuring that the more timid participants or those
              with weaker language skills can also express
             drawing together a set of conclusions after each

         Generally the (chairing) tutor should create a positive
         and informal climate, and exercise flexibility in meeting
         participants' needs and expectations whilst keeping
         control of the programme

3.4.4 - Interpreters

         Well-qualified and sufficiently resourced interpreters are
         essential to the success of a transnational training
         course. They need to be seen very much as part of the
         course team and receive the main course documents in
         advance of the course so that they can can familiarise
         themselves with the special terminology to be used (see
         section 3.1.4) They also need to be kept informed of
         changes that are made in the course programme, and
         given any new documentation that is prepared during
         the course.

         Any difficulties that arise concerning translation of
         specific terminology should also be discussed with the
         team of interpreters.

         If the interpreters are residential, then they will be
         involved in the course social programme, which is
         helpful to the overall group dynamic.

3.4.5 - Experts

         Similarly, the experts also have a key role to play and
         should be given a very clear brief outlining their
         required input, and the time they will be allowed. It will
         also assist if they can be sent the course programme,
         and details of the course participants in advance.(see

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         It is useful if experts arrive at the training centre before
         they make their presentation, to get to know the course
         team and participants beforehand. Equally, if they can
         participate in part of the course afterwards, this allows
         participants time to digest the content of the expert
         contribution, and discuss this with him or her informally,
         and not just in the question and answer session
         following the presentation. The constraints of the budget
         do not always allow this, but it should be encouraged
         wherever possible.

         On distance learning courses, experts can be invited to
         make contributions to electronic conferences, where
         presentations can also be posted for consuktaion and
         downloading by course participants.

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3.5 - Course Administration

                       3.5.0 Overview

                       3.5.1 Recruitment and selection

                       3.5.2 Appointing the course         tutors,
                       interpreters and experts

                       3.5.3      Working    with   the      host

                       3.5.4 Compiling the course report

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3.5 - Course Administration

3.5.0 -    Overview

         Most ETUCO courses are administered from our office in
         Brussels but it is important to be aware of some of the
         key related administrative tasks. These are:

             Recruitment and selection procedures
             Appointing the course tutors, interpreters and
             Liaising with the host organisation
             Compiling the course report

3.5.1 -Recruitment and selection procedures

         Appropriate motivated participants are essential to
         ensure the quality of ETUCO courses, and all those
         involved in the ETUCO decision-making process are
         collectively responsible for establishing a training
         programme which meets the needs of the European
         Trade     Union    Confederation   and    its  affiliated
         organisations and which is also attractive to individual
         trade union officers and representatives.

         ETUCO is responsible for producing publicity about
         European courses, either in the form of a brochure or on
         its website. This information should include the names
         and contact numbers of persons within ETUC affiliated
         organisations who are responsible for nominating
         participants to ETUCO courses. This information should
         be disseminated as widely as possible, and ETUC
         affiliated organisations should start to recruit on receipt
         of this information.

         The course planning teams (ETUCO officers and partners
         from ETUC affiliates) are responsible for ensuring that
         course objectives and programmes are clear and that
         the target group is well defined. Once planning meetings
         have taken place, ETUCO sends out formal invitations to
         all organisations that may participate in the courses.
         These invitations should be sent out a minimum of three
         and a half months in advance to enable ETUC affiliated
         organisations to play a full part in the recruitment

         ETUC affiliated organisations which are partners in
         ETUCO courses have a special responsibility for ensuring

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         that they provide a minimum number of appropriate
         participants for courses which they organise.
         The ETUC affiliated organisations should appoint a
         person who takes an active responsibility for publicising
         ETUCO courses and for finding appropriate participants.
         Some affiliated organisations send out faxes and contact
         potential participants by telephone. Increasingly ETUC
         affiliated organisations will be publicising ETUCO courses
         by electronic means.

         It is essential that ETUC affiliated organisations
         nominate appropriate participants within the deadlines
         established by the planning meetings. This makes it
         possible for the ETUCO secretariat to contact
         participants to confirm their place on the course and to
         provide administrative information about the time and
         venue. It also makes it possible for the ETUCO officers
         and/or trainers to send out in advance appropriate
         training materials which are important for the successful
         delivery of the course.

3.5.2 - Appointing the course tutors,
interpreters and experts

         The ETUCO education officer responsible for the course
         will assemble the tutor team in agreement with the host
         organisation (where appropriate), and the skills and
         experience required in terms of course content and
         working languages. Wherever possible, tutors should
         have     had     previous    experience   of    working
         transnationally, preferably on ETUCO courses, or should
         have attended an ETUCO Training Trainers course
         designed to introduce participants to the special
         demands of working at this level.

         The interpreting team will be appointed either directly
         by the ETUCO Officer, or in cooperation with the host
         organisation who have local contacts. Wherever
         possible, interpreters should have previous experience
         of working on ETUCO courses, with some background in
         trade union and training terminology and practices.
         They will be provided in advance with all the course
         documentation, and will be briefed about any specialist
         vocabulary.    Both     simultaneous     and    consecutive
         interpreting are very demanding activities, and
         interpreters therefore adhere to strict conditions to
         maintain quality in their work. Whilst many of the
         interpreters with whom ETUCO works are willing to
         exercise flexibility (especially in the special demands of
         small group work), it is important to respect the needs

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         of the interpreters when running different course
         activities, and to ensure that they have proper breaks.
         The experts will be invited and briefed by the ETUCO
         Officer, who will ensure that the contributions made are
         properly integrated into the overall course programme.
         Tutors, interpreters and experts receive contracts from
         ETUCO before the beginning of the courses, which
         outline the conditions of their appointment and the fee
         they or their organisation will receive for their services.
         We include specimen contracts for each of these in Part
         5 of the manual.

3.5.3 - Liasing with the host organisation

         The host tutor is generally expected to carry out the on-
         site tasks related to the management of the course
         (see 3.4.2) However this burden should not have to be
         carried by the host country tutor alone. The other tutors
         may also be able to deal with practical on-site problems:
         after all, the organisational and administrative
         structures of most trade union education centres in
         Europe are not too different.

         A checklist to support the host country between the
         course preparation meeting and the beginning of the
         seminar can be found in Part 5.

3.5.4 - Compiling the course report

         The final report on a training course has several
         functions, however the main ones are to evaluate as
         clearly as possible the development and outcomes of the
         course, from a pedagogical point of view (see 3.3.2).

         Linked to this, the final report clearly is a resource for
         any other interested union organisations and or training
         institutes, and can be provided on request. Some
         ETUCO reports are available on the ETUCO website.

         Last but not least, the final report provides competent
         bodies (particularly institutions like the European
         Commission) with material for analysing and evaluating
         initiatives they have funded or supported.

         We provide a model report form in Part 5.

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             Report Guidance Notes for Tutors

             The basic report should be written by one or, ideally,
             several members of the team of tutors.

             A good report is not generally a long one. The priority is
             that its various components should be organised in terms
             of the key points to be stressed. A referral to the annexes
             (see below) can be sufficient in many cases.

             The documents to be appended should usually comprise (if
             only in the form of extracts) all the presentations as well as
             the main work produced by the participants; the activity
             sheets and other pedagogical tools used; the results of the
             final evaluation; the list of participants and attendance
             sheets and any useful references/contacts.

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         3.6 - Finance

Section to be written

ETUCO's Tutor Manual     85
         Chapter 4.

                              Tutoring on
                              online courses

                       4.0 Introduction: computer-mediated
                       distance learning (CMDL)

                       4.1 CMDL and the trade union context

                       4.2 The role of the tutor

                       4.3 Teaching online

                       4.3.1 The life-cycle of developing and
                       delivering an online course

                       4.3.2 Courseware

                       4.3.3 Preparing    and      supporting   the

                       4.3.4 Technical support

                       4.3.5 Language

                       4.3.6 Evaluation

                       4.3.7 Time

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4.0 - Introduction
         This section gives an introductory overview of online
         learning from the tutor’s perspective, and highlights
         some of the main ways in which it differs from
         classroom teaching, taking into account some of the key
         implications of online teaching in a transnational

         In recent years, the development of the Internet has
         offered the opportunity for new approaches to the
         delivery of education and training. Some national trade
         union training organisations have been experimenting
         with these tools for some time and ETUCO is also
         beginning to deliver training activities using the
         technologies of the new Information Society.

         This chapter of the Tutor’s Manual provides:

             A brief overview of ETUCO’s approach to online
             A consideration of some of the implications of this
              new form of course delivery
             An exploration of the key challenges which this
              new methodology presents both for you as a tutor
              and for your learners
             Some guidance on further reading and other
              information sources, together with some simple

         This chapter can, however, only provide an initial
         orientation to this new area of work. This new world of
         online learning demands new skills and it is essential
         that tutors have followed an appropriate course of
         training which will provide them with the understanding,
         skills and confidence to work successfully in this exciting
         new field.

Computer-mediated distance learning
         The term that we use to describe the model of online
         learning adopted by ETUCO is ‘computer-mediated
         distance learning’ (or ‘CMDL’). This area of educational
         activity abounds in terminology and acronyms, often for
         concepts which overlap in a confusing way.

         ‘Distance Learning’ (or DL) normally signifies a process
         where tutor and learners do not meet face-to-face in a
         classroom situation during most of the course. One of

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         its traditional forms is the correspondence course,
         where materials are delivered by post and learners post
         back assignments to tutors for marking. There are lots
         of examples of these types of courses in trade union
         education, particularly in the Nordic countries. Closely
         associated with this is ‘Open Learning’. Interpreted
         strictly, the term identifies courses which do not require
         particular entrance qualifications but are open to all. Its
         is, however, increasingly used as a synonym for ‘Flexible
         Learning’ which generally implies a degree of openness
         and choice in precisely when learners undertake the
         work and/or the particular pathways they take through
         the course modules and materials. In the 1990s a new
         term, ‘Open and Distance Learning’ came to the fore,
         combining these concepts increasingly with new Internet
         technologies, though this is rapidly being overtaken by
         ‘e-learning’ as a generic term.

         Whilst ETUCO’s computer-mediated distance learning
         courses generally provide a degree of both openness
         and flexibility, they differ from traditional distance
         education courses in their use of information technology
         (or IT). We need, though, to distinguish this clearly
         from some of the uses of computers within education
         which provide highly structured, sequential programmes
         of activity for individual learners, often with machine-
         generated responses – from the ‘programmed learning
         machines’ of the 1960s to some of today’s CD-ROM
         programs. These types of activity are generally referred
         to as ‘computer-based learning’ (CBL), ‘computer-based
         training’ (CBT) or ‘computer-assisted learning’ (CAL).
         These generally deal with the transmission of fixed
         information on specific subjects, schooling their users in
         the delivery of correct answers to a pre-defined range of
         questions.     ETUCO’s approach on the other hand
         emphasises learning as an active process in which
         learners and tutors can collaboratively create and own

         At the heart of ETUCO’s approach to CMDL is the use of
         the Internet to support dialogue and exchange – not
         a dialogue between learner and machine but between
         tutor and learner, between learner and tutor, between
         learner and learner, and between tutor and tutor. The
         combination of computers and telephony which
         underpins the Internet offers the possibility of new
         forms of communication, most of which are also being
         used for distance leaning. They range from courses
         conducted wholly by e-mail, to tutors holding
         conversations with individual learners via desktop video-
         conferencing and even to the delivery of presentations
         and live discussion between groups in different locations

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         via broadband satellite transmission.     Some of these
         media (e.g. video-conferencing) are synchronous
         forms of communication – that is, they rely on the
         learners participating at the same time. Others (e.g. e-
         mail)   are    asynchronous,      allowing   people   to
         communicate without having to agree a common
         meeting time. All of these can form part of a CMDL
         strategy, but the one which forms the basis of ETUCO’s
         delivery of online courses and which we shall be
         concentrating on in this chapter – is the asynchronous
         medium of online conferencing.

Online conferencing

         Online conferencing is based principally on text
         messaging.      It closely resembles e-mail.     However,
         whereas an e-mail message is sent to an individual and
         can be read only by them, a message sent to a
         conference is stored in a shared space where it can be
         read and responded to by anyone who is a member of
         the conference. For example, a tutor may establish a
         conference for a particular course and open it with a
         message briefly introducing a topic for discussion or
         inviting participants to undertake a specific task and
         report their results to the conference. During the next
         few days all of the participants will be expected to log in
         to the conference, read the tutor’s message and
         respond.     A week later there may be 20 or more
         messages as participants post their contributions. Some
         may attach copies of relevant documents to support
         their points or include references to useful web sites as
         they begin to respond to each other’s contributions or to
         raise questions. The tutor will probably also intervene
         to clarify or summarise different points as the discussion

         The idea of the electronic conference has been around
         for a long time, originating with e-mail bulletin boards in
         the early 1980s. Now, however, there are sophisticated
         web-based conferencing programs available, accessible
         to anyone with a web browser and an Internet
         connection.    These allow not only the sending and
         receiving of text messages but also

             Inclusion of hyperlinks, sound, graphics and other
             Possibility of controlling levels of access to
              particular conferences

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             Ability to organise stored messages by different
              criteria and to navigate particular strands within
             Ability to track the receipt and reading of messages
             Incorporation of other tools such as databases,
              scheduling and groupwork tools, and evaluation

         This kind of computer-mediated conferencing then
         begins to offer a rich basis for the development of an
         online learning space or ‘virtual classroom’.

         The conferencing system used by ETUCO – and by
         several national trade union confederations – is the
         FirstClass Collaborative Classroom (FCCC) and is
         described in more detail in Appendix xx.

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4.1 - CMDL and the trade union context

         Traditionally most trade union vocational training has
         been delivered by day release or, as in ETUCO’s case,
         via residential courses. Trade union education and
         training is usually of a voluntary nature, taking place in
         participants’ own time. Most is not accredited with a
         formal qualification or recognised in terms of career or
         salary enhancement. These characteristics can make it
         very difficult for a trade union officer or representative,
         who is generally working to an already over-committed
         schedule, to find the necessary time and motivation to
         undertake a course of study.

         The separation of learning time from working time
         inherent in this approach also has both strengths and
         weaknesses. When course participants have been able
         to make the commitment, it has been possible for a
         concentrated period to provide a dedicated and focused
         environment for study. At the same time, however, it
         has often been impossible to create and sustain the
         ongoing linkage and interaction between the new
         knowledge acquired during the study period and its
         application and adaptation within the workplace which is
         so crucial to embedded learning.

         Often, too, the time pressures of a short concentrated
         course mean that there’s not the opportunity to explore
         issues in depth, to assimilate and apply what has been
         learned, to provide sufficient space for discussion or to
         offer enough attention to individual learners.

Benefits of CMDL

         CMDL offers the possibility to address some of these
         shortcomings through new methods and models of
         course delivery which can extend and enhance these
         traditional learning experiences:

             CMDL allows the possibility to run courses which
              stretch over a longer period of time with contact
              between participants and tutors being sustained
              through the conferencing platform.
             It allows a much greater degree of flexibility and
              choice in when precisely individual participants can
              study – early morning, during the working day,
              lunchtimes, evenings, weekends.
             The Internet offers the possibility of access from a
              variety of different locations – office or workplace,

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                home, local library, Internet café, trade union
                study centre or college - even when learners are
                away from home.
               Online conferencing also offers the opportunity of
                more intensive dialogue, of interaction over a more
                extended period and of more balanced participation
                than is often possible in the conventional classroom
                situation, providing time and space for everyone to
                be heard.
               It can also enable the tutor to respond more
                closely to the needs of the individual learner than
                is possible within the face-to-face environment.
               The extended nature of the courses, stretching
                over months rather than days, can allow time for
                greater    reflection    and    for  activities   and
                assignments to be directly related to the context of
                the learner’s own workplace.
               The asynchronous nature of the dialogue (i.e.
                where there are delays between statement and
                response) means that users can choose when to
                read a particular message and when to respond.
                This allows time to compose a considered response
                which can be beneficial to learners who don’t feel
                confident about contributing in a face-to-face
               When it works effectively, online conferencing can
                generate a real dynamic within a group of learners,
                creating an active and mutually supportive learning

Possible difficulties with CMDL

         At the same time, it is important to recognise some of
         the difficulties which participants may experience with
         this new mode of learning:

             For those who are less experienced and less
              confident in using a computer, the technology itself
              can form a significant initial barrier. It is vital to
              provide adequate training and support so that
              learners feel confident about working in this way.
             The emphasis on a written form of communication
              can be an obstacle for some learners and the lack
              of the standard cues of intonation and gesture
              means that messages can sometimes be
             The emphasis on writing can be a particular
              challenge in the transnational courses run by
              ETUCO that bring together people from different
              nationalities and cultures with very different levels
              of skill in particular languages.

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               Unless careful attention is given to socialising and
                building a positive group dynamic, it can be difficult
                to sustain dialogue and commitment online.
               The extended nature of the learning experience
                puts new demands on the learner to balance the
                demands of learning, work and leisure time. This
                is also true for the tutors working on such a

ETUCO’s approach to CMDL

           One of ETUCO’s starting points in approaching CMDL has
           been to focus on well-established pedagogic principles,
           rather than being dazzled by the technology itself. We
           have tried to bring to this new experience the core
           values and best practice of traditional trade union
           education.     This has led us to identify some key
           principles to underpin our online courses:

Pedagogic approach

           Other chapters of the Tutor’s Manual1 have already
           emphasised the importance in trade union education of
           the group context and of a focus on active, participative,
           co-operative and student-centred learning. We believe
           that this is as true for CMDL as it is for traditional face-
           to-face (or ‘F2F’ as it is frequently referred to)
           classroom teaching and that computer-mediated
           conferencing offers an ideal platform to support this.
           Whilst students will undertake individual tasks from time
           to time, we would normally expect the experience and
           knowledge gained to be referred back to the context of
           the wider learning group. Through discussions and
           shared tasks, including problem-solving, research,
           debates and role-playing, participants can share
           experiences and perspectives and together develop new

Mode of delivery

           Given the importance we have assigned to the group
           context and to co-operative learning, most of ETUCO’s
           CMDL courses will operate a combined mode of delivery
           – i.e. alternating face-to-face (F2F) activity and distance
           learning. It is possible in some situations to generate a
           sense of group identity within courses which are
           delivered wholly online.          However, our current
           experience suggests that it is easier to promote the
           sense of commitment and solidarity necessary to sustain

    See pages XXX & XXX

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                93
         successful collaborative work at a distance if learners
         are brought together for an initial period of F2F contact.
         Generally a course will begin with such an initial F2F
         meeting – often lasting several days – followed by a
         period of several months working at a distance. It may
         also conclude with a further F2F session to reflect on
         what has been learnt, to consider ways in which the
         learning can be exploited further and to evaluate the

Learning resources

         Just because a course is conceived predominantly as an
         online course, doesn’t mean that it should limit in any
         way the kind of resources it draws on. It should work
         with a whole range of different media, drawing on both
         traditional (e.g. print-based) and electronic (e.g. WWW-
         based) media and both online and off-line resources as

Communication modes

         The choice of computer-mediated conferencing as the
         dominant mode of communication during periods of
         distance learning means that communication will be
         primarily asynchronous. As well as providing a degree
         of flexibility in when a participant responds to a
         particular message, this also encourages time for
         reflection and perhaps a more carefully thought-out
         response than more instantaneous communication. At
         the same time, it can sometimes be very helpful to
         complement the conferencing with the use of
         synchronous channels such as Internet Chat, audio- and
         video-conferencing – and, of course, the telephone.

Capturing dialogues

         One other advantage of text-based conferencing is that,
         unlike most F2F discussions, online dialogues are
         recorded and preserved.          In some cases these
         exchanges between participants and tutors can provide
         the basis for useful resources for future learners.

Some open questions

         We are also clear that using CMDL involves much more
         than an alteration in the delivery mechanism for our
         courses. It represents a fundamental change in the
         nature of the learning experience itself, in pedagogic
         methods and in the kind of courses we are able to offer.

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         This raises a whole set of new issues which we are still

Learning goals

         The extended nature of a CMDL course with its longer
         period of study and contact should mean that we can
         set more demanding challenges for learners than on a
         short residential course. How should this influence the
         objectives and learning outcomes we set for these
         courses? How can we progressively develop skills and
         deepen understanding over this extended period?

Assessment and accreditation

         In this context the kind of feedback that we offer to
         learners is likely to need to change significantly, too.
         Should this entail more highly structured feedback such
         as formalised assessment of participants’ attainment? If
         so, how should such assessment be handled? Given the
         learner-centred approach to our work, is there a place
         for   elements     such   as   self-assessment,   group
         assessment or peer assessment? Should we then also
         be thinking about some formal qualification from a
         recognised award-giving body (e.g. university or
         academic institute) for participants who successfully
         complete such courses?

Support for learners

         Such a course makes different demands on the learners,
         most notably in terms of time. How can we help to
         ensure that this is understood, supported and
         recognised by their trade union organisations?

Types of conferencing

         It is also clear that conferencing within an educational
         context can take a variety of different forms with widely
         varying purposes.      How do we differentiate clearly
         between, for example, a small task-focused work group,
         a course discussion space and an informal networking
         conference? What are the key characteristics of each
         and how can we develop a clear set of typologies,
         together     with   recommendations      on   appropriate
         pedagogical requirements and good practice?

Tutor training and recruitment

         It is obvious, too, that the role of our tutors will change
         in these new contexts. What are the particular skills

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             95
         which a tutor needs in each situation? And how do we
         ensure that the tutors are equipped to meet these
         demands? The sections which follow begin to explore
         some of the more directly pedagogic aspects of this, but
         the change in role and the extended nature of the
         course also raise organisational issues which impact on
         staff recruitment and deployment. How do we begin to
         identify these, to quantify the demands which this new
         form of teaching involves and how do these compare to
         those of more conventional face-to-face courses – for
         example, in terms of time spent in preparation and
         course delivery? And how do we reach a common
         understanding on these issues with the tutors, their
         managers and their own trade union organisations?

         These are issues we shall be continuing to come to
         explore as our experience of working in this field

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4.2 - The role of the tutor
         All of the characteristics and qualities of a good trade
         union tutor, as described in the other chapters of this
         manual dealing with traditional face-to-face teaching,
         also apply to the online tutor.        The new context,
         however, calls for new skills.

         What does the online tutor need?
         Before you can become an effective online tutor, you
         will need a range of additional skills and experience,

             Experience of CMDL yourself as a learner
             Successful completion of a course of training in
              delivering online tuition
             Commitment to the value of CMDL - you will need
              to believe in what you are doing if you are to teach
              successfully in this way and on occasions you will
              also need to act as an advocate and champion of
              this approach to others
             Ability to handle confidently the technical demands
              that the course will involve (e.g. e-mail, online
              conferencing,     web     searching,    Chat,    word-
              processing) and to teach the basic technical skills
              demanded by the course to others
             Ability to communicate effectively with technical
              support staff
             Skills to plan and manage learning effectively
              within the online environment or virtual classroom
             High level skills in communicating online - the
              ability to create clear, succinct and effective
              messages; to stimulate, moderate and summarise
              discussion; to create an appropriate ambience and
              tone within the virtual classroom; and to make
              sure that all necessary information is provided to
              your learners at the appropriate time
             Ability   to    build   online    learning    activities
              progressively and to foster an effective group
              dynamic, whilst at the same time supporting
              individual learners in any difficulties they may
             Skills in selecting and/or creating appropriate
              learning activities and resources
             Ability to evaluate the effectiveness of online
              learning – both formatively during the life cycle of
              the course and summatively following its

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         Some of these additional skills are primarily pedagogic.
         They concern considerations about how to structure
         learning in this new environment and how to stimulate
         and support effective communication. The approach to
         CMDL we have outlined earlier also means that a key
         objective in any course will be the development of an
         effective learning community.      In this context, the
         tutor’s role is principally one of facilitator, coach,
         counsellor and active collaborator in the creation of
         knowledge and understanding, rather than the key
         source of information and transmitted wisdom to be
         handed on to others.

         It will also be evident from the list that it’s difficult to go
         far in discussing online tutoring without considering the
         technology. The detail of which programs you are using
         will vary from course to course and the specifics of how
         things are done will vary from organisation to
         organisation. What is clear, though, is that as an online
         tutor you will need to have a range of technical skills
         and you will also need to have a close working
         relationship with any technical staff who are supporting
         your course.

Online tutoring on ETUCO courses

         The requirements for an online tutor set out above
         would apply to virtually any online teaching situation.
         An ETUCO transnational course, however, brings other
         specific demands.

             It is unlikely that you would be teaching on an
              ETUCO CMDL course unless you already had a
              significant amount of experience as a tutor on
              online courses in a national context.
             ETUCO courses – including CMDL courses – usually
              involve a group of tutors (and other experts) drawn
              from different nationalities.    Close collaboration
              and teamwork is required between colleagues from
              different organisations.      As well as the initial
              planning meetings, there needs to be close liaison
              and mutual support throughout the course. A lot
              of this is likely to be handled online. Most courses
              will establish a private online conference for the
              tutors involved at an early stage of the planning.
             One of the major challenges within any ETUCO
              course is to enable effective communication across
              linguistic    and    cultural  boundaries.      Most
              conventional ETUCO courses involve two or more
              working languages and bring together participants
              from a range of different countries. These factors

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              – especially the linguistic one which is discussed in
              more detail later – pose particular challenges in the
              online environment.
             The principal technology supporting ETUCO’s online
              courses is the FirstClass Collaborative Classroom.
              This may not be the conferencing platform you are
              familiar with in your national courses. It will be
              important for you to be confident both about using
              it as a tutor and about teaching the course
              participants how to use it. (See Appendix XX for
              more detailed information.)
             There will also be organisational and procedural
              issues specific to ETUCO’s online courses – how to
              register participants, who to contact for specific
              support, etc. These are subject to change as our
              experience develops, but you will find some basic
              information on technical and organisational aspects
              of our online courses in Appendix XX.

The experience of online teaching

         As a tutor on one of ETUCO’s online courses, you are
         likely to find the experience very different from that of a
         conventional trade union training course. Instead of the
         normal experience of a tightly structured timetable with
         highly concentrated periods of teaching packed into a
         few short days, the online course is likely to proceed at
         a much slower pace and stretch over a period of some
         months. You may even be sustaining several online
         courses at different stages of development in parallel
         with more conventional teaching activities.

         We’ve mentioned the additional flexibility which online
         teaching brings to the learner, being able to access the
         virtual classroom anytime, anywhere. That’s true for
         the tutor, too. Teaching need no longer be confined to
         the traditional timetabled day or to a particular
         workplace. This new flexibility allows tutors to read and
         respond to messages where and when it’s most
         convenient – which could include early mornings,
         evenings or weekends as well as during the
         conventional working day. Potentially, this offers radical
         changes in the way tutors work. Many – including those
         with particular family commitments - may find these
         new opportunities provide greater freedom, but some
         may also have difficulties in accommodating to new
         demands, particularly when they have to be reconciled
         with the demands of running conventional courses with
         fixed timetables.

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4.3 - Teaching online
         In this section we’re going to look in more detail at
         some of the key aspects of teaching online in the
         context of an ETUCO transnational course. We will be
         focusing on:

             The life-cycle of developing and delivering an
              online course
             Selecting and creating courseware
             Support for learners
             Technical support
             Language
             Evaluation
             Time

4.3.1 - The life-cycle of developing and
delivering an online course

         You will all be familiar with the processes involved in
         developing and delivering a conventional classroom-
         based course. However, if we look at the life-cycle of an
         online course, we can identify some key aspects which
         will need to be handled differently and offer some
         general pointers to good practice:

Preparing the course

Defining objectives, content, course structure

         The initial planning process of your course is likely to be
         similar to that of a conventional course. However, in
         the case of a course with mixed mode delivery (where
         parts of the course are delivered face-to-face and others
         by CMDL) you will need to give careful consideration to
         how the content is best distributed – including any pre-
         course activities. Are there elements which are best
         suited to delivery in a F2F context and vice versa? In
         every case you will also need to review what elements
         of technical skills – familiarisation with FirstClass,
         Internet search skills, etc. – should be included and how
         these can best be handled.

Constructing activities and assignments

         Once you have defined the objectives, content and
         outline structure, you will need to proceed to a more
         detailed breakdown of activities. It will be important to
         provide a mix of activity types. Some are likely to

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         involve research and reading – of both traditional paper-
         based material and web research – or collecting
         information from the learner’s own environment or
         workplace.     Some may use interactive multimedia
         materials or online simulations.        Many will involve
         sharing ideas and experiences in online discussions.
         Some activities may be tasks for individuals, others for
         pairs and small groups and some will involve the whole
         course group. You will need to think carefully about
         how these activities are deployed and structured in
         order to develop both a progressive understanding of
         the content of the course and a sense of group cohesion
         and teamwork in the online environment. It will be
         helpful to organise the course into a series of units, each
         with a clear set of activities and a fixed duration. At an
         early point within this schedule, you need to allocate
         time and activities to familiarise learners with the
         technologies they will be using.

Identifying and/or developing learning resources

         Many of the learning resources used to support a CMDL
         course may not themselves be in an online format –
         they may be books or papers or even a video or CD-
         ROM.     Many online courses, though, are likely to
         introduce materials to be found on the World Wide Web.
         In some cases, courses may make use of more
         sophisticated electronic materials. Most tutors are likely
         to be involved in the production of some simple online
         resources – activity sheets, briefing documents, or
         presentations using standard word-processing and
         presentation programs such as Word and PowerPoint.
         Some may also occasionally collaborate with others,
         including technical staff or instructional designers, to
         develop more sophisticated materials. We will discuss
         this whole area in more detail in the section on
         Courseware below.

Booking resources and organising the classroom

         As with a conventional course, an online tutor also
         needs to organise practical aspects of the course, such
         as liaising with the ETUCO FirstClass system
         administrator to create a virtual classroom for the
         course. The classroom then needs to be organised. Will
         it be a single conference space, or will it need to be sub-
         divided into different areas? What needs to be there
         before the course starts (e.g. course outline and
         objectives, course calendar, welcome messages, initial
         reading or other resources) and what can be added
         later?    You will also need to ensure that there is
         adequate technical support available to learners.

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Registering students

         You will need to ensure that every participant is
         registered on the FirstClass server and that they have
         received an individual username and password, before
         they can use the system, and they will also need a set
         of initial instructions on how to access and use the
         virtual classroom.

Delivering the course

Introducing the course

         As well as introducing the content and structure of the
         online course, you will need to explain the way in which
         it will be delivered and the kinds of demands it will
         make, as these are likely to be new for many learners.

Introducing the students

         In most cases the group will have already met in a F2F
         session before they start the online elements of the
         course. If they have not, then many of the traditional
         ice-breaking activities used in the conventional
         classroom situation can be adapted to an online
         situation.    In every case you should encourage
         participants to use the Resumé facility in FirstClass to
         provide a brief introduction and profile of themselves.
         This is an important step in building the sense of group
         identity online.

Introducing the technology

         Although the technology is only a means to an end, it is
         important that learners are introduced to it at an early
         stage. Most courses will devote time during an initial
         F2F session to introduce the conferencing system but
         some may ask participants to log in and post an initial
         message as a pre-course activity. What is important is
         to try by an early stage of the course to arrive at a
         situation where the technical aspects of sending a
         message to a conference seem no more difficult than
         picking up the telephone or sending a fax. Participants
         will arrive at the course with widely differing levels of
         technical skill and confidence and the tutor needs to
         take account of this and ensure that sufficient time,
         support and encouragement is available to less
         experienced members.

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Setting up activities

         Introducing and setting up activities online needs to be
         handled very carefully. Explanations must be clear and
         concise, as there is not the same scope for immediate
         clarification or modification as there is in the
         conventional classroom.

Developing skills and confidence

         One key aspect of the tutor’s role will be to help the
         learners develop new skills and their confidence in
         applying them. This applies not simply to the content of
         the course but also to the delivery mode. Learners need
         to be confident in using the technology so that it
         becomes a transparent vehicle rather than an obstacle
         to communication. They will need to learn how to
         communicate effectively in the online situation – and
         they will also need to understand and manage the
         different requirements which a CMDL course imposes,
         including responsibility for their own learning, effective
         collaboration with group members at a distance and new
         demands on how they manage their time. As tutor, you
         need to structure activities which will help the learner
         acquire these new skills and enable them to build an
         effective learning community online.

Facilitating discussion

         This is one of the most important areas of online
         teaching.     Dialogue and exchange of ideas and
         experience is at the heart of ETUCO’s approach to online
         courses. Good discussion requires the participants to
         feel at ease with each other and their situation, to have
         a clear focus and structure for their dialogue. In most
         cases it will benefit from a moderator or chairperson
         who can support and shape the debate and help
         participants       reach      informed       conclusions.
         Communicating effectively in this new form – and
         supporting effective communication – calls for new skills
         from both learners and tutors.

Monitoring group work

         In a period when small group work is underway, you will
         need to monitor regularly the conferences where this is
         taking place. This means keeping up to date with the
         flow of messages and noting where any difficulties may
         arise.     Perhaps a group is having problems
         understanding the task, or maybe there is a member
         who is not contributing. As tutor, you need to consider
         whether it is appropriate to intervene and if so, how –

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         by a message to the whole group via the conference or
         by contacting a particular individual by e-mail or by

Reviewing work and offering feedback

         It is also crucially important in online teaching to offer
         appropriate feedback on participants’ work. Without
         regular and relatively speedy response, some learners
         can find the online experience quite isolating.
         Responses will take a variety of forms in different
         situations – from recognition of a particular contribution
         in a discussion to comments on a group work project.
         Whether feedback is given within the general online
         classroom or more privately to a group or individual will
         again depend on the specific circumstances. What is
         important is that, just as in the conventional course
         situation, learners’ contributions are recognised and that
         they are given appropriate feedback and encouragement
         on their achievements and progress.

Completing the course

Evaluating the course

         The evaluation of a CMDL course is likely to involve
         consideration of different elements from a conventional
         course. Depending on the structure of the course, it
         may be appropriate to conduct parts of the evaluation of
         the course online. The section on Evaluation below
         considers this area in more detail.

Documenting the course

         It is important to document the course and the
         experience, in such a way that the key elements can be
         shared with others. This is particularly important in the
         case of online courses since they form a new area of
         work and it is vital that a body of expertise can be
         established and shared.          Most particularly the
         documentation from the course and the feedback from
         evaluation will be important factors in planning the next
         delivery of the course.

Archiving and housekeeping

         Once the course is complete, you will need to decide
         when to shut down the virtual classroom and remove it
         from the active part of the system. Arrangements need
         to be made to archive all of the conferences and
         associated documents and teaching materials.      You

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         should also review the online discussions and any
         products, such as analyses and reports, and consider
         whether these might be of use to learners in future

4.3.2         Courseware

         As Chapter X has already discussed, one of the tasks for
         the tutor in designing a conventional face-to-face course
         is to select and prepare a set of resources and teaching
         materials which will support the learning activities of the
         course. All of the key pointers provided in that chapter
         apply equally to the identification and creation of
         resources for use within a CMDL course but there are
         also some additional considerations.

What is ‘courseware’?

         Increasingly, the term used to describe the resources
         for an online course is ‘courseware’. In most cases this
         will include not simply teaching resources (reports,
         presentations, CD-Roms, videos, URLs, activity sheets)
         but also course management tools (Study Guides,
         course handbooks, questionnaires and other evaluation
         tools), as well as the organisation of the online learning
         environment itself. In some contexts the courseware
         may be a ready-packaged integrated course, combining
         within a single interface a set of learning activities,
         interactive multimedia material and related information
         resources. Most of ETUCO’s courses, however, are likely
         to assemble and adapt materials from a variety of
         different sources.

         It is perhaps helpful to reiterate at this point that just
         because a major element of a course is delivered online
         this does not mean that its learning resources need all
         to be in some sophisticated multimedia format. At the
         same time, however, we should not be afraid of
         exploiting the possibilities which online learning opens
         up. In terms of courseware, these include:

             Using electronic documents and presentations
             Integrating the World Wide Web through URLs
              within electronic documents, through web-based
              research tasks, etc.
             Constructing online quizzes
             Developing online role-plays and simulations
             Collecting evaluation data through online forms

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         In all this it is important to distinguish between
         materials which are designed to be used on-screen and
         those which are designed to be printed. On-screen
         materials particularly need to stimulate and motivate
         the learner. They must be visually attractive, well laid
         out and easy to navigate.       They need to present
         information clearly but succinctly.    Having to scroll
         through several pages of text is an obstacle for most
         users. It is preferable to break down documents which
         take more than two or three screenfuls to display into
         shorter linked pages.     Equally, we need to strike a
         balance between technology and pedagogy. Whilst our
         learning resources need to be attractive, there is no
         place for the latest technological wizardry unless it is
         easily accessible by our users and really enhances the
         learning process.

         Finally, don’t forget that the products of one course – a
         group report on the ways in which a European directive
         has been implemented in different countries, an extract
         from an online conference discussion on a particular
         aspect of collective bargaining, or an exchange of e-
         mails between tutor and participant on a specific
         workplace problem – may also provide the basis of
         valuable courseware for subsequent learners.

Tutor skills for producing courseware

         What kinds of technical skills in courseware
         development is it reasonable to expect an ETUCO online
         tutor to have? This is a changing field and as the
         general level of computer skills improves and software
         becomes increasingly user-friendly, expectations may
         alter. However, at the moment, we think that it is
         reasonable to expect online tutors to have the following

             Ability to use the FirstClass platform
             Familiarity with using a standard e-mail program
             Use of a standard file compression tool, such as
             Moderate levels of skill in using a word-processing
              program (e.g. Word) to produce clearly presented
             Ability to produce attractive presentation materials
              using programs such as PowerPoint
             Moderate levels of skill in using a web browser,
              such as Internet Explorer or Netscape

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             Familiarity with one or more standard web search
              engines and ability to conduct an effective search
              for web materials.

         Some tutors may well have more advanced skills.
         Among the other technical skills which tutors could find
         useful are:

             Capturing screenshots of e.g. web sites
             Using a scanner to capture images
             Using a graphics program to create or edit or
              convert images
             Using an HTML editor to create web pages.

Designing the virtual classroom

         One other area which might be considered under
         courseware design is the customisation of the virtual
         classroom for the course. What elements need to be
         included and how should they be arranged? The answer
         will vary from course to course but here are some
         common elements which might be considered:

             Main classroom area which contains, for example,
              Welcome to course, course objectives, learning
              outcomes, course calendar, Study Guide and
              general notices, as well as various sub-
              conferences/folders including
             - Main discussion area (sub-conference)
             - Group work areas (sub-conferences)
             - Library (folder containing reference materials,
                URLs, etc)
             - Archive (folder containing archived discussions)
             Student café (sub-conference open only to course
              participants for socialising)
             Staff room (sub-conference for tutors)

         It is advisable to begin with a very simple structure so
         that learners are not confused about where to find
         things. You can always introduce additional components
         later when people are more confident. It is also a good
         idea to archive discussions to a separate area, once a
         particular task or topic has been completed, otherwise
         the main conference area can soon become cluttered
         and confused.         Similarly, although tutors are
         recommended to have all the main courseware prepared
         before the start of the course, you will find it best not to
         post all materials at the outset of the course but rather
         to introduce them at the appropriate point. In this way
         the classroom becomes a dynamic space with
         recognisable contours but changing content.

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     The example above shows the classroom for an ETUCO distance
     learning course using FCCC. On the top level you can see the main
     classroom together with private spaces for both tutors and
     participants. Below – within the classroom – are separate sub-
     conferences on the three main topics covered in this module, as well
     as three areas for group work. The classroom also contains materials
     from a recent face-to-face module in Florence as well as a folder
     archiving earlier parts of the course.

4.3.3         Preparing and supporting the

         Just as the delivery of CMDL courses demands new skills
         from the tutor, so the experience of the online course is
         likely to bring new challenges for the learner. This
         section looks at how the tutor can help the learner to
         prepare for these successfully.

Pre-course preparation

         One important element of preparing the learner is the
         publicity and recruitment process. As well as the
         obvious details about time and location, it is important
         to spell out as clearly as possible the objectives of the
         course and its principal content and an indication of the
         demands that it is likely to make, including:

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                        108
             The methodology - for example, a combination of
              F2F and CMDL sessions, involving conferencing
              using FirstClass and focusing on small group
              research tasks and whole group discussions.
             The timetable and estimated average workload,
              especially as far as the CMDL components are
             Requirements and pre-requisites. As well as pre-
              requisites to do with the content of the course, you
              need to clarify the technical requirements for the
              course. These will include skill pre-requisites (for
              example, ability to use a Windows environment
              with confidence, experience of using e-mail or skills
              in constructing web searches) as well as access to
              appropriate hardware and software and an
              effective Internet connection.

         It is also useful to ask participants to complete a
         questionnaire on technical issues in advance of the
         course. This would normally include a check on basic
         pre-requisites such as:

             Levels of experience as user of PC and particular
              software programs
             Levels of experience as Internet user
             Specification of PC to be used for course
             Location of PC (home, office, study centre, etc)
             Internet access (via dial-up modem, ISDN,
              network, etc)
             Whether local technical support available.

         You will find this information very useful in assessing
         the amount of technical skills training which needs to be
         built into the course and in dealing with any technical
         problems which may be encountered.

Initial meeting

         As well as introducing key areas of course content, the
         initial face-to-face meeting also needs to focus on
         preparing the learners to undertake the work involved in
         the remainder of the course, particularly those tasks
         which will be handled at a distance. Here it will be
         important for you to:

             Introduce the course objectives, structure, content
              and timetable in more detail and provide an
              opportunity to clarify any points of confusion.
             Outline the likely workload and the balance
              between individual and group work, making clear
              that the flexibility in when and where people

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           109
                 choose to work will need to be balanced by the
                 requirement to complete the various elements of
                 the course within an agreed schedule.
                Discuss the need to log in to the virtual classroom
                 on a regular basis to read and respond to

            These and similar issues can usefully form the basis of a
            Learning    Contract,     setting    out    clearly   the
            undertakings and expectations of the learners, tutors
            and the course provider (ETUCO), which all parties
            agree to2.

            Also during this initial period, you will need to help
            learners by

                Providing guidance on managing study time
                 effectively within the distance learning period.
                Focusing on the development of basic group work
                 skills and the mutual commitment which is
                 necessary to create an effective learning
                Discussing the particular challenges presented by
                 working in a multilingual context (see below)
                Ensuring that the work for the distance period is
                 clearly understood by the whole group and that
                 each participant is clear about what immediate
                 tasks they have to complete by when.
                Making sure that all members of the course group
                 have adequate access to a computer with
                 appropriate software and Internet access, that they
                 are confident about using the basic facilities of the
                 FirstClass platform and that they know where to
                 turn for support in the event of any technical

Support tools

            It is very helpful to provide participants with a Study
            Guide for the course. This can document many of the
            points commented on in this section, forming a
            handbook which learners and tutors can refer to
            throughout the course. It could usefully include:

                    Details about the course
                     - Objectives
                     - Timetable
                     - Participants list with contact details
                     - Tutor contact details
                     - Resources list, bibliography, etc.

    See Appendix XX for a sample Learning Contract

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                  Advice on studying
                   - Introduction to CMDL
                   - Computer requirements
                   - Communicating online
                   - Time management
                   - Reference guide to FirstClass
                   - Support available

            You should also consider providing participants with a
            Learning Log – a set of pro-forma diary sheets on
            which they can record each day the times that they
            have undertaken course work and any key issues which
            have arisen (questions provoked, insights gained,
            problems encountered, action to be taken)3. These
            diaries can provide a useful record for the individual
            learner, charting progress throughout the course, as
            well as providing a useful source of evaluation data4.

Ongoing support

            This initial stage of the course is crucial in providing the
            learner with sufficient understanding, skills and
            confidence to participate effectively in the online
            elements and it is vital that you allocate sufficient time
            to this. At the same time, you will need to offer support
            in a variety of ways throughout the remainder of the
            course, including

                Monitoring participation in conferencing
                Providing effective moderation within conferences,
                 weaving discussion threads, summarising and
                Giving feedback on exercises and other activities
                Counselling learners who may be having difficulty.

            It is almost inevitable that there will be individual
            learners who experience some kind of difficulty,
            particularly in the early stages of an online course.
            Some of these may arise from unfamiliarity with or lack
            of confidence in handling the technology. You may find
            other learners reluctant initially to make a written
            contribution to a discussion or having problems in
            organising their study time. You need to know how and
            when to offer appropriate advice and support on an
            individual basis and to motivate or re-motivate learners.
            The less concentrated and pressured situation of the
            online course can often make it easier to offer this kind
            of support than the conventional classroom.

    See Appendix XX for an example
    See also section XXX below

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4.3.4 -Technical support

         Information technology can be a wonderful tool when
         it’s working well – but when it doesn’t work, it can be
         hugely discouraging. When participants encounter a
         technical problem, it’s essential that they know where to
         turn for help if they’re not to become disengaged and
         de-motivated. As part of the planning stage of every
         course the tutor team needs to consider carefully how
         technical support will be provided for learners and to
         make sure that the required systems are in place.

         Support may be available from a number of different

             User guides and documentation (including the
              course Study Guide and the Help folder on the
              FirstClass desktop)
             Colleagues with more IT experience
             Technicians and system administrators within the
              learner’s local organisation
             ETUCO’s FirstClass system administrator
             Course tutors

         You should advise learners wherever possible to consult
         user guides and system documentation in the first
         instance, then to consult with colleagues who may have
         experienced similar difficulties, and only then to contact
         a course tutor. As an online tutor, you should be able to
         help with basic software operational issues, but with
         more serious system problems you will almost certainly
         need to refer the participant for more specialist technical
         advice, either locally or to the FirstClass system
         administrator at ETUCO.

         The infinite permutations of software and other
         configurations underlying a single user’s access to the
         Internet often make it very difficult to pinpoint the
         precise source of problems. Here, however, are some
         common scenarios with suggestions about where it
         might be best to turn for advice:

Problem                   Possible causes            Seek help from
User cannot install       Some system                Local technician
software program on       incompatibility or
PC                        configuration problem
                          May not have               Local system
                          permission to install on   administrator
                          network PC

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Problem                    Possible causes         Seek help from
Not able to access         Forgotten username or   1. Course tutors
FirstClass conference      password                2. ETUCO FirstClass
server                                                system
                           Incorrect URL for       1. Colleagues
                           course                  2. Course tutors
                           Server not working      ETUCO FirstClass
                                                   system administrator
                           Network problems –      Local system
                           local                   administrator
                           Network problems –      Internet service
                           Internet                provider
                           Network problems –      ETUCO FirstClass
                           ETUCO                   system administrator
Not able to perform        User not                1. User guides
specific function within   understood/not          2. Colleagues
one of the programs        remembered how to do    3. Local technician
                                                   4. Course tutors
Program/machine            Operator error          Local technician
crashes                    Program bug

         More generally, there needs to be a good liaison
         between tutors and those technical staff who are
         providing support to the course.

4.3.5 - Language

         We have already noted that the challenges present in
         multilingual courses in a face-to-face context can be
         multiplied in online learning. The emphasis on writing
         may both deter the less confident from making any
         contribution and lead to misunderstanding, for example,
         if a native speaker makes an ironic remark which is
         taken at face value by a less fluent colleague.

         As a tutor, you will need to be alert to these problems
         from the outset and to discuss them with the group. It
         might be helpful to emphasise three key points:

             The crucial thing in online conferencing is
              communication       rather    than    grammatical
              correctness. E-mail and conferencing are relatively
              informal methods of communication. Spelling and
              punctuation are secondary so a large degree of
              inaccuracy can be tolerated as long as meaning is

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             The difficulty of communicating is not just a
              problem for those who have less skill in the
              working language – it is a challenge for the whole
              group, which they collectively have a responsibility
              to help resolve if they are to communicate and
              work together effectively. This means, amongst
              other things, that more fluent native speakers need
              to bear in mind the linguistic ability of their
              colleagues in making their own contributions.
             Although the written medium of conferencing may
              appear a barrier for some, its asynchronous quality
              can also bring positive advantages over face-to-
              face discussion, allowing less fluent colleagues time
              to consult a dictionary or even a more able
              colleague or friend before composing a reply.

         There are various things which can be done to overcome
         or minimise difficulties:

             One possibility is to provide translators to ensure
              that dialogue is possible between the agreed
              working languages, as happens in ETUCO’s face-to-
              face courses. There may, though, be significant
              additional costs involved and it is also likely to slow
              down discussion as each message is sent for
              translation before being posted to the conference.
             Another approach is to minimise the problem as far
              as possible by establishing working groups, each of
              which uses a single language (whilst still involving
              a range of different nationalities).
             It can often be possible to have a dialogue which
              includes contributions in several languages,
              drawing on the various active and passive
              language strengths of the participants. Some who
              may only feel confident about writing in their
              mother tongue may nonetheless be able to read
              and understand contributions made in other
             In some instances, it may be appropriate for
              someone with a greater range of linguistic skills
              (either the tutor or another participant) to
              summarise and translate key contributions as the
              discussion progresses.
             It is helpful to provide learners with a list of the
              key terms they are likely to encounter in the
              course, translated into their own language. They
              can also supplement this by building up their own
              multi-lingual glossaries in their working groups.
             Online multi-lingual dictionaries and glossaries and
              more powerful tools like machine-translation are
              also worth exploring.            Although machine-

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             114
              translation is less than perfect, it may help with
              understanding the key points of a contribution.
             Learners should explore what additional support
              might be available to them in their local
              environment e.g. someone in their office who
              might be able to translate some simple e-mail

         As a starting point you need to know what second (or
         even third) language skills a course participant currently
         has and how they can perform in different modes – in
         reading, writing, speaking and listening. From here the
         course group can begin to frame a ‘language map’ and
         identify together who can communicate with whom – in
         what kinds of context, directly, in a second or third
         language, or through an intermediary.

         None of these approaches in itself offers a complete
         solution, but together they begin to provide possible
         answers to a really important challenge.

4.3.6 - Evaluation

         How can we assess the effectiveness of online learning?
         Are there specific considerations to be borne in mind?
         Much of the guidance given in Chapter XX on the
         evaluation of face-to-face courses applies equally well to
         those delivered online. Crucially, the clearer and more
         detailed the description of course objectives, anticipated
         learning outcomes and the performance criteria by
         which we can judge these, the easier it will be to
         evaluate how successful the course has been. Equally,
         we need to distinguish clearly between formative
         evaluation which provides feedback on the progress of
         the course, allowing us to adjust approaches in mid-
         stream, and summative evaluation which reflects
         retrospectively on the achievement of the course
         overall. As tutor, you need to be clear about what is
         being evaluated, by whom, when, how and why. The
         details of this will differ from course to course and it will
         be important to approach the evaluation plan of each
         course afresh.

What should be evaluated?

         In any course, evaluation is likely to be concerned with
         establishing how effective the teaching has been in
         improving the learners’ understanding or skills in the
         main content area of the course. You are also likely to
         evaluate how effectively the course has been organised

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                              115
         and delivered. In the case of an online course, you may
         find it appropriate to evaluate other aspects, including:

         How effectively the technology has been used to
         facilitate communication and to support a range of
         learning activities
         How successful the course has been in generating
         collaborative group work at a distance
         How well time has been managed within the course –
         this may include both the time allocation of particular
         components or tasks as well as individuals’ own time
         How well the learners have been able to acquire generic
         or transferable technical skills
         How appropriate various pedagogic materials have been
         in terms of content, design and interactivity
         How effective the levels of support have been – this
         may include both tutor support for learner’s
         encountering particular difficulties, technical support
         and support from learners’ own organisations (access to
         equipment, recognition of study time, etc).

When should evaluation take place?

         As to when to evaluate courses – and if we assume, for
         example, a course with a face-to-face module followed
         by a module of online learning and concluding with a
         final face-to-face module – formal evaluation might take
         place as follows:

             End of initial F2F module – detailed evaluation
             End of CMDL module – detailed evaluation
              (formative) with perhaps a less formal formative
              evaluation at the end of each major task and/or at
              the mid-point if the module stretches over several
             End of final F2F module – evaluation of final
              module and detailed summative evaluation of
              course as a whole

Who should evaluate?

         In the case of formative evaluation, the tutor will
         normally be the person handling the evaluation, drawing
         together information gathered from course participants
         and others (e.g. technical staff). In most instances,
         summative evaluation is likely to be co-ordinated by the
         ETUCO officer responsible for the course, drawing on
         contributions from all the parties involved in the course.

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         The conclusions of this evaluation will feed into
         subsequent revisions of the course and even into
         general policy decisions about ETUCO’s online courses.
         In some instances it may be appropriate for this to be
         handled by an external evaluator with special expertise
         in online learning.

         Some of the earlier sections have emphasised the way
         in which online learning within ETUCO courses involves
         collaborative work and learners being given a large
         degree of responsibility for their own learning. In a
         similar manner, it is appropriate that course participants
         are involved in evaluating their own learning process.

Collecting and interpreting data

         The method of evaluation – or more particularly the
         data sources and methods of data collection – in online
         courses will in part resemble those for conventional
         courses.       This is likely to involve individual
         questionnaires and group discussions, although these
         may sometimes be conducted online. However, online
         courses can offer additional data sources which can be
         very helpful in evaluation. These include:

             The transcripts of online discussions, enabling the
              tutor and any other evaluators to analyse both the
              content and participation level.
             Learning Logs kept by course participants which
              can       provide   contemporary     rather    than
              retrospective evidence of progress and of particular
              difficulties encountered
             Confidence Logs taken at different points during
              the course which can provide data on how learners
              are perceiving their progress and confidence in
              handling particular aspects of the course and/or
              the technology
             Message histories and system logs which can
              provide data on how actively learners have

         We need, however, to be aware of issues of
         interpretation here. For example, one of the common
         experiences in online conferences is that there are some
         students who make minimal contributions to discussion.
         Judged on the conference transcripts alone it may
         appear that the course has not provided a particularly
         successful experience for one of these participants. If,
         however, we were to combine this with a review of
         message histories, learning log and questionnaire and to
         find that the learner had followed all the discussions

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           117
         carefully, completed all the tasks set and provided very
         positive feedback on the course overall and on their
         individual progress, we might modify our opinion.
         Conversely, we should be wary of taking at face value
         high scores on a summative evaluation questionnaire
         from someone who seems scarcely to have logged on to
         the FirstClass server. What is important is to use a
         range of different tools and wherever possible to
         triangulate data from various sources.

4.3.7 - Time

         The increased flexibility which CMDL offers can also
         bring a number of significant challenges for both tutor
         and learners in managing their time effectively.

For the tutor:

             An online course will generally require more
              detailed planning and specification and will take
              longer to prepare than a similar face-to-face
             It will need to work to a tight time-frame with
              tasks being appropriately judged and scheduled,
              planned in advance and with less scope for last-
              minute changes and improvisation.
             The course itself will almost certainly have a longer
              duration than a more conventional face-to-face
             The opportunities accorded for extended dialogue
              and collaboration, as well as the closer contact with
              individual learners, is likely to generate a heavier
              time demand on tutors than that of a comparable
              period of face-to-face teaching.
             A tutor will need to make sure that they have a
              regular pattern of monitoring the various online
              courses and conferences they are responsible for –
              say, at least once every 2-3 days.
             At any one time, a tutor may be managing one or
              more CMDL courses with their own distinctive
              patterns of demand alongside a range of
              conventional courses.
             All of these factors place a heavy demand on the
              tutor to be well-organised and be able to manage
              effectively the time available.
             The increased flexibility in working time which
              online courses can bring needs to be planned for
              and negotiated with the tutor’s own employer. It is
              important that the demands of online tutoring –
              which may vary at different points of a course –
              are not just added to existing workloads.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                           118
For the learner:

             The increased responsibility for one’s own learning
              and the semi-autonomous nature of the learning in
              a CMDL course places significant demands on the
              self-management of the learner’s time.
             Whilst there is likely to be a fair degree of flexibility
              about when one studies, it is also clear that there
              will be significant constraints – both the need to
              fulfil group tasks within an agreed timescale and to
              have completed significant individual tasks at an
              appropriate time to allow the whole group, for
              example, to move on to the next main section of
              the course. It is also helpful to have a formal
              understanding that participants log in at least once
              each week to read and respond to messages.
             The learner will need to balance the demand for
              study time with the demands of working time and
              domestic life. It is important that the learner’s
              own trade union organisation is aware of the
              demands of study time and that it is recognised
             The extended nature of the online course means
              that the learner will have to sustain commitment
              over a long period. It is important for the tutor to
              be aware of this and to be alert to the need to
              support      - and on occasions to re-motivate
             Discussion and guidance on good study habits such
              as regular time slots for study and logging on to
              the server, careful forward planning of work and
              balancing and prioritising conflicting commitments,
              can be very important in helping participants meet
              these challenges.

         It is important that both tutors and learners – and their
         trade union organisations - understand the different
         demands which this new way of teaching is likely to
         make and have adequate time allocated to enable them
         to meet these demands. This is a new area for all of us
         and it is important that together we develop a deeper
         understanding of what is involved in participating in and
         tutoring an ETUCO online course.

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Chapter 5.


                       5.1 - Course preparation and delivery

                       5.2 - Training Needs Analysis           and
                       Evaluation Questionnaires

                       5.3 - Course report form

                       5.4 - Course Resources

                       5.5 - Contracts (Ana)

                       5.6 - Administration

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5.1 - Course preparation and delivery

5.1.1 - See original Tutors Manual (OTM)
pp.9-12. checklist 1.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                       121
5.1.2 - Other checklists mentioned might also
be useful: 2-4; preparation of programme;
support for host country tutor; planning
activities for following day.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                       122
5.1.3 - Form for planning meetings (see OTM

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                      123
                                                                                            Pre-course                                   : Course Programme
                                                                                                                                         Aims and objectives (in confirmation letter)
                                                                                                                                         Pre-course preparation activities where
                                                                                                                                           applicable (e.g. grid for structure of
                                                                                                                                           workplace representation)
                                                                                                                                         Background briefing document where
                                                                                                                                        Pre-course questionnaire

ETUCO's Tutor Manual
                                                                                            On-course    Course file   containing the
                                                                                                                       following :
                                                                                                                       General           Information leaflet about ETUCO*
                                                                                                                                         Information about ETUC*
                                                                                                                                         Current course brochure*

                       advance to the training centre.
                                                                                                                                         Project brochures (ETUDE, etc.)*
                                                                                                                                        Latest issue of AGORA*

                                                                                                                       Course            Course programme
                                                                                                                       specific          List of all course participants
                                                                                                                                         Aims and objectives (in invitation and
                                                                                                                                          confirmation letter)
                                                                                                                                         Activity sheets
                                                                                                                                         Outline of expert presentation
                                                                                                                                         Any background briefing papers or resources
                                                                                                                                          prepared for course
                                                                                                                                                                                             5.1.4 - Checklist : What to give course

                                                                                                                                         Any relevant ETUCO training materials*
                                                                                                                                         List of further resources available, official EU
                                                                                                                                          and other

                       *All items marked with an asterisk can be requested from the
                                                                                                                                         Glossary of terms in working languages of

                       found in Part 5. This should be done in time for these items to
                       ETUCO Secretariat by using the form Resourceslist which can be

                       be included in the boxes of course materials which will be sent in
                                                                                                                                          course, plus blank column for participants to

                                                                                                                                          add in own language
                                                                 Languages                 Quant   OK
                                                                                           ity     
Free Publicity Materials
AGORA Latest issue.                                                  E   /   F   /   G
ETUCO Publicity Folder                                               E   /   F   /   G
Info Service leaflet                                                 E   /   F   /   G
ETUCO Publications list 1999                                         E   /   F   /   G
ETUERC Catalogue + diskette                                          E   /   F   /   G
ETUCO                                                                E   /   F   /   G
EUROTIME leaflet                                                     E   /   F   /   G

Trade Unions and Europe
1         Europe and the World of Work:                          E /F/ IT +
           Sheets 1-5 (original series                          BU/CR/RO/E
             Sheet 1: Workers' Organisations (new)              E/F
             Sheet 2: Employers' Organisations (new)
             Sheet 3: Social Dialogue (new)                     E
             Sheet 6: Working Time                              E/F/IT
             Sheet 7: Equal Opportunities                       E/F/IT
             Sheet 8: EU Institutions (new)                     E/SW/IT
             Sheet 9: Trade Unions and EMU (=                   E/F/G/IT/SW
              background paper for video)                        BU/CR/RO/E
2         Introduction to the ETUC (Slides)                      E
3         Eurotime: Video + Briefing + Modules                   E / F/
4         Euromaze                                               E / F / G /IT
5         Europe United!–Video, background paper,                EN/DE/SK/CZ
           modules                                               /PL/BU/RO/H
6          Trade unions and European integration:                EN/BU/
          training guide for CEE trainers

    Under 20 copies left, so best not to disseminate at the moment

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                                 125
European Works Councils
1. EWC Directive (guide and slides)               E/F /G /IT/
2. Systems of Workplace Represents in Europe      E / F* / G
3. Workplace Representn in EU/EEA (slides and     E/F/G
4. Cross-cultural communication (slides and       E/F/G
5. European Works Councils: Good Practice?        E/F
6. Ferucci simulation                             E/F/G
7. Solidarity Across Borders                      E / F* / G
8. Working with the European Works Council        E/F/G
9 A basic understanding of financial statements   E

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                       126
                       Time   Frida                   Saturday    Sunday      Monday      Tuesday     Wednesday        Thursday

ETUCO's Tutor Manual
                                                      Breakfast   Breakfast   Breakfast   Breakfast   Breakfast        Breakfast

                                                       Lunch       Lunch       Lunch       Lunch        Lunch              Lunch
                                                                                                                                   5.1.5 - Example of course programme + blank


                               Arrival Participants
                                                       Dinner      Dinner      Dinner      Dinner      Dinner             Dinner
5.1.6 - Ideas for ice-breakers and

         Below we list just some of the exercises used at the
         beginning of transnational courses. You will need to
         exercise some judgement in the course team as to the
         appropriateness of these methods vis à vis time
         available and the target group you are working with.

          learning each other’s name (in a game e.g. with a

          use a Polaroid camera, take photos of participants.
           Photos are pinned up on a pin board. Participants are
           invited to put name and key information underneath.

          pair off, despite language difficulties try and find out
           name and basic information about colleague, perhaps
           with the help of a form

          use map of Europe - participants pin up where they
           are from and talk to it - if interpreters are available or
           use language resource of course participants present

          international chatshow - introduce guests. If the
           course is a follow up with the same group of
           participants they can introduce each other.

          ask the participants (including the tutors and
           interpreters) to form a circle. One of the participants
           says her name and her neighbour repeats it and says
           his own. The second participant's neighbour repeats
           the previous names and says her own until everyone
           in the circle has said everyone else's name once.

          The initial sessions can also be introduced by asking
           the participants (including the tutors and interpreters)
           to form a circle or a line based on different criteria
           each time. The first time they could be asked to place
           themselves in alphabetical order based on their first
           names, the second time in order of age or birthdays,
           the third time based on their organisations'

          mixed groups of participants are invited to build a
           tower or other object using materials provided by the

          Where do you stand on xyz?- ask participants to
           stand to the right or left or middle of an imaginary

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             128
            line in response to two or three questions based on
            the course content. For example, participants at a
            distance learning training trainers workshop can be
            asked 'Do you think distance learning is appropriate
            for trade union education?' The participants arrange
            themselves according to their views, then the tutor
            asks certain people to explain their response. It is
            interesting to repeat the exercise at the end of the
            course, to see if peoples' views have changed.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                         129
5.1.7 - Example of activity sheet + blank

                                                       Name of the

                                          Aims

                                          Tasks

                                          Exercises

                                          Resources
  Name of the seminar
                        Date and Venue

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5.2 - Training Needs Analysis and
Evaluation Questionnaires
         Pre-course questionnaire

         End of day evaluation

         Interim course evaluation questionnaire

         End of course evaluation questionnaire (participants) +

         End of course evaluation questionnaire (tutors) + blank

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                          131
5.3 - Course report form

ETUCO's Tutor Manual       132
5.4 - Course Resources
         List of useful information sources (ETUCO /ETUI/
         European Foundation/ EUROPA etc.)
         (Include references to ETUERC database and/or
         Knowledge Pool)

         -Glossary of training terms

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                  133
5.5 - Contracts (Ana)

ETUCO's Tutor Manual    134
5.6 - Administration
You find enclosed some models you can use to organize your
training activities. You can also use those which you are more
familiar in your organization.

          Invitation form
          Example of ETUCO invitation
          Enrolment form
          Confirmation letter
          Example of ETUCO Confirmation letter

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                             135
                                                              Invitation form

Date                                         Put the date when your letters is gone
                                             out from the office

To all confederations affiliated to the ETUC

Dear Colleagues,

As part of its new training programme the European Trade Union College is
organizing a course entitled:

Name of the course                           Specify the right name of the course
                                             and his identifying number

in conjunction with the national confederations or the european industry

After this course participants will be able to:

Aims of the seminar                          Report the aims that are announced by
                                             ETUCO when the course was send to
                                             the affiliated organisations

Structure of the course                      Give some indications from the course

The following languages were selected:

Working languages:                           Specify the languages which will be
                                             used during this course

Specificity of the course:

You can indicate in this part the specificity which concerned this activity, e.g.:
distance learning periods, personal work or home work, case studies, etc...

Participation costs:

Participating in the full course will cost: xxxx €, Training and accommodation
costs will be paid by ETUCO. In addition, ETUCO will reimburse the costs for
APEX-flights. Payment should be made by bank transfer to the following account:
551-3776500-68, Banque ARTESIA, Boulevard Emile Jacqmain 162, bte 2, B-1000
Brussels, Belgium. When paying, please do not forget to mention the
name of the participant and cite the reference number of the course.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                                 136
Target group and registration:

Specify which are the characteristics of the target group that you have defined for
this seminar or activity.

We ask you to bear in mind the recommendations of the ETUC Action Plan for
women which call for the proportional representation of women in trade union

This activity has the financial support of the European Union.

Registration deadline: DD / MM / YYYY at the latest.

Best regards,


Encl.:           Draft Programme
                 Registration form

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                           137
                                                                  Enrolment form
                                   PLEASE TYPE OR WRITE CLEARLY

Course reference:

First name (not just initials, please): Ms/Mr

Family name:

Organisation (in your own language):

Function and current responsibilities:

Address (work):

Telephone (work):



Bank details:

Bank account number

Bank name and address

Name and address of account holder

                ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                       138
   ENROLMENT FORM                                                            Page 2

   Please indicate the languages participants can speak and those that can be

              Languages spoken                                 Languages understood
Dansk                                             Dansk
Deutsch                                           Deutsch
English                                           English
Español                                           Español
Français                                          Français
Italiano                                          Italiano
Nederlands                                        Nederlands
Português                                         Português
Svensk                                            Svensk
.........                                         .........
.........                                         .........
.........                                         .........

Field(s) of activity:

Experience related to the course theme:

   For enrolment to be valid, participants are required to attach proof of payment for
   the seminar participation fee of 10,000 BF. The account number of the ETUCO is
   551-3776500-68, with the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas, Boulevard Emile
   Jacqmain 162, bte 2, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium. When making payment please
   always quote the participant's name and the seminar reference number (97.009).

Date                                                                                     Signature

               ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                               139
Example of course invitation letter

                                                                   March 16, 2001

To all confederations affiliated to the ETUC

Dear Colleagues,

As part of its new training programme the European Trade Union College is
organizing a course entitled “European Training Course 2001/2002” in
conjunction with the national confederations.

After this course participants will be able to:

   Understand and analyse recent developments affecting the European trade
    union movement, particularly as regards:
            the structures, policies and roles of trade union confederations and
             their affiliates in Europe
            the structures, policies and roles of the European Trade Union
             Confederation and the European industry federations
            the structures and policies of the European Union particularly in the
             light of the Single European Market and the Treaty on European
            significant European industrial relations issues (representation of
             workers, collective bargaining, pay and working conditions, equal
             opportunities, etc.)
            acquire a range of operational skills by enabling course participants
            lay the foundations for learning a common foreign language for
             communication (English or French)
            be able to work in a transnational environment
   learn how to influence and support decision-making at EU level
   gain understanding of cultural differences

Structure of the course:

The full course will cover a 11-month period from May 2001 to April 2002. It will
include three residential weeks, as follows:
Week I: 26 - 31 May 2001, Lisbon (P)
Week II: 17 – 22 November 2001, Brussels (B)
Week III: 13 – 18 April 2002, Vienna (A)
The table below offers an overview of all the elements comprising the full
European course:

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                           140
               European training course; structure and contents

                                                                  Individual preparation
Preparatory module                                                  before the course
   Structures of national trade union organizations                     May 2001
   National systems of worker representation

                                                                    Residential week I
Module 1                                                             26 - 31 May 2001,
 Introduction                                                           Lisbon (P)
 Trade union structures
 Worker representation
 European Works Councils
 Collective bargaining
 Preparation for module 2
Practical training in the use of electronic conferences
Language training
Module 2                                                             Distance training
 Research, working in groups: analysis of the national            June – November 2001
    and European situation from a union viewpoint.
            Examples of topics:
- Employment and the structure of the labour market
- EMU and collective bargaining
- EMU and economic globalization
Preparation for visits to European institutions and
Module 3
 Report by the working groups                                Residential week II
 The decision-making process in the EU                           17 – 22 November 2001,
 Visits to European institutions and organizations                     Brussels (B)
 Preparation of Module 4
Language training

Module 4                                                      Distance training
Preparation of the full SWOT analysis on the topics covered     November 2001 – April 2002
(SWOT = strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats)
Module 5
Report by the working groups                                  Residential week III
 Visions and goals                                             13 – 18 April 2002, Vienna (A)
           and strategy for European trade unions
Drafting national work programmes

Working languages:

The following languages were selected: English, German, Italian and Portuguese

Distance activities:

During module 2, i.e. between June and November 2001 the participants will be
invited to perform certain activities at distance, like the analysis of a topical
subject of relevance to unions both nationally and transnationally.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                         141
During the first residential week, the participants will be allowed to choose a
subject in which they have a special interest. Once these choices have been
made, we will set up transnational, multilingual working groups which will carry
out the research by analyzing the national and European situation, drawing up
objectives and working out a trade union strategy at European level.

Participation costs:

Participating in the full course will cost 750 euros. Training and accommodation
costs will be paid by ETUCO. In addition, ETUCO will reimburse the costs for
APEX-flights. Payment should be made by bank transfer to the following account:
551-3776500-68, Banque ARTESIA, Boulevard Emile Jacqmain 162, bte 2, B-1000
Brussels, Belgium. When paying, please do not forget to mention the
name of the participant and cite the reference number of the course.

Target group and registration:

It has been decided that participants should be young trade union officers who
have been recently elected or appointed to posts at the regional or national level,
who have already followed a series of trade union education courses at the
national level, who have a basic understanding of European affairs and who are
soon to be faced with the challenge of transnational trade union activity.

There are still free places available on this course for organizations not directly
involved in its planning and implementation, and other affiliates may send up to
one participant each. As it is expected that there will be a significant demand for
this seminar, enrolments will be done on a ‘first come, first served’ basis.

Participants will be expected to attend all three residential stages and to use the
knowledge and expertise gained in the seminar to the benefit of trade unions at
national and European levels.

We ask you to bear in mind the recommendations of the ETUC Action Plan for
women which call for the proportional representation of women in trade union

This activity has the financial support of the European Union.

Registration deadline: 10 May 2001 at the latest.

Best regards,

Jeff Bridgford

Encl.:           Draft Programme Week I
                 Registration form

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                           142
                                                             Confirmation letter

Date                                         Put the date when your letters is gone
                                             out from the office
Name of the participants                     Specify to whom this confirmation
                                             letter has been send

Dear colleagues,
I am pleased to confirm your participation at the ETUCO:

Name of the course                          Specify the right name of the course
                                            and his identifying number

which will take place from

"Dates of the course"                        Indicate the day of beginning and the
                                             day of the end of the course


Address of the training center              Give the participants all indications they
                                            need to go to the seminar (complete
                                            address, phone and fax number, email

After this course participants will be able to:

Aims of the seminar                         Report the aims that are announced by
                                            ETUCO when the course was send to
                                            the affiliated organisations

Structure of the course                     Give some indications from the course

The following languages were selected:

Working languages:                           Specify the languages which will be
                                             used during this course

Please find enclosed the course programme. Attached is also an information sheet
with technical details regarding the course organisation.

The ETUCO will be represented by xxxxx XXXXX, the ETUCO Training Officer, who
joins me and the course tutors in wishing you a stimulating and fruitful week.

Should you have any questions regarding the course programme or organisation,
please do not hesitate to contact the ETUCO Secretariat (tel. +32 2 224 05 30,
fax +32 2 224 05 20, e-mail:

Yours sincerely


ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                             143
Example of confirmation letter

10 May 2001
Bo Erik Sundqvist, Chris Ambrose, Christiane Solheim, Gülbin Osman,
Heleen Jitske Jalvingh, Karin Fristedt, Lottaliina Lehtinen, Michael
Parnis, Simon Kennedy, Purificación García de la Rosa, Diana Toppetta,
Ermanno Porro, Marina Petronella

Dear colleagues,

I am pleased to confirm your participation at the ETUCO European Training
Course 2001/2002, Week I, which will take place from 26-31 May at:

        Hotel do Mar
        R. General Humberto Delgado 10
        P – 2970-628 SESIMBRA
        Tel. ++ 351 21 228 83 00
        Fax ++ 351 21 223 38 88

After this course participants will be able to:

   Understand and analyse recent developments affecting the European trade
    union movement, particularly as regards:
            the structures, policies and roles of trade union confederations and
             their affiliates in Europe
            the structures, policies and roles of the European Trade Union
             Confederation and the European industry federations
            the structures and policies of the European Union particularly in the
             light of the Single European Market and the Treaty on European
            significant European industrial relations issues (representation of
             workers, collective bargaining, pay and working conditions, equal
             opportunities, etc.)
            acquire a range of operational skills by enabling course participants
            lay the foundations for learning a common foreign language for
             communication (English or French)
            be able to work in a transnational environment
   learn how to influence and support decision-making at EU level
   gain understanding of cultural differences

Structure of the course:

The full course will cover a 9-month period from September 2000 to June 2001. It
will include three residential weeks, as follows:

Week I: 26 - 31 May 2001, Lisbon (P)
Week II: 17 – 22 November 2001, Brussels (B)
Week III: 13 – 18 April 2002, Vienna (A)

Participants will be expected to attend all three residential stages and to use the
knowledge and expertise gained in the seminar to the benefit of trade unions at
national and European levels.

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                           144
The table below offers an overview of all the elements comprising the full
European course:

               European training course; structure and contents

                                                                    Individual preparation
                     Preparatory module                               before the course
   Structures of national trade union organizations                       May 2001
   National systems of worker representation

                                                                       Residential week I
                          Module 1                                      26 - 31 May 2001,
 Introduction                                                              Lisbon (P)
 Trade union structures
 Worker representation
 European Works Councils
 Collective bargaining
 Preparation for module 2
Practical training in the use of electronic conferences
Language training
                            Module 2                                    Distance training
 Research, working in groups: analysis of the national               June – November 2001
    and European situation from a union viewpoint.
            Examples of topics:
- Employment and the structure of the labour market
- EMU and collective bargaining
- EMU and economic globalization
Preparation for visits to European institutions and
                            Module 3
 Report by the working groups                                   Residential week II
 The decision-making process in the EU                              17 – 22 November 2001,
 Visits to European institutions and organizations                        Brussels (B)
 Preparation of Module 4
Language training

                          Module 4                               Distance training
Preparation of the full SWOT analysis on the topics covered        November 2001 – April 2002
(SWOT = strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats)

Module 5                                                         Residential week III
Report by the working groups                                      13 – 18 April 2002, Vienna (A)
 Visions and goals
           and strategy for European trade unions
Drafting national work programmes

Working languages:

The following languages were selected: English, German, Italian and Portuguese.

Distance activities: During module 2, i.e. between June and November 2001
the participants will be invited to perform certain activities at distance, like the

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                            145
analysis of a topical subject of relevance to unions both nationally and
During the first residential week, the participants will be allowed to choose a
subject in which they have a special interest. Once these choices have been
made, we will set up transnational, multilingual working groups which will carry
out the research by analysing the national and European situation, drawing up
objectives and working out a trade union strategy at European level.

Language course: Participants have the possibility to attend a French or an
English course. In order to prepare the adequate groups, you will find attached a
questionnaire for the English course and one for the French course. May we
kindly ask you to fill in these copies and send them back by fax (+32 2 224 05 20,
attn. Nathalie De Vits).

Preparatory activities before the course: You will also find attached three
Activity Sheets – 1, 2 and 2a (working instructions). Please use these documents
to prepare your presentations on your organisation and workplace representation
in your country. In order to facilitate your task we send you enclosed an ETUCO
document “Systems of workplace representation in Europe”. In addition, you find
interesting and useful information in the proposal for a Council Directive
establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the
European Community. This document, in 11 languages, can be downloaded from
the Internet web site of the European Commission at the following address:
DA / DE / EL / EN / ES / FI / FR / IT / NL / PT / SV

The most useful information can be found in Tables I, IV, VII and VIII in the
annex of the document.

Preparation of the programme for the week: In addition, during the first
week we will discuss the issue of collective bargaining; therefore also please
prepare yourself for this subject.

Please find enclosed the course programme. Attached is also an information sheet
with technical details regarding the course organisation.

As you can see from the programme, there will be a cultural evening on the
second day. Please bring something typical from your country, something to eat
and/or to drink, or some music.

With your contribution we hope to make this course a unique occasion for the
development of a European trade union cultural identity and for the reinforcement
of the European dimension of trade union education

The ETUCO will be represented by Antoine Cochet, the ETUCO Training Officer,
who joins me and the course tutors in wishing you a stimulating and fruitful week.

Should you have any questions regarding the course programme or organisation,
please do not hesitate to contact Nathalie De Vits at the ETUCO Secretariat (tel.
+32 2 224 05 22, fax +32 2 224 05 20, e-mail:

Yours sincerely


ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                          146
Example of technical confirmation


Course             Course Ref.   European Training Course / ETC.01.002
                                 Hotel do Mar
                                 R. General Humberto Delgado 10
                                 P – 2970-628 SESIMBRA
                                 Tel. ++ 351 21 228 83 00
                                 Fax ++ 351 21 223 38 88
Day and time of arrival          Friday 25 May 2001, by 18h00
Nearest airport                  Lisbon
Transport                        According your arrival and departure times a transport
                                 by minibus will be organised from/to the airport. You will
                                 be noticed the times of pick-up.
Day and time of departure        Thursday, 31 May, after lunch
Travel reimbursement             Air: the PEX fare, on production of the ticket
                                 Train: 1st class return fare, on production of the ticket
                                 Private car: the cost of 1st class return rail fare

           In order to facilitate the organisation, please send the
           following information as soon as possible back to
           Nathalie at faxnumber ++ 32 2 224 05 20 before the
           beginning of the course:


Date of arrival:

Time of arrival:

By car/By train:

Flight number:

Date of departure:

Time of departure:

By car/By train:

Flight number:

           Should you have any questions regarding the course
           programme or organisation, please do not hesitate to contact
           Nathalie De Vits at the ETUCO Secretatiat on + 32 2 224 05
           22, fax +32 2 224 05 20, e-mail:

ETUCO's Tutor Manual                                                     147

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