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					 Art in the Information Age:
Technology and Conceptual Art
       by Edward A. Shanken



         報告人:李悅端
          11/31/2005
           About Edward A. Shanken

專研藝術史,主要的研究領域在20世紀的實驗性藝術。現為美國杜克
大學 Information Science + Information Studies program (ISIS) 主席
Recent and forthcoming publications include essays on art and cybernetics,,
telematic art, artificial life and art, and interactive multimedia.

• 最近擔任編輯者出版的新書:
  “Telematic Embrace: Visionary Theories of Art, Technology, and
Consciousness?” : 收錄Roy Ascott 近年來重要發表的文章。

個人小史 (取材自 http://www.aas.duke.edu/news/administration/shanken.php 2003):
• Born: Philadelphia, PA. Raised: Phoenix, AZ.
• Education:
   - BA, Haverford College, 1986
   - MBA, Yale School of Organization and Management, 1990
   - Ph.D., Duke University, art history, 2001
• Life Before Duke:
   - Lower East Side Community Music Workshop, New York,1986-88
   - National Endowment for the Arts administration fellow, Washington, 1991
   - Goldman Sachs, Fixed Income Group, 1992-93
• Last vacation: Jamaica, February 2002.
• Last books read for pleasure:
   - “The Wind-Up Bird Chronicles,” by Haruki Murakami;
   - “The Life of Pi,” by Yann Martell; “American Pastoral,” by Philip Roth.
• Last movie/performance seen: "Talk to Her"; The Stuntnuts; the Boston Philharmonic.
• Listening lately to: John Coltrane, Natacha Atlas, Flaresound Jazzybeats
             Abstract
藝術史學家們經常將概念藝術和科技藝術視為兩個涇
渭分明的藝術領域。本文則以藝術評論者Jack Burnham
和他所策展的Software exhibition中相關的藝術家為主,
來重新檢視這兩個趨勢在60年代發展時的交互關係。
六件不同範疇的作品會被討論。

作者認為概念藝術和科技藝術兩者有重要的共同性。
並透過檢視兩者的關係,在工業社會機械時代到後工
業社會資訊時代的脈絡中,提供了一個重要的基礎來
重新思考兩者如何反映及影響當時社會文化。
                            Index
•   The emerging art
    From E.A.T. to Software exhibition in 60s

•   The Definitions of Terminology:
    - Conceptual Art and Art-and-Technology

•   Art as Software: Software exhibition
     - Jack Burnham, Les Levine, Hans Haacke and Joseph
    Kosuth

•   Conceptual Art vs. Art-and-Technology
    -- From Resistance to Parallels between Conceptual Art
    and Art-and-Technology

•   Conclusion
                                     Timeline
                       E.A.T., A&T and Software Exhibition
•   1966, E.A.T.(Experiments in Art and Technology)
     -- Artist Robert Rauschenberg & engineer Billy Kluver organized in NY

•   1968, Pontus Hulten organized an exhibition on art and technology in MOMA
     -- The Machine: As Seen at the end of Mechanical Age
     from Leonardo da Vinci’s drawing of flying Machines to artist-engineers collaboration(E.A.T)

•   1968, Cybernetic Serendipity, Institute of Contemporary Art, London
     -- “資訊技術的藝術運用” 發展初期的一個重要指標性展覽
     -- 以討論電腦和創造力的關係為主 ( computers and creativity )
     -- 展覽作品仍以科技發展和產品為主,例如機器人和電腦繪圖


•   1970, Pepsi Pavilion at Osaka World’s Fair(E.A.T)
     (大阪舉行的世界博覽會)
     Collaborative projects produced under A&T Program
     at American Pavilion, Osaka (A&T)

•   1970, Software, Information Technology: Its New Meaning for Art,
     curetted by Jack Burnham, at the Jewish Museum , New York
        Software, Information Technology:
             Its New Meaning for Art
•   The first major US art-and technology exhibition that
    attempted to utilize computers in a museum context
    第一個在美國博物館運用電腦,以科技藝術為主題的展覽




•    The parallels btw Ephemeral programs, protocols of
    computer software and dematerialized forms of
    experimental art

•   Included works by conceptual artists: Les Levine, Hans
    Haacke and Joseph Kosuth
                    And~
• Labyrinth: Ned Woodman and Ted Nelson
  - The first public exhibition of hypertext

• SEEK: Nicholas Negroponte and The
  Architecture Machine Group, MIT
  - a model of intelligent architecture
                     The Definitions of
                 Conceptual Art
              Edward A. Shanken對觀念藝術的定義

    Resisting the formalism, analyze the ideas underlying
                 the creation and reception of art

•    Utilized text as a strategic device to examine the gap
     between visual and verbal languages as semiotic
     systems, and to investigate networks of signification
     and the mode of knowledge

•    De-emphasize the value traditionally accorded to the
     materiality of art objects(by interrogating the
     relationship btw art and ideas)
                          The Definitions of
                Art-and-Technology
                Edward A. Shanken對科技藝術的定義

•    Focuses its inquiry on the materials and/or concepts
     of technology and science

•    Aesthetic examination of the visual forms of science
     and technology

•    Application of science and technology in order to
     create visual forms

It examines the social and aesthetic implications of technological media that
     define, package and distribute information
                                  Jack Burnham
•    As a fellow at the Center for Advanced Visual Studies
    (CAVS) at MIT,1968-1969

•    The Aesthetics of Intelligent Systems
    -- how a dialogue evolves btw the participants– the computer program and the human
    subject – (“eventual two–way communication”)


•   ”Systems Esthetics”(1968), “Real Time Systems”(1969)

•   “Alice’s Head”, 1970
    The interactive feedback of information amongst systems and their components in global fields, in
    which there is "no logical separation between the mind of the perceiver and the environment.“
                     Jack Burnham: Software

•   Ideas of “Software” and “information technology” as
    metaphor for art
    - Software – aesthetic principle, concepts and programs
    - Hardware – art objects


•   an attempt to produce aesthetic sensations without the
    intervening 'object‘

•   paralleling to the aesthetic concepts of the actual art
    objects, which in turn parallel "hardware”.
                   Les Levine




• born in Dublin, Ireland in 1935.
• Systems Burn-Off x Residual Software at Jewish
  Museum, 1969
                  Les Levine




•   the artwork as an object was secondary to the
    expression of an idea that becomes reality by
    simulating it

•   Systems Burn-Off was art as information about
    information about art
                      Les Levine

All activities which have no connection with object or material
mass are the result of software. Images themselves are hardware.
Information about these images is software... In many cases an
object is of much less value than the software concerning the
object. The object is the end of a system. The software is an open
continuing system. The experience of seeing something first hand
is no longer of value in a software controlled society, as anything
seen through the media carries just as much energy as first hand
experience. We do not question whether the things that happen on
radio or television have actually occurred. The fact that we can
confront them mentally through electronics is sufficient for us to
know that they exist... In the same way, most of the art that is
produced today ends up as information about art.
                Hans Haacke




• German Installation Artist, born in 1936
• 1968, Photo-Electric Viewer-Programmed
        Coordinate System
• 1969, Visitors' Profile
• 1971, News
     Hans Haacke

• Visitors' Profile and News –

     Real Time Systems

   Ideal time & Real time
    Hans Haacke




                                 The poll in MOMA




•   News, Hans Haacke, 1969/70
                           Hans Haacke




•   Visitors' Profile, Directions 3, Hans Haacke , 1971
    Eight Artists, Milwaukee Art Centre, June 19 through August 8, 1971
                    Joseph Kosuth

• Born in Toledo, Ohio 1945.

• the work not be able to be reduced
  to a mental image, but that it exist
  as information free of any
  iconography

• The art consists of the action of
  placing this activity (investigation)
  in an art context
                   Joseph Kosuth
Seventh Investigation (Art as Idea as Idea) Proposition One

    •   著名的 Investigations 系列,將展示作品分為三大部分,一為實體,
        一為實物攝影圖像,另一部分為字典上對此物件的定義。
    •   以此透過視覺和文字的語言脈絡來探討藝術的本質(images, iconic
        and verbal symbols, objects)
                                     Joseph Kosuth
                               The Art as Idea as Idea series




1967, Titled (Art as Idea as Idea)     1967, Titled (Art as Idea as    1966, Titled (Art as Idea as
    [Art] 1967                             Idea), [Define, Definite,       Idea),[Water]
                                           Definition, Definitive]
      Joseph Kosuth




Joseph Kosuth, "It was it" No. 4, 1986;
phototext by Sigmund Freud from
    "Psychopathologie of Everyday Life" with
    Neon "Description of the same content twice
    / It was it"; white neon letters and blue neon-
    line; size 125 x 267 cm
                      Why
     Conceptual Art and Art-and-Technology
       becomes fixed as distinct categories


•   Technical failure of art-and-technology exhibition

•   Widespread skepticism towards the artistic use of
    technology after war

•   The development of conceptual art in 70s
                 The Resistance
    btw Conceptual Art and Art-and-Technology


•   “Fascination with design and technology might be
    significantly injected artistic modernism. The boot
    was on the other foot, however”(~Charles Harrison)

•   Physicality of the materials might dominate the idea
    of the work (~Sol Lewitt)

•   Pop-Art and Art-and-Technology: appealing to the
    masses (Art-democratised-as-light-shows-or-cyberneticised-life-style )
           The Fluidity and Continuity
    btw Conceptual Art and Art-and-Technology

•     The conceptual artists concerns with process, real-
      time interaction
      -- Schoffer, Seawright, Sheridan, Krueger and etc.

•     The Artists applied a conceptual approach to exploring
      technological ideas
      -- Roy Ascott

•     Exemplified the complications and conflicts at the
      intersection of these two categories
      -- Sol Lewitt
         Nicolas Schoffer
          (1912-1992)




Tour Lumière Cybernétique de Paris La Défense, 1970
    James Seawright
•   one of the foremost
    technological
    artists since the late
    1960's




                    Ursa Major, 2001
                            Roy Ascott
•   President, The Planetary Collegium ; Director
    CAiiA-Hub; Professor of Technoetic Arts,
    University of Plymouth.

•   Pioneering the place of cybernetics and
    telematics in art, Roy Ascott has been working
    with issues of art, technology and consciousness
    since the 1960s.

•   Seminal projects include:
    Terminal Art, USA/UK, 1980;
    La Plissure du Texte, Electra, Paris 1983;
    Planetary Network, Venice Biennale, 1986;
    Aspects of Gaia, Ars Electronica Linz 1989;
    Art-ID/Cyb-ID, Biennal do Mercosul,
    Brazil,1999;
    Moist Manifesto, gr2000az, Graz. 2000.
                   Roy Ascott
            Cybernetic vision 1966
     Roy Ascott | Cybernetic Vision <1966>




Viewer-participants interacting with Aspects of Gaia: Digital
Pathways Across the Whole Earth at Ars Electronica
               Sol Lewitt
     “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art”
         Artforum (June, 1967)

…. new material are one of the great afflication
of contempary art… The danger is, I think, in
making the physicality of the materials so
important that it becomes th eidea of the work”
                      Sol Lewitt

•   American Minimalist Conceptual
    Artist, born in 1928

•   Pioneered the Conceptual art
    movement in the mid-1960s

•   Emphasizing ideas for the          Sol LeWitt during installation of Wall
                                       Drawing No. 681 C at the National
    generation of art rather than      Gallery of Art
                                       --
    working from physical materials.   http://www.nga.gov/education/classroo
                                       m/new_angles/bio_lewitt.shtm
                 Sol Lewitt
      “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art”
          Artforum (June, 1967)

"No matter what form it may finally have it must
begin with an idea," and, "When an artist uses a
conceptual form of art, it means that all of the
planning and decisions are made beforehand and the
execution is a perfunctory affair. The idea becomes a
machine that makes the art."
             Sol Lewitt
 SERIAL PROJECT #1, 1966 / SOL LEWITT
http://www.ubu.com/aspen/aspen5and6/serialProject.html
           Art & Language Group
                   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_&_Language



•   Art & Language is a group of conceptual artists who have
    produced collaborative work under this name since the late 1960s.

•   The name Art & Language was first used in 1968 by the British
    artists Terry Atkinson, David Bainbridge, Michael Baldwin and
    Harold Hurrell, who had been collaborating on works since
    around 1966

•   Their early work, as well as their journal Art-Language which
    first appeared in 1969, is regarded as an important influence on
    much conceptual art both in the United Kingdom and in the
    United States
           Art & Language Group
In challenging the systems of knowledge that structure
scientific of methods and conventional aesthetic values,
these works have much in common with the objectives
of arty-and-technology
      •   Cybernetic Artwork the Nobody Broke
          -- Harold Hurrel

      •   Lecher System System(1969--1970)
          -- David Bainbridge

      •   22 sentences: The French Army
          -- Terry Atkinson, David Bainbridge
  Art & Language Group

• Cybernetic Artwork the Nobody Broke
             -- Harold Hurrel


 「YOU HAVE NOTHING, OBEY
     INSTRUCTIONS!」。

     「ERROR AT STEP 3.2」
                                Art & Language Group

       • Lecher System System
         (1969--1970)
          -- David Bainbridge


   •      Sculptural morphology
   •      Electromagnetic morphology


     III/Abb. 8: Bainbridge, David: Lecher System, elektronische
    Installation (Gestell, Oszillator, Taschenlampenbirne, Schieber,
elektronische Drähte), öffentliche Erstrealisation: Gruppenausst. "Idea
  Structures", Camden Arts Centre, London, Juni 1970. Foto: Archiv
                            Art & Language.
Art & Language Group

• 22 sentences: The French Army
  -- Terry Atkinson, David Bainbridge

The context of identity statements in which
collection of men and machines appears as
a covering concept is a relativistic one.
Identity is not simply built into that
concept. The "sense" of identity is
contrasted with the constitutive one.
                   Art & Language Group
                            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_&_Language


•   The international
    Documenta
    exhibitions of 1972

•   Artist: Atkinson,
    Bainbridge, Baldwin,
    Hurrell, Pilkington
    and Rushton and the
    then America editor
    of Art-Language
    Joseph Kosuth.

•   In 1986, the remnants
    of the group were
    nominated for the
    Turner Prize.

                            documenta 6, 24 June - 2 October 1977, artistic director Manfred Schneckenburger
                       More…
• Gustav Metzger- theory of auto-destructive art (1959)

• Tinguely- Homage to New York (1960)

• Nam June Paik & Shuya Abe- Robot K-456 (1964)

• Oyvind Fahlstrom- Kisses Sweeter than Wine (1966)
Tinguely- Homage to New York (1960)
Nam June Paik & Shuya Abe- Robot K-456 (1964)
Conceptual Art vs. Art-and-Technology

  •   Artists’ use of technology

  •   Harrison vs. Burnham
      -- Systematic approaches of conceptual
      art → Systematic relationship btw
      technology and conceptual art

  •   A& L’s Index – kind of manual
      hypertext system
              Conclusion

“Information processing technology
influences our notions about creativity,
perception, and the limits of art ... It ... is
probably not the province of computers
and other telecommunication devices to
produce works of art as we know it; but
they will, in fact be instrumental in
redefining the entire area of esthetic
awareness.“ (Jack Burnham)
         Questions

•   在科技的日新月異快速發展下,科技藝術
    的特性和邊界存在嗎?

				
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