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December 2006


									As per usual Fruitree is back with another thunderous publication encapsulated with exhilarating and
educational ammunition. This month’s periodical covers numerous areas that are often brought up, but not
investigated into in any great depth.

Therefore Fruitree has decided to bring to your attention the importance of knowledge and how it plays a
significant part of personal social development; followed by the ultimate development plan (personal

It is paramount that people comprehend the significance of self-reliance so as individuals in turn will be able
to function in today’s society effectively. The Fruitree team intends to bring into existence a motivational force
which will capture your undivided attention and encourage a positive learning environment.

In the coming pages fruitree gives a comprehensive coverage of the Home Plan based on what it does and its
effectiveness. In addition there are several articles that contribute to the well being and development of our
current and potential readers.

Evidently it has been proven by reading regularly an individual will no doubt increase their vocabulary and
grow intellectually. Remember the television is not a life support machine you will not die if you decide to
switch it off. As a matter of fact you’ll be doing yourself a terrific favour.

A people without education and knowledge are a people whom have the potential to perish. Therefore it’s vital
that education is integrated, and part of everyday culture in order to bring about self-awareness.

If you have never experienced having an intellectual climax; allow me to introduce you to a life changing
experience. Simply give yourself that quality time to digest the nutritious vitamins and minerals that will create
an inner strength and power.

In any case, are you prepared to be a member of the Fruitree domain and if not we will get you ready to take
on challenges you probably think was beyond your capability.
                                                                            The Fruitree Family

Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                                                    2
The Home Plan has been specially design to troubleshoot, and diagnose many of the problems within our
community which negatively affect the development and growth of young people.

This will involve personnel meeting in the home followed by an interview for both the carer/parent/s and young
person/s. At this point notes will be taken and documented for further scrutiny.

This initial meeting with the family involves gathering information to ascertain their requirements. This is a
lengthy process and involves lots of questions being asked; notes will be taken and documented. When this
procedure is complete, we will make another date (usually a week later), with the family to review their
answers; Fruitree will then devise an individual Home Plan to begin a healing process and an effective
strategy to support and help the candidates in question.

It is a prerequisite that all parties adhere to the programme and see to it that the young person does what is
instructed on the programme. Failure to do so will result in the course not being effective. As a custodian you
play an integral role in the Home Plan working and I cannot over emphasise the significance of your input.

However, the course will last for 4-6 weeks and during period Fruitree will pay visits to the home to see how
the Home Plan is doing. Moreover, candidates can contact us by both phone and/or email if there are any
concerns or problems they may experience.

If you would like more details, please contact us:

T: +44207 193 0622
M: 07956 323 559
M: 07961 041 967

                   Fruitree provides a range of tailor made services:
  Help and Support for Children and Adults - Literacy and Numeracy, Information
                          Computer Maintenance and advice
                                Personal Development
            For more information, call, 07956 323 559 or 07961 041 967
  The Fruitree staffs have recognised qualifications, skills and experience to enable
3Fruitree Books: 07956 323 559   successful outcomes.                                 3
The Home Plan: Parental Tools:
In order to be an effective parent or carer the relevant tools needs to be at your disposal. Absence of these
components will result in an ineffective approach to parenting, which in turn has an adverse affect on the
child’s behaviour.

Now that I have given mention to parental tools; it’s imperative that you are aware of what these tools are and
most important, how to use them.

    Parents must keep the lines of communication open. It’s a proven fact that an adolescent is more likely
     to share their thoughts with an adult if they feel respected, and they are listened to. Oftentimes,
     parents spend too much time lecturing and engaging in condemnations and criticism and fail to listen
     to the child’s feelings.

    Children need to be praised and complemented regular when they do something right, regardless of
     how small in may seem to the parent. Too much emphasis is centred around a child’s shortcomings
     and too little on their achievements.

    It’s of paramount importance that our children are taught to become nation builders as oppose to being
     consumers. This can begin by assigning them with responsibilities such as bedroom management and
     organisation (simply being able to tidy their rooms and organise books and clothing into their
     designated location) too many people may discern this method as unrelated to the child’s personal
     development, but as the young person grow they will soon witness a positive change.

    We must take it upon ourselves to ensure that our children achieve academic excellence. We need to
     make sure that our young are encouraged to read books, followed by the minimisation of electronic
     media and game consoles.

    Plan systematically for each day and week so as our children develop an organised structure. A
     disorganised child will grow into a disorganised adult. It is imperative that the young person begins as
     early as possible.

    As a parent you must remind your child constantly that you believe in them and that they must also
     believe in themselves. Only then will your child believe they possess the ability to achieve. If your child
     can conceive it and believe it no doubt they will go ahead and achieve it.

Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                                                   4
   The first teacher of a child is its parents and it’s absolutely essential that parents lead by example. If
    you advise your child to do something and you are demonstrating the opposite, this confuses the child,
    because they wonder why it is that a double standard exists. Remember our youth is very
    impressionable and will adopt negative adult behaviour as well as positive adult behaviour.

   Home management proficiency is not something that happens by chance. To be able to run a
    successful home one must plan and develop a framework.

   Parents need to monitor what music is being played in the home. It has become quite apparent that
    there is overwhelming amount of music is negative and destructive, and detrimental to the social,
    emotional and intellectual growth and development of young people. Much of the music is associated
    with violence, anger, drug glorification, sex and misogyny.

5Fruitree   Books: 07956 323 559                                                                             5
Trans fats?
Trans fats are unsaturated oils or fats whose 3-d molecular structure has been altered, usually by prolonged
exposure to high temperature. This happens mainly during hydrogenation: the industrial process that hardens
liquid vegetable oils by making them more saturated. Unsaturated oils normally occur in nature in the cis
configuration, but during hydrogenation the oils can 'flip' into the unnatural and damaging Trans configuration
- hence the name 'Trans fat'.

What are Trans Fats?
Hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated vegetable oils - the main dietary source of Trans fats - are very
useful to the food industry. They are cheap; they have neutral flavour; they melt in the mouth, like butter; and
they have very long shelf lives, which they confer to the products that contain them. Unlike other unsaturated
oils and fats which go rancid over time, hydrogenated fats are highly resistant to oxidation and rancidity.
Trans fats are therefore found in thousands of everyday food products, such as margarine, cakes, pies,
biscuits, some vegetable oils, cheap chocolate, other confectionery and ice cream, and ready-made meals.
They also occur widely in fast food, as the industry - including local fish and chip shops - often use
hydrogenated oil for frying, as well as in shortening.

High Street bakeries also make great use of hydrogenated oil as shortening for pastries and fallings. Even
home-baked cakes and pastries are a risk, as hydrogenated oil occurs frequently in margarines, "vegetable
fat", "vegetable suet", ready-made pastries and other such ingredients.

Where are Trans fats found?
Trans fats are present in a wide range of foods: according to one estimate, 40 percent of products in the
typical US supermarket contain Trans fat, and the UK is not far behind. This is because the hydrogenated
vegetable fats which provide most dietary Trans fat are a mainstay of the food industry - a cheap bulking
agent perfect for padding out expensive processed products, with a long shelf life and a luxurious 'mouth feel'.

They are to be found, for example, in margarine, vegetable shortening, ice-cream, puddings & pudding mixes,
ready-made pies, cakes & cake mixes, biscuits, pizza, potato chips, fritters, doughnuts, gravy & sauce mixes,
artificial creamers, confectionery and other processed foods, including many foods marketed at children,
including some sugary breakfast cereals. They are also commonly found in restaurant food, especially - but
not only - in fast food. You can also make your own Trans fat (in small amounts) by repeatedly re-heating
cooking oil.

Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                                                      6
Some Trans fats occur naturally in ruminants' stomachs and are thus found in meat and dairy produce.
However the quantities are small, and in any event these natural Trans fats do not appear to be harmful to
human health - as are the man-made Trans fats found in hydrogenated vegetable oils. So when you're out
shopping, always inspect the list of ingredients before you buy any product, looking in particular for:
hydrogenated vegetable oil, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, vegetable fats and margarine.
Cakes and biscuits

Trans fats are ubiquitous in ready-made cakes, sweet biscuits and cake / cookie mixes, indeed a substantial
majority of products contain them, including those branded as Mr Kipling, Lyons, Cadbury, Fox's, McVities,
Border Biscuits, Wagon Wheels.

Many confectionery products contain Trans fats. Hydrogenated vegetable oils are found, for example, in many
'bars', including Mars, Twix, Milky Way, Tracker, Snickers, Picnic, Double Decker, Time Out and Fuse. They
are also added to chocolate, in place of far more expensive (and healthy) cocoa butter. Common offenders
include 'Belgian' milk chocolates (various makes). They also occur in 'cream' and 'praline' fillings for
chocolates; and in Rolos and Peanut M&Ms.

HVOs are also used widely in 'cereal bars' of various (though not all) makes - contradicting the healthy, fit,
dynamic image that manufacturers seek to associate with them.

Fast food & restaurants
Trans fats are also present in many prepared foods bought in fast food outlets. For example, you can expect
to find Trans fat in frying oil, whether in your favourite burger bar, or your local fish & chip shop. Trans fat may
also be present in ice cream, shakes, pies, crackers and other fast food products.
A survey of high end restaurants in Canada also found Trans fats to be widely present in batters, pastries and
other dishes. The same is probably the case in the UK. To be safe, ask your waiter / waitress whether or not
the restaurant uses hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in its cooking.

Canola / rapeseed oil
One little-known source of Trans fat is canola / rapeseed oil. The Trans fat occurs as a result of processing,
which takes place at high temperature. The raw seed begins with a high level of beneficial omega-3 oils,
however these tend to oxidise during processing producing off, and rancid odours. During deodorisation,
some of the omega-3 fatty acids are converted to Trans.

The proportion converted to Trans is highly variable - in general, UK oils have low levels of Trans, however
Researchers at the University of Florida at Gainesville, found that liquid canola / rapeseed oils sold in the USA
contained as much as 4.6 percent Trans fat. Currently this Trans fat content is not usually listed on labels and
consumers have no way of knowing it is present.

Thanks to generous subsidies to EU growers, this is now one of the cheapest and most widespread vegetable
oils. In general, if oil is made from anything other than canola / rapeseed, this will be stated on the label. If oil
is simply described as "vegetable oil" - it is likely to be made from canola / rapeseed.

7Fruitree   Books: 07956 323 559                                                                                   7
Robin McClure

Just like with any relationship, building a positive relationship between parent and child is one that requires
work and effort to make it strong and successful. Parenting is a tough job, and maintaining close relationships
and open communications helps to ensure parents and their children stay connected through all ages of their
upbringing. Here are 10 simple tips for enhancing the bond between parent and child.

1) Say I Love You
Tell your child you love him every day -- no matter his age. Even on trying days or after a parent-child
disagreement, when you don't exactly "like your child" at that moment, it is more important than ever to
express your love. A simple "I love you" goes a long way toward developing and then strengthening a

2) Teach Your Faith
Teach your child about your faith and beliefs. Tell him what you believe and why. Allow time for your child to
ask questions and answer them honestly. Reinforce those teachings often.

3) Establish A Special Name Or Code Word
Create a special name for your child that is positive and special or a secret code word that you can use
between each other. Use the name as a simple reinforcement of your love. The code word can be established
to have special meaning between your child and you that only you two understand. This code word can even
be used to extract a child from an uncomfortable situation (such as staying over at a friends house that is not
going well) without causing undue embarrassment to the child.

4) Develop and Maintain a Special Bedtime Ritual
For younger children, reading a favourite bedtime book or telling stories is a ritual that will be remembered
most likely throughout their life. Older children should not be neglected either. Once children start reading,
have them read a page, chapter, or short book to you. Even most teenagers still enjoy the ritual of being told
goodnight in a special way by a parent--even if they don't act like it!

Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                                                    8
5) Let Your Children Help You
Parents sometimes inadvertently miss out on opportunities to forge closer relationships by not allowing their
child to help them with various tasks and chores. Unloading groceries after going to the store is a good
example of something that children of most ages can and should assist with. Choosing which shoes look
better with your dress lets a child know you value her opinion. Of course, if you ask, be prepared to accept
and live with the choice made!

6) Play with Your Children
The key is to really play with your children. Play board games, such as Scrabble, ball games, outdoor
activities, sing songs, or whatever is fun and interesting. It doesn't matter what you play, just enjoy each other!
Let kids see your silly side. Older kids enjoy cards, chess, computer games, while younger ones will have fun
playing about long as it involves you!

7) Eat Meals as a Family
You've heard this before, and it really is important! Eating together sets the stage for conversation and
sharing. Turn the TV off, and don't rush through a meal. When schedules permit, really talk and enjoy one
another. It can become a quality time most remembered by young and old alike.

9) Respect Their Choices
You don't have to like their mismatched shirt and shorts or love how a child has placed pictures in his room.
However, it is important to respect those choices. Children reach out for independence at a young age, and
parents can help to foster those decision-making skills by being supportive and even looking the other way on
occasion. After all, it really is okay if a child goes to nursery with a striped green shirt and pink shorts.

10) Make Them a Priority in Your Life
Your children need to know that you believe they are a priority in your life. Children can observe excessive
stress and notice when they feel you are not paying them attention. Sometimes, part of being a parent is not
worrying about the small stuff and enjoying your children. They grow up so fast, and every day is special.
Take advantage of your precious time together while you have it!

                        Fruitree provides a range of tailor made services:
        Help and Support for Children and Adults - Literacy and Numeracy, Information
                         Technology, Computer Maintenance and advice
                                     Personal Development
                  For more information, call, 07956 323 559 or 07961 041 967
        The Fruitree staffs have recognised qualifications, skills and experience to enable
                                      successful outcomes.

9Fruitree   Books: 07956 323 559                                                                                 9
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Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                                      10
1Pupils in Years 10 and 11 are usually between the ages of 14 and 16 years old. They are now in Key Stage
4 and, at the end of this stage, will normally sit national examinations, usually GCSEs. Your child will also be
able to choose from a growing range of vocational qualifications.

In Key Stage 4, your child will study a mix of compulsory and optional subjects. The subjects they will have to
do are:
       English
       Maths
       Science
       Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
       Physical education
       Citizenship
       Religious education, careers education, work-related learning and sex education (these are
compulsory, but not part of the National Curriculum)

Your child will also be able to study one subject from each of the four ‘entitlement’ areas:
     the arts
     design and technology
     humanities
     modern foreign languages

Introduction to qualifications

Types of qualifications

Every school offers a different range of subjects, and sometimes courses. So do check with your child's
teachers to find out what can be done at their school and how many subjects you can choose.

Entry level certificates
         These are for pupils who would find GCSEs difficult.
         They are the first level of the National Curriculum framework and can be progressed later to
          GCSEs or NVQs
         They are available in a wide range of academic, work-based and skills-based subjects
11Fruitree     Books: 07956 323 559                                                                            11
General Certificate for Secondary Education (GCSE) courses generally last two years.
      Most schools offer GCSEs as the main way to get your Key Stage 4 qualifications.
      There are more and more subjects available, including vocational ones. These are designed to
       give you more choices later in life.
      Your child's school might do GCSE short courses that count as half a GCSE.

GCSE short courses
Your child's school might do GCSE short courses. These are like full GCSEs but cover fewer topics, so they
only take half the time to do. You need to do two short courses to make up a full GCSE and if only one is
done, it will count as half a GCSE. GCSE short courses give more options. Your child can take:
      An extra short course on top of the usual number of subjects
      A short course in religious education, ICT or physical education instead of a full GCSE, if it fits
       better with the other options
      A GCSE short course in the time usually set for a full GCSE

General National Vocational Qualifications are about work, but they don't train pupils for a specific job.
      Courses where broad work areas are studied - like business, engineering and health and social
      Available at foundation and intermediate level or as a part award
      Many schools are planning to stop offering some GNVQ courses at Key Stage 4 and instead
       offer GCSEs in vocational subjects. Check with the school.

National Vocational Qualifications are designed to assess adults doing particular jobs in specific areas (for
example 'retail operation' or 'preparing and serving food').

NVQs are helpful for pupils who want to:
      Do a work-based placement course (unlike vocational GCSEs, in NVQs pupils actually do the
       work in the workplace)
      Demonstrate that they are good at a particular job
      Get qualifications that recognise work they are already doing

Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                                                   12
Vocational qualifications are helpful for pupils who want to:
      Gain a qualification through a more practical work-based placement course. (This is unlike
       vocational GCSEs, in VQs pupils actually do the work in the workplace usually half or one day a
      Demonstrate that they are good at a particular job
      Get qualifications that recognise work they are already doing

Your child's options

Choosing subjects

Choosing subjects for Year 10, (around 14 years old), is one of the first big decisions your child has to make
in their life - but no one expects all the answers straight away. This is a stage where you and your child will
need to discuss choices:
      Your child has to make choices about subjects and might end up studying a unique mix.
      There are choices to be made about styles of assessment - should your child choose an option
       with lots of coursework or will they be better off with exams?
      At the same time as studying for exams, you and your child will be thinking about the next steps
       - should they go on to advanced level study, training or work?

Compulsory subjects

The following section is designed to complement the information you will get from your child's school. It's
important for your child to choose a broad range of subjects. Of course, they will need to choose subjects they
can enjoy and can do well, but by keeping the range of subjects balanced, it will leave your child more options
when it's time to decide on courses and jobs in the future. The subjects your child will have to do are:
      English
      Mathematics
      Science
      Design and technology (non-statutory from September 2004)
      Information and communication technology (ICT)
      Physical education
      Citizenship
      Religious education, careers education and sex education (these are compulsory, but not part of
       the National Curriculum)
      Other subjects your child's school chooses to make compulsory. These might include personal,
       social and health education or an arts course.

13Fruitree   Books: 07956 323 559                                                                             13
Optional subjects

There are some other optional subjects that your child can choose. These might include history, geography,
art, music, business studies, health and social care, and leisure and tourism. Most of the courses will lead to a
qualification. For some subjects, your child will be able to choose between different kinds of qualification.
Some courses may not lead to qualifications, such as personal, social and health education.

Your child's school will offer as much choice as possible, but there are two practical issues all schools have to
      There are several types of qualification, but it would be unmanageable for schools to offer them
       for all subjects. So schools decide which kinds of qualification best suit their pupils and teachers
       and become expert at teaching them.
      Timetabling everyone's needs becomes very complex. If the school cannot give your child all
       their first-choice options, this is because the teacher responsible for a particular subject would
       need to be in two places at once, or because the timetable simply cannot fit in a particular

Courses that don't lead to a qualification

Your child will study some courses that don't lead to a qualification. These might be:
      Compulsory courses. Typically, these would be physical education (although there are GCSEs
       in this subject), careers education, sex and relationship education, and drugs education.
      Work experience. Most schools offer work experience for all pupils. Vocational qualifications
       often bring about links between schools and further education (FE) colleges. Sometimes FE
       colleges offer 'link courses'.
      Optional courses. Examples of optional courses are Young Enterprise, courses with community
       groups or a course that builds pupils' basic skills to help with their other courses. Some schools
       offer a range of short enrichment courses, which pupils choose at different points in the year.

Which Way Now?

Which Way Now? is designed as a workbook which leads Year 9 students through all the stages of making
their option choices at age 14. Most sections contain exercises called action points to help students relate the
information to their own thoughts. This is an ideal website to direct your child to so that they can have a look
at the options available for themselves.

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Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                                                 14
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2What   are Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)?
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are diseases that can be transmitted through body contact during sex.
They are caused by viruses, bacteria and parasites. They can also be known as Sexually Transmitted
Infections (STIs) or by their old name Venereal Diseases (VD). There are at least 25 different sexually
transmitted diseases. What they all have in common is that they can be spread by sexual contact, including
vagina, anal and oral sex. The diseases discussed on this page are not a comprehensive list of all STDs,
simply the most common ones. We also have pages with information on the transmission of HIV.

How do you know that you have an STD?
Anyone who is sexually active can be at risk from STDs. Some STDs can have symptoms, such as genital
discharge, pain when urinating and genital swelling and inflammation. Many STDs, such as Chlamydia, can
frequently be symptomless. This is why it is advisable to have a sexual health check-up, to screen for STDs, if
you think you have been at risk. It can sometimes take a long time for STDs to display any symptoms, and
you can pass on any infections during this time, further demonstrating the need to be tested and treated. If
you are in a relationship, and are diagnosed with an STD, it does not necessarily mean that your partner has
been unfaithful. Symptoms of STDs can present themselves months after infection.

How can you prevent yourself from getting STDs?
You can minimise the risk from STDs by having protected sex with condoms and getting yourself and your
partner(s) tested. The more partners you have the greater the risk of acquiring an STD. Other ways to reduce
the risk include using dental dams and condoms during oral sex, cleaning sex toys after use, cleaning your
hands after having sex, and improving genital hygiene routines.

Why is it important to know if you have an STD?
Many STDs are very infectious and can cause long-term or permanent damage, including infertility if left
untreated. Many STDs can be easily passed onto sexual partners, and some STDs can be passed from a
mother to her unborn child too.


Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                                               16
A Guide to STDs
Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is not strictly an STD as it is not transmitted via sexual intercourse. However, it can
be exacerbated by sex and is more frequently found in sexually active women than those who have never had
intercourse. It is caused by an imbalance in the normal healthy bacteria found in the vagina and although it is
relatively harmless and may pass unnoticed, it can sometimes produce an abundance of unpleasant fishy
smelling discharge. Whilst there is no clear explanation as to why BV occurs, there have been suggestions
that the alkaline nature of semen could be one cause, as it may upset the acidic nature of the vaginal
bacteria. Another cause can be the use of an intrauterine contraceptive device (coil). A woman cannot pass
BV to a man, but it is important she receives treatment as BV can occasionally travel up into the uterus and
fallopian tubes and cause a more serious infection. Treatment for BV consists of applying a cream to the
vagina or taking antibiotics.

Balanitis is often referred to as a symptom of infection, and not necessarily an infection in its own right. It is
not strictly an STD, more a consequence of sexual activity. It only affects men and usually presents itself as
an inflammation of the head of the penis, and is more common in men who are not circumcised. It can be
caused through poor hygiene, irritation due to condoms and spermicides, using perfumed toiletries and by
having thrush. It can be prevented through not using certain toiletries and by washing under the foreskin.
Treatment can consist of creams to reduce inflammation and antibiotics if necessary.

Chlamydia is the most common treatable bacterial STD. It can cause serious problems later in life if it is not
treated. Chlamydia infects the cervix in women. The urethra, rectum and eyes can be infected in both sexes.
Symptoms of infection may show up at anytime. Often this is between 1 to 3 weeks after exposure. However,
symptoms may not emerge until a long way down the line. Find out more about Chlamydia.

Crabs or Pubic Lice are small, crab shaped parasites that live on hair and which draw blood. They live
predominantly on pubic hair, but can also be found in hair in the armpits, on the body and even in facial hair
such as eyebrows. They can live away from the body too, and therefore can be found in clothes, bedding and
towels. You can have crabs and not know about it, but after 2 to 3 weeks, you would expect to experience
some itching. Crabs are mainly passed on through body contact during sex, but they can also be passed on
through sharing clothes, towels or bedding with someone who has them. There is no effective way to prevent
yourself becoming infected, though you can prevent others becoming infected by washing clothes and
bedding on a hot wash. Lotions can be bought from pharmacies and applied to the body to kill off the
parasites. Shaving off pubic hair will not necessarily get rid of crabs.

Epididymitis refers to inflammation of the epididymitis, a tube system above the testicles where sperm are
stored. It is not always the result of an STD, but if it is, it is usually due to the presence of Chlamydia or
Gonorrhoea. Symptoms will present themselves in the form of swollen and painful testicles and scrotum. The
best way of preventing it is to use condoms during sex, as this is the most effective way to prevent Chlamydia
and Gonorrhoea. Epididymitis itself cannot be passed on, though any other infections that may have caused
epididymitis can be passed on (see Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea sections). Treatment usually involves treating
the underlying infection with antibiotics.

17Fruitree   Books: 07956 323 559                                                                                    17
Genital herpes is caused by the herpes simplex virus. The virus can affect the mouth, the genital area, the
skin around the anus and the fingers. Once the first outbreak of herpes is over, the virus hides away in the
nerve fibres, where it remains totally undetected and causes no symptoms. Symptoms of the first infection
usually appear one to 26 days after exposure and last two to three weeks. Both men and women may have
one or more symptoms, including an itching or tingling sensation in the genital or anal area, small fluid-filled
blisters that can burst and leave small sores which can be very painful, pain when passing urine, if it passes
over any of the open sores and a flu-like illness, backache, headache, swollen glands or fever. Find out more
about genital herpes.

Genital warts are small fleshy growths which may appear anywhere on a man or woman's genital area. They
are caused by a virus called the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Warts can grow on the genitals, or on
different parts of the body, such as the hands. After you have been infected with the genital wart virus it
usually takes between 1 and 3 months for warts to appear on your genitals. You or your partner may notice
pinkish/white small lumps or larger cauliflower-shaped lumps on the genital area. Warts can appear around
the vulva, the penis, the scrotum or the anus. They may occur singly or in groups. They may itch, but are
usually painless. Often there are no other symptoms, and the warts may be difficult to see. If a woman has
warts on her cervix, this may cause slight bleeding or, very rarely, an unusual coloured vaginal discharge.
Find out more about genital warts.

Gonorrhoea is a bacterial infection. It is sexually transmitted and can infect the cervix, urethra, rectum, anus
and throat. Symptoms of infection may show up at anytime between 1 and 14 days after exposure. It is
possible to be infected with gonorrhoea and have no symptoms. Men are far more likely to notice symptoms
than women. Find out more about gonorrhoea.

Gut Infections can be passed on during sex. Two of the most common infections are Amoebiasis and
Giardiasis. They are bacterial infections, and when they reach your gut they can cause diarrhoea and
stomach pains. Gut infections can be passed on when having sex with someone who is infected, especially
during activities that involve contact with faeces, such as rimming and anal sex. Infection can be prevented
through using condoms, dental dams or latex gloves. Sex toys should be thoroughly cleaned after use and
hands washed after any contact with faeces. Anti-diarrhoea treatments should be enough to treat most
infections, but antibiotics can also be used.

Hepatitis causes the liver to become inflamed. There are various different types of hepatitis, the most
common being hepatitis A, B and C. Each of these viruses acts differently. Hepatitis can be caused by alcohol
and some drugs, but usually it is the result of a viral infection. Find out more about hepatitis.

Molluscum is a skin disease caused by the Molluscum Contagiosum Virus. It appears as small bumps on the
skin, and can last from a couple of weeks to a few years. Molluscum cause small, pearl-shaped bumps the
size of a freckle on the thighs, buttocks, genitalia and sometimes the face. They are passed on through body
contact during sex and through skin-to-skin contact. Transmission can help to be prevented by using
condoms, by avoiding skin-to-skin contact with someone who is infected and by not having sex until they have
been treated. In most cases molluscum do not need treatment and will disappear over time. However, they
can be frozen off or a chemical can be painted on.

Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                                                  18
Non-Specific Urethritis (NSU) is an inflammation of a man's urethra. This inflammation can be caused by
several different types of infection, the most common being Chlamydia. NSU may be experienced months or
even in some cases years into a relationship. The symptoms of NSU may include pain or a burning sensation
when passing urine, a white/cloudy fluid from the tip of the penis that may be more noticeable first thing in the
morning, feeling that you need to pass urine frequently. Often there may be no symptoms, but this does not
mean that you cannot pass the infection on to your partner(s). Find out more about NSU.

Scabies is caused by a parasitic mite that can get under the skin and cause itching. The mites are very small
and cannot be seen, and many people do not now they have them. They can cause itching, and this can start
between 2 to 6 weeks after infection. Signs of infection can be red lines under the skin of the hands, buttocks
and genitals. The most common way of becoming infected is through body contact during sex, though it is
also possible to be infected through sharing towels and clothes with someone who is infected. This route
however is uncommon. There is no effective way to prevent yourself becoming infected, though you can
prevent others becoming infected by washing clothes and bedding on a hot wash. Lotions can be bought from
pharmacies and applied to the body to kill off the parasites.

Syphilis is not a common infection in the UK but it is more common in some other countries. It is a bacterial
infection. It is usually sexually transmitted, but may also be passed from an infected mother to her unborn
child. The signs and symptoms of syphilis are the same in both men and women. They can be difficult to
recognise and may take up to 3 months to show after having sexual contact with an infected person. Syphilis
has several stages. The primary and secondary stages are very infectious. Find out more about syphilis.

Thrush, also known as Candiasis, is a yeast which lives on the skin and is normally kept in check by
harmless bacteria. If this yeast multiplies however, it can cause itching, swelling, soreness and discharge in
both men and women. Women may experience a thick white discharge and pain when passing urine. Men
may experience the same discharge in the penis and difficulty pulling back the foreskin. Thrush can be
passed on when having sex with someone who is infected, but also if you wear too tight nylon or lycra clothes
or if you are taking certain antibiotics. Sometimes the cause may be unclear however. Transmission can be
prevented by using condoms during sex and by men washing underneath their foreskin. Treatment for thrush
involves taking or applying anti fungal treatments. Thrush can reoccur, especially in women.

Trichomonas Vaginosis, also known as Trich is caused by a parasite that is found in women's vagina's and
men's urethra's. Often there are not any symptoms. If symptoms are present, they can include pain when
urinating and discharge in men and discharge, soreness when having sex and when urinating and
inflammation of the vulva in women. Transmission normally occurs through having oral, anal or vaginal sex
with an infected person. Treatment consists of taking antibiotics, and the infection should not reoccur.

19Fruitree   Books: 07956 323 559                                                                              19
Fat (also known as lipid) is one of the three classes of nutrients. The other two are proteins and
carbohydrates. The major function of fat is to provide energy for the body. Pound per pound, fat contains
more energy (calories) than protein and carbohydrates. There are three types of fat; triglycerides, cholesterol,
and phospholipids.

Fatty acids consist of chains of carbon atoms linked together by chemical bonds. On one end (terminal) of the
carbon chain is a methyl group (a cluster of carbon and hydrogen atoms). On the other terminal is a carboxyl
group (a cluster of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms). The chemical bonds between carbon atoms can be
either single or double bonds. Single bonds have more hydrogen molecules around them than double bonds.
These chemical bonds determine whether a fatty acid is saturated or unsaturated (see discussion below).
Fatty acids also come in different lengths: short chain fatty acids have fewer than 6 carbons, while long chain
fatty acids have 12 or more carbons.

Fatty acids serve as energy for the muscles, heart, and other organs as building blocks for cell membranes
and as energy storage for the body. Fatty acids that are not used up as energy are converted into
triglycerides. A triglyceride is a molecule formed by attaching three fatty acids onto a glycerol compound that
serves as a backbone. Triglycerides are then stored in the body as fat (adipose) tissue.

Saturated fatty acids contain single bonds only. Fats containing saturated fatty acids are called saturated fats.
Examples of foods high in saturated fats include lard, butter, whole milk, cream, eggs, red meat, chocolate,
and solid shortenings. An excess intake of saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and increase the risk of
developing coronary heart disease.

Monounsaturated fatty acids contain one double bond. Examples of foods high in monounsaturated fat
include avocados, nuts, and olive, peanut, and canola oils. Scientists believe that increased consumption of
monounsaturated fats (for example, eating more nuts) is beneficial in lowering LDL cholesterol (the "bad"
cholesterol) and lowering the risk of coronary heart disease, especially if monounsaturated fats are used to
substitute for saturated fats and refined sugars.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids contain more than one double bond. Examples of foods high in polyunsaturated
fats include vegetable oils, corn, sunflower, and soy.

Essential fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids that the human body needs for metabolic functioning but
cannot produce, and therefore has to be acquired from food.
Omega-3 fatty acids are a class of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids with the double bond in the third
carbon position from the methyl terminal (hence the use of "3" in their description). Foods high in omega-3
Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                                               20
fatty acids include salmon, halibut, sardines, albacore, trout, herring, walnut, flaxseed oil, and canola oil.
Other foods that contain omega-3 fatty acids include shrimp, clams, light chunk tuna, catfish, cod, and

Omega-6 fatty acids are a class of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids with the initial double bond in the
sixth carbon position from the methyl group (hence the "6"). Examples of foods rich in omega-6 fatty acids
include corn, safflower, sunflower, soybean, and cottonseed oil.

Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are also referred to as n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, respectively.
Trans fatty acids (Trans fats) are made through hydrogenation to solidify liquid oils. Heating omega-6 oils,
such as corn oil, to high temperatures creates Trans fats. Trans fats increase the shelf life of oils and are
found in vegetable shortenings and in some margarines, commercial pastries, fried foods, crackers, cookies,
and snack foods. The intake of Trans fatty acid an increase blood LDL-cholesterol (“bad” cholesterol),
decreases HDL cholesterol (“good cholesterol”), and raises the risk of coronary heart disease.
What are the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids?

Scientific evidence is mounting that fish oil (predominantly omega-3 fatty acids) can reduce the risk of sudden
cardiac death. Some scientists also believe that omega-3 fatty acids can improve one's blood lipid
(cholesterol and triglyceride) levels and decrease the risk of coronary heart disease.

Recommendations to prevent heart attacks
    Eat whole, natural, and fresh foods.
    Eat five to ten servings of fruits and vegetables daily and eat more peas, beans, and nuts.
    Increase intake of omega-3 fatty acids by eating more fish, walnuts, flaxseed oil, and green leafy
     vegetables. An example of meeting the recommended intake of omega-3 fats is to eat 2 salmon
     portions a week or 1 gram of omega-3-fatty acid supplement daily.
    Drink water, tea, non-fat dairy and red wine (two drinks or less daily for men, one drink or less daily for
    Eat lean protein such as skinless poultry, fish, and lean cuts of red meat.

Avoid Trans-fats and limit intake of saturated fats. This means avoiding fried foods, hard margarine,
commercial baked goods, and most packaged and processed snack foods, high fat dairy and processed
meats such as bacon, sausage, and deli meats.

Limit glycemic foods. Glycemic foods are those made with sugar and white flour, which increase blood sugar
levels. Increased blood sugar levels stimulate the pancreas to release insulin. Chronically high insulin levels
are believed to cause weight gain as well as atherosclerosis of the arteries.
Exercise daily.

21Fruitree   Books: 07956 323 559                                                                                21
                        Kwanzaa is an African American and Pan-African holiday which celebrates family,
                        community and culture. Celebrated from 26 December thru 1 January, its origins are
                        in the first harvest celebrations of Africa from which it takes its name. The name
                        Kwanzaa is derived from the phrase "matunda ya kwanza" which means "first fruits" in
                        Swahili, a Pan-African language which is the most widely spoken African language.

                        The first-fruits celebrations are recorded in African history as far back as ancient
                        Egypt and Nubia and appear in ancient and modern times in other classical African
                        civilizations such as Ashantiland and Yorubaland. These celebrations are also found
in ancient and modern times among societies as large as empires (the Zulu or kingdoms (Swaziland) or
smaller societies and groups like the Matabele, Thonga and Lovedu, all of southeastern Africa. Kwanzaa
builds on the five fundamental activities of Continental African "first fruit" celebrations: ingathering; reverence;
commemoration; recommitment; and celebration. Kwanzaa, then, is:

      a time of ingathering of the people to reaffirm the bonds between them;
      a time of special reverence for the creator and creation in thanks and respect for the blessings,
       bountifulness and beauty of creation;
      a time for commemoration of the past in pursuit of its lessons and in honor of its models of human
       excellence, our ancestors;
      a time of recommitment to our highest cultural ideals in our ongoing effort to always bring forth the best
       of African cultural thought and practice; and
      a time for celebration of the Good, the good of life and of existence itself, the good of family,
       community and culture, the good of the awesome and the ordinary, in a word the good of the divine,
       natural and social.

                                         The African American Branch

Rooted in this ancient history and culture, Kwanzaa develops as a flourishing branch of the African American
life and struggle as a recreated and expanded ancient tradition. Thus, it bears special characteristics only an
African American holiday but also a Pan-African one, For it draws from the cultures of various African
peoples, and is celebrated by millions of Africans throughout the world African community. Moreover, these
various African peoples celebrate Kwanzaa because it speaks not only to African Americans in a special way,
but also to Africans as a whole, in its stress on history, values, family, community and culture.

Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                                                    22
Kwanzaa was established in 1966 in the midst of the Black Freedom Movement and thus reflects its concern
for cultural groundedness in thought and practice, and the unity and self-determination associated with this. It
was conceived and established to serve several functions.

First, Kwanzaa was created to reaffirm and restore our rootedness in African culture. It is, therefore, an
expression of recovery and reconstruction of African culture which was being conducted in the general
context of the Black Liberation Movement of the '60's and in the specific context of The Organization Us, the
founding organization of Kwanzaa and the authoritative keeper of its tradition. Secondly, Kwanzaa was
created to serve as a regular communal celebration to reaffirm and reinforce the bonds between us as a
people. It was designed to be an ingathering to strengthen community and reaffirm common identity, purpose
and direction as a people and a world community. Thirdly, Kwanzaa was created to introduce and reinforce
the Nguzo Saba (the Seven Principles.) These seven communitarian African values are: Umoja (Unity),
Kujichagulia (Self-Determination), Ujima (Collective Work and Responsibility), Ujamaa (Cooperative
Economics), Nia (Purpose), Kuumba (Creativity), and Imani (Faith). This stress on the Nguzo Saba was at the
same time an emphasis on the importance of African communitarian values in general, which stress family,
community and culture and speak to the best of what it means to be African and human in the fullest sense.
And Kwanzaa was conceived as a fundamental and important way to introduce and reinforce these values
and cultivate appreciation for them.

Kwanzaa was created in 1966 by Dr. Maulana Karenga, professor, Department of Black Studies at
California State University, Long Beach, author and scholar-activist who stresses the indispensable need to
preserve, continually revitalize and promote African American culture.

Finally, it is important to note Kwanzaa is a cultural holiday, not a religious one, thus available to and
practiced by Africans of all religious faiths who come together based on the rich, ancient and varied common
ground of their Africanness.

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23Fruitree   Books: 07956 323 559                                                                             23
    Sweet Potato Fritters
            1 lb Sweet potatoes; peeled and coarsely shredded
            3 lg Eggs
            3 tsb Flour
            1 small Onion; coarsely shredded
            Vegetable oil for frying


     157 calories                  5 g fat
     5 g protein                  106 mg cholesterol
     23 g carbohydrate                217 mg sodium

    1. Spread potatoes and onion on clean dish towel; roll up, twisting towel to extract excess moisture
    from vegetables.

    2. In bowl, whisk eggs, flour, 1/2 t salt and 1/4 t pepper until smooth

    3. In large nonstick frying pan, heat 1/4 cup oil over medium-high heat. Add vegetables to batter; mix.
    Spoon mixture into skillet, allowing heaping 1 T for each fritter; with back of spoon, flatten slightly. Fry,
    six fritters at a time, 4 minutes. Turn; cook 2 to 4 minutes. Drain on paper towels; keep warm while
    frying remaining fritters, adding more oil if necessary.

    6-8 Servings

Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                                                  24
25Fruitree   Books: 07956 323 559   25
Before 1914, before there was ever a country called "Nigeria", the people in what is known as "Nigeria"
consisted of 4 different 'empires', some of them extending into parts that are not part of current-day Nigeria,
like parts of current-day Ghana, and current-day Cameroon.

THE NORTHERN EMPIRE was composed of the Borno empire, some Hausa states (Zazzau, Gobir, Kano,
Katsina, Birori, Daura) and some other groups (Gwari, Kebbi, Nupe, Yelwa...)

THE CALABAR KINGDOM is the oldest kingdom, and had the oldest contact with the Europeans. It is
believed to have been founded around 1000 A.D., and has the oldest chuch built in Nigeria dating back to
1850. The belief is that this kingdom was founded by twins, and it stretched into parts of current-day

THE ODUDUWA EMPIRE consisted of two main groups. One of them was the indigenous people, whose
central religious and cultural center was Ile-Ife, who now make up the Yoruba people. The other group were
the Berbels, who eventually formed the Hausa states and the Borno states. (This empire has a lot of
interesting stories and legends attached to it. For instance, Oduduwa is considered the creator of the earth,
and the ancestor of the Yoruba kings. According to myth, Oduduwa founded the city of Ife and dispatched his
sons to establish other cities, where they reigned as priest-kings and presided over cult rituals.)

THE BENIN EMPIRE was also powerful, and stretched to reach some of current-day Ghana. It was very well
known for it's African sculpturing.

In the 1800s, the British started to reside in parts of these kingdoms and empires. In 1914, Nigeria was
formed by combining the Northern and Southern Protectorates and the Colony of Lagos. For administrative
purposes, was divided into four units:


Some parts of current-day Cameroon were still considered part of Nigeria at that time.
Between 1914 and 1922, Nigeria was presided over by a Governor-General. In 1922, as part of the
constitution of the time, the British introduced the principle of direct election into the Legislative council.
On October 1 1960, Nigeria obtained it's independence. At this time, Northern and Southern Cameroon were
given the option of staying as part of Nigeria or leaving Nigeria. Southern Cameroon decided to leave Nigeria,
but Northern Cameroon stayed.

Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                                                 26
December 1, 1987 - Carrie Saxon                                                 December 21, 1911 - Baseball
Perry begins her term as the mayor      December 12, 1899 George F.             legend Josh Gibson born.
of Hartford, Conn., becoming first      Grant patents golf tree. 1950- Jesse
Black woman mayor of a major U.S.       Leroy Brown becomes first African       December 22, 1943 - W.E. B.
city.                                   American naval officer to die in        DuBois becomes the first African
                                        combat. 1992 - President Bill           American elected to the National
December 2, 1884 - Granville T.         Clinton's Cabinet and White House       Institute of Arts and Letters.
Woods patents telephone                 appointments include five Black men
transmitter.                            and one Black woman.                    December 23, 1869 - Madam C.J.
December 3, 1847 - Frederick                                                    Walker, businesswoman and first
Douglass publishes first issue of       December 13, 1944 - First African       African American woman millionaire,
North Star.                             American servicewomen sworn into        born.
                                        the WAVES.
December 4, 1909 - The New York                                                 December 24, 1832 - Charter
Amsterdam News is founded by            December 14, 1829 - John Mercer         granted to the Georgia Infirmary, the
James A. Anderson.                      Langston, congressman and founder       fist Black hospital.
                                        of Howard University Law
December 5, 1955 - Martin Luther        Department, born.                       December 25, 1760 - Jupiter
King, Jr. organizes Birmingham bus                                              Hammon becomes first published
boycott, marking the beginning of the   December 15, 1883 - William A.          Black poet with his poem, "An
Civil Rights Movement.                  Hinton, first African American on       Evening Thought".
December 6, 1932 Richard B.             Harvard Medical School faculty and
Spikes patents automatic gearshift.     developer of the Hinton test to         December 26, 1894 - Jean Toomer,
1936                                    detect syphilis, born. 1994 - Ruth J.   author of Cane, born.
- Richard Francis Jones becomes         Simmons named president of
first African American certified in     Smith College.                          December 27, 1862 - African
urology.                                                                        Methodist Episcopal Zion church
                                        December 16, 1976 - Andrew Young        founded in New Bern, North
December 7, 1941 - Dorie Miller,        nominated by President Jimmy            Carolina.
U.S. Navy, shoots down four             Carter to be U.S. Ambassador to the
Japanese planes during attach on        United Nations.                         December 28, 1905 - Earl "Fatha"
Pearl Harbor.                                                                   Hines, "Father of Modern Jazz
                                        December 17, 1802 - Teacher and         Piano", born.
December 8, 1925 - Entertainer          minister Henry Adams born.
Sammy Davis Jr. born.                   December 18, 1971 - Rev. Jesse          December 29, 1924 - Author,
December 9, 1872 - P.B.S.               Jackson founds Operation PUSH.          sportswriter A.S. "Doc" Young born.
Pinchback of Louisiana becomes
first African American governor in      December 19, 1875 - Educator            December 30, 1842 - Congressman
U.S.                                    Carter G. Woodson, "father of Black     Josiah Walls born.
                                        history", born.
December 10, 1950 - Dr. Ralph J.                                                December 31, 1930 - Odetta, blues
Bunche becomes first Black awarded      December 20, 1860 - South               and folk singer, born.
the Nobel Peace Prize.                  Carolina secedes from the Union.
December 11, 1938 - Jazz pianist
McCoy Tyner born.
27Fruitree    Books: 07956 323 559                                                                                 27
         Dr. Arthur Lewin. – Africa is Not a Country
         Find statistical information on the African Continent. It also
         features puzzles and games to help with learning. It also features
         puzzles and games to help with learning.

         In this charming book, children learn about colours and how they can
         be used. Primary and secondary colours are introduced by way of
         whimsical verse and familiar attractive images. Children will also
         identify with activities and scenes from their communities such as
         crossing the street, shopping, and playing out door.
         Oswald Gift - Afro Tots
         Afro tots were developed to build self-esteem, while portraying
         positive self images in an attempt to motivate African children to

         Eugene Winslow - Black Americans in Science and Engineering
         Throughout the history of the United States, many African
         Americans have made significant contributions to science and
         technology. These contributions have helped make life better, safer
         and more pleasant for all Americans.

Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                   28
             Tiki Barber, Ronde Barber – By My Brother’s Side £5.99
             Growing up, Tiki and Ronde were twins who were also best friends.
             They may not have been the strongest or the tallest in the
             neighbourhood, but they were fast and they always worked hard at
             what they loved. They especially worked hard at football. Then one
             day Tiki badly hurt his knee in a biking accident just before football
             season, and he was sure he'd never play again. That summer felt like
             the longest summer of Tiki's life, but through it all, with his
             brother at his side, he didn't give up. When the season began, they
             made the team -- together!
             Natasha Tarpley - I Love My Hair. £8.99
             A little African American girl named Keyana narrates this delightful
             story about celebrating your identity and accepting differences.
             Keyana describes her mother combing and styling her hair. She is
             upset about how uncomfortable and painful it is for her mother to
             do her hair; she wishes she had different hair. Her mother goes on
             to tell her how lucky she is to have her hair just the way it is. I Love
             My Hair is a great way to introduce children to embracing

                 Black Scientists & Inventors Book 1 (Paperback)
                 by Ava Henry, Michael Williams, Zikomo Wamakuta (Illustrator), Carol Cumberbatch

                   Black Scientists & Inventors Book 2 (Paperback)
                   by Michael Williams, Ava Henry

29Fruitree   Books: 07956 323 559                                                                   29
                 One Big Family: Sharing Life in an African Village (Paperback)
                 by Ifeoma Onyefulu (Photographer)

          African Punch-out Masks (Hardcover)
          by A.G.;Hazen Smith

                 J Is for Jamaica (Hardcover)
                 by Benjamin Zephaniah, Prodeepta Das

               Jamaica and Brianna (Paperback)
               by Juanita Havill, Anne Sibley O'Brien (Illustrator)

                 Do Like Kyla (Orchard Paperbacks) (Paperback)
                 by Angela Johnson (Author), James Ransome (Illustrator)

Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                     30
                          Masai and I (Picture Puffin S.) (Paperback)
                          by Virginia Kroll, Nancy Carpenter (Illustrator)

                Black British Cultural Studies: A Reader (Black Literature & Culture S.) (Paperback)
                by Houston A. Baker Jr. (Editor), Manthia Diawara (Editor), Ruth H. Lindeborg (Editor)

31Fruitree   Books: 07956 323 559                                                                        31
               African History for Young Beginners (Paperback)
               by Susan David

               Black Victorians: Black People in British Art, 1800-1900 (Hardcover)
               by Jan Marsh (Editor)

          Black London: Life Before Emancipation (Hardcover)
          by Gerzina Gretchen

           Windrush: The Irresistible Rise of Multi-racial Britain (Paperback)
           by Trevor Phillips, Mike Phillips

              Keep on Moving: "Windrush" Legacy - Black Experience in Britain from 1948
              by Tony Sewell

Fruitree Books: 07961 041 967                                                             32
33Fruitree   Books: 07956 323 559   33

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