Development - Ysgol Rhyngrwyd IGCSE Geography

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Development - Ysgol Rhyngrwyd IGCSE Geography Powered By Docstoc

 The last country case
study before we look at
  unequal development
              Case study –Ethiopia
             Page 104/5 in the textbook –
           these figures are more up to date
•   Indicators (mostly 2008 estimate)
•   Area: 1,127,127 sq km
•   Population: 82,544,840
•   GDP - per capita $800
•   Birth rate: 43.97 births/1,000 population
•   Death rate: 11.83 deaths/1,000 population
•   Life expectancy at birth: 54.99 years
•   Infant mortality rate: 82.64 deaths/1,000 live
•   People per doctor: 33,300
•   % working in farming: 80%
                   About Ethiopia
• As you may have noticed, Italy is obviously more
    developed than Brazil, but Ethiopia is very different
    indeed from either of them.
•   Because of this, there is have a whole different set of
    data that the UN collect, in order to measure progress
    and to focus on what needs to be done in the very poor
•   For example, there is not real mileage to be gained in
    spending time and money looking at adult illiteracy or how
    many people live on less than $1 a day or who does not
    have piped water in the higher or even medium
    development index groups.
•   But it is very important that we know this and other
    things about the poorest, so that we know what needs to
    be achieved. These special case places are LLEDCs – what
    is that?
               About Ethiopia
• So for example we know that:
• 40% of the people do not survive to 40
    years of age
•   78% do not have access to clean water
•   38% of children are dangerously
    underweight for their age
•   That 23% live on less than $1 a day and
    78% live on less than $2 a day
•   [ in £s right now that is £1.50 and £3.00]
       But why is Ethiopia like this?
• Remember, that most of the poorest countries have
    suffered long term conflict, either internally or with
    their neighbours.
•   In the case of Ethiopia, it lost its coast when Eritrea
    broke away from it in 1993 after a long war.
•   It has been fighting with Eritrea since until 2002 when
    the border was finally establish.
•   More recently, it has sent troupes into Sudan to help
    support the weak government there.
•   During these times 13% of the GDP was spent on defence
•   It has been subject to terrible droughts – several this
    century – as they are so dependent on agriculture, this
    rapidly leads to starvation and death, especially as the
    average calorie intake is so low.

  Why is development so unequal?
 What are the reasons for such wide
   differences in development?

Why is there such a big ‘development gap’?
• Many LEDCs are located in the Tropics. This
    region experiences up to 100 tropical storms or
    hurricanes every year, causing widespread
•   Earthquakes and volcanoes are also major
•   Often subject to widespread flooding or
    drought, especially in monsoon areas on the
    edge of the Tropics or in the arid, desert
    regions just outside the Tropics.
•   Hot, wet conditions are excellent breeding
    grounds for disease-carrying insects like
    mosquitoes and for the spread of bacteria and
    viruses.                                      9
• The act of colonizing; the establishment of
    colonies; "the British colonization of America“.
•   Colonisation of many countries in Africa, South
    America and Asia by European powers since the
    sixteenth century has left a long-lasting legacy.
•   Many colonisers used raw materials from the
    countries they claimed to build their own
    industries, to the detriment of that country.
•   They also established trade patterns, some of
    which still exist today.
•   The countries were divided up in ways that
    suited the colonisers, which it more difficult for
    the independent countries to government
    themselves fairly.
       Echoes of the credit crunch
• Many LEDCs have been encouraged to borrow
    large sums of money from MEDCs and major
    global organisations.
•   Paying back even the interest of these debts can
    account for up to a third of the country’s GDP.
•   It was not until ‘Make poverty history campaign’
    culminating in July 2005 at G8 meeting at
    Gleneagles that this was really taken seriously.
•   Much debt, and consequently the interest
    payments have been removed from the outgoings
    of those governments who have proved that they
    will use the money saved for development – those
    that might still use the extra to buy arms have
    not been let off the hook.
   Moving on to
Unequal Development
  within countries

Page 108 in the textbook
      Differences within countries
• Not only do development
    levels vary between
    countries, they also vary
    within countries.
•   This means that it is
    often concentrated in just
    one favoured region called
    the core, leaving other
    regions quite poor in
    comparison.                  What does that red line
•   These poorer regions are     show?
                                 Where do you think the
    called the periphery.        core and the periphery
                                 is in the UK?        13
We are going to look at Italy
difference in development in
Anyone any idea what their
North-South divide might
show?                           14
        Yes, it is the case!!
• In Italy, the north, especially the Po basin,
  is the core region and is wealthier and
  more developed than the south.
• The south of Italy, called the
  Mezzogiorno, is the periphery.
• This means mean "midday" or "noon" and
  are applied in this manner because the sun
  is directly above the southern horizon at
  this time of day.
North or South?

         North or South?


Naples                     Milan      18
North or South?

        North or South?


Milan                        Bari   20
          The North - Advantages
• Supplies of natural gas in the Po basin and HEP
    (electricity generated by water power) from the
•   More jobs in industry and services.
•   Fertile lowlands with irrigation water available.
•   Large cities – Milan, Turin and Genoa – connected
    by an efficient transport system.
•   Close to large European markets
•   Better quality housing and services and higher
    standard of living.
            South - Disadvantages
• Mountainous relief makes communication
•   The climate is hot and dry in summer with
    a few months’ drought.
•   Heavy winter rainfall causes soil erosion
    and flooding.
•   The rocks are mostly limestone and form
    thin soils.
•   Low yield of wheat, olives and vines
•   Poor quality grazing for sheep and goats.
•   Poor transport, little industry, emigration.
• Since the 1950s, the government has had a
    series of initiatives to improve the lot of those
    in the South.
•   New motorways were built, giving work and
    improved communication
•   New irrigation schemes were built to allow more
    reliable production of tomatoes, citrus fruits
    and vegetables.
•   As we saw on the map, there are some centres of
    industry which were helped into existence by
    government grants.
•   However, there is still one underlying problem
    that no-one likes to talk about – the role of the
    Mafia in quite a lot of things.
Here are the regions and the GDP per
      capita within each region

                Currently EU average = $32,700
                In the North > $39,000 ≈ Sweden and
                So those in the South <$24,000 ≈ Malta and
                other poor European countries
   Once the EU began, they putting funding
         into under-developed areas
                                • All the shaded areas got EU
                                  Objective 1 funding
                                • Aims particularly to "narrow
                                  the gap between the
                                  development levels of the
                                  various regions"
                                • All these regions have a number
• The Structural Funds            of economic signals/indicators
  support the economic            "in the red":
  activities in these regions
  by providing them with              low level of investment;
  the basic infrastructure            a higher than average
  they lack, whilst raising
  the level of trained human           unemployment rate;
  resources and encouraging           lack of services for
  investments in businesses.
                                       businesses and individuals;
                                      poor basic infrastructure.
Despite all the efforts, the gap is still
       there and getting wider
• Many people with any ambition leave the
  area, many to go to the North to earn
  some money
• But over the past 100 years, many more
  of those to went abroad, to the USA for
  example, were from these poorer regions
  than for the better off parts in the

• Do another spider diagram – mind map for Ethiopia –
    remember the textbook – it is quite good on this one
•   Attach another sheet along side the Italy one to
    compare the north and south – if you want to use some of
    the North- South pictures, open the PP and steal them!!
•   For the really keen, there is also another 2 files on the
    wiki. One, the pdf, is a full report by Sbilanciamoci!
    (which I can’t say) showing how they have assessed the
    North-South divide – and it is 52 pages long! The other is
    a 4-page word document by Lindy, which summarises the
    first one. These both look at other indicators to see
    exactly how the north and south are different.
•   Evidence that you have done the work is all that is
    needed!! E.g. photo – or message from parents or ???


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