The last country case
study before we look at
Case study –Ethiopia
Page 104/5 in the textbook –
these figures are more up to date
• Indicators (mostly 2008 estimate)
• Area: 1,127,127 sq km
• Population: 82,544,840
• GDP - per capita $800
• Birth rate: 43.97 births/1,000 population
• Death rate: 11.83 deaths/1,000 population
• Life expectancy at birth: 54.99 years
• Infant mortality rate: 82.64 deaths/1,000 live
• People per doctor: 33,300
• % working in farming: 80%
• As you may have noticed, Italy is obviously more
developed than Brazil, but Ethiopia is very different
indeed from either of them.
• Because of this, there is have a whole different set of
data that the UN collect, in order to measure progress
and to focus on what needs to be done in the very poor
• For example, there is not real mileage to be gained in
spending time and money looking at adult illiteracy or how
many people live on less than $1 a day or who does not
have piped water in the higher or even medium
development index groups.
• But it is very important that we know this and other
things about the poorest, so that we know what needs to
be achieved. These special case places are LLEDCs – what
• So for example we know that:
• 40% of the people do not survive to 40
years of age
• 78% do not have access to clean water
• 38% of children are dangerously
underweight for their age
• That 23% live on less than $1 a day and
78% live on less than $2 a day
• [ in £s right now that is £1.50 and £3.00]
But why is Ethiopia like this?
• Remember, that most of the poorest countries have
suffered long term conflict, either internally or with
• In the case of Ethiopia, it lost its coast when Eritrea
broke away from it in 1993 after a long war.
• It has been fighting with Eritrea since until 2002 when
the border was finally establish.
• More recently, it has sent troupes into Sudan to help
support the weak government there.
• During these times 13% of the GDP was spent on defence
• It has been subject to terrible droughts – several this
century – as they are so dependent on agriculture, this
rapidly leads to starvation and death, especially as the
average calorie intake is so low.
Why is development so unequal?
What are the reasons for such wide
differences in development?
Why is there such a big ‘development gap’?
• Many LEDCs are located in the Tropics. This
region experiences up to 100 tropical storms or
hurricanes every year, causing widespread
• Earthquakes and volcanoes are also major
• Often subject to widespread flooding or
drought, especially in monsoon areas on the
edge of the Tropics or in the arid, desert
regions just outside the Tropics.
• Hot, wet conditions are excellent breeding
grounds for disease-carrying insects like
mosquitoes and for the spread of bacteria and
• The act of colonizing; the establishment of
colonies; "the British colonization of America“.
• Colonisation of many countries in Africa, South
America and Asia by European powers since the
sixteenth century has left a long-lasting legacy.
• Many colonisers used raw materials from the
countries they claimed to build their own
industries, to the detriment of that country.
• They also established trade patterns, some of
which still exist today.
• The countries were divided up in ways that
suited the colonisers, which it more difficult for
the independent countries to government
Echoes of the credit crunch
• Many LEDCs have been encouraged to borrow
large sums of money from MEDCs and major
• Paying back even the interest of these debts can
account for up to a third of the country’s GDP.
• It was not until ‘Make poverty history campaign’
culminating in July 2005 at G8 meeting at
Gleneagles that this was really taken seriously.
• Much debt, and consequently the interest
payments have been removed from the outgoings
of those governments who have proved that they
will use the money saved for development – those
that might still use the extra to buy arms have
not been let off the hook.
Moving on to
Page 108 in the textbook
Differences within countries
• Not only do development
levels vary between
countries, they also vary
• This means that it is
often concentrated in just
one favoured region called
the core, leaving other
regions quite poor in
comparison. What does that red line
• These poorer regions are show?
Where do you think the
called the periphery. core and the periphery
is in the UK? 13
We are going to look at Italy
difference in development in
Anyone any idea what their
North-South divide might
Yes, it is the case!!
• In Italy, the north, especially the Po basin,
is the core region and is wealthier and
more developed than the south.
• The south of Italy, called the
Mezzogiorno, is the periphery.
• This means mean "midday" or "noon" and
are applied in this manner because the sun
is directly above the southern horizon at
this time of day.
North or South?
North or South?
Naples Milan 18
North or South?
North or South?
Milan Bari 20
The North - Advantages
• Supplies of natural gas in the Po basin and HEP
(electricity generated by water power) from the
• More jobs in industry and services.
• Fertile lowlands with irrigation water available.
• Large cities – Milan, Turin and Genoa – connected
by an efficient transport system.
• Close to large European markets
• Better quality housing and services and higher
standard of living.
South - Disadvantages
• Mountainous relief makes communication
• The climate is hot and dry in summer with
a few months’ drought.
• Heavy winter rainfall causes soil erosion
• The rocks are mostly limestone and form
• Low yield of wheat, olives and vines
• Poor quality grazing for sheep and goats.
• Poor transport, little industry, emigration.
• Since the 1950s, the government has had a
series of initiatives to improve the lot of those
in the South.
• New motorways were built, giving work and
• New irrigation schemes were built to allow more
reliable production of tomatoes, citrus fruits
• As we saw on the map, there are some centres of
industry which were helped into existence by
• However, there is still one underlying problem
that no-one likes to talk about – the role of the
Mafia in quite a lot of things.
Here are the regions and the GDP per
capita within each region
Currently EU average = $32,700
In the North > $39,000 ≈ Sweden and
So those in the South <$24,000 ≈ Malta and
other poor European countries
Once the EU began, they putting funding
into under-developed areas
• All the shaded areas got EU
Objective 1 funding
• Aims particularly to "narrow
the gap between the
development levels of the
• All these regions have a number
• The Structural Funds of economic signals/indicators
support the economic "in the red":
activities in these regions
by providing them with low level of investment;
the basic infrastructure a higher than average
they lack, whilst raising
the level of trained human unemployment rate;
resources and encouraging lack of services for
investments in businesses.
businesses and individuals;
poor basic infrastructure.
Despite all the efforts, the gap is still
there and getting wider
• Many people with any ambition leave the
area, many to go to the North to earn
• But over the past 100 years, many more
of those to went abroad, to the USA for
example, were from these poorer regions
than for the better off parts in the
• Do another spider diagram – mind map for Ethiopia –
remember the textbook – it is quite good on this one
• Attach another sheet along side the Italy one to
compare the north and south – if you want to use some of
the North- South pictures, open the PP and steal them!!
• For the really keen, there is also another 2 files on the
wiki. One, the pdf, is a full report by Sbilanciamoci!
(which I can’t say) showing how they have assessed the
North-South divide – and it is 52 pages long! The other is
a 4-page word document by Lindy, which summarises the
first one. These both look at other indicators to see
exactly how the north and south are different.
• Evidence that you have done the work is all that is
needed!! E.g. photo – or message from parents or ???