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     Forces & Motion
         Ms. Lovelace 2012
GPS - S8P3. Students will investigate
relationship between force, mass, and the
motion of objects.
a. Determine the relationship between
  velocity and acceleration.

Essential Question
• How do you know if an object has
  changed position?
          Opening Activity
        Review Science Syllabus
       Review Rituals & Routines
Complete Go 4 Square Vocabulary Handout
              Science Statements
1. Matter is made of atoms and molecules.
2. Matter is anything that takes of space and has mass.
3. Matter can never be created or destroyed
4. What goes into a reaction must come out – atom by atom. (You can
   never have more than you started with)
5. Matter comes in four states: solid, liquid, gas, plasma.
6. Phase changes happen when certain temperature points are
7. Sometimes a liquid wants to become a solid when energy is
   removed (phase change liquid to solid)
8. The molecules in a solid state are tightly packed, they vibrate, have a
   definite shape and a definite volume. They are very difficult to
9. The molecules in a liquid state, take the shape of the container, but
   have a definite volume.
10. The molecules in a liquid move freely past each other.
 Science Statements continued
11. The number of atoms and the mass of the atoms do not
  change with changes in temperature.
12. The temperature of a substance is directly related to
  the average speed of its atoms/molecules.
13. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but it can
  be transferred and/or transformed.
14. Within a system, one form of energy can be
  transformed into one or more other forms of energy.
15. Any form of energy can be transformed to other forms
  of energy and any form of energy can result from a
 Science Statements continued
16. Potential Energy - An object has energy
  due to its position above the ground. The
  higher an object is from the ground, the
  more energy it has.
17. Kinetic Energy – An object in motion
 has energy. The faster something is
 moving, the more energy it has.
18. The faster the motion of the particles,
 the hotter the object
 Science Statements continued
19. Energy carried by waves includes light,
  microwaves, radio waves, and X-rays
20. Energy created from moving electrons
 (parts of an atom) such as Electricity can
  only travel in special types of materials
  known as conductors
21. Energy that is created when chemical
   bonds are broken can be seen in the form
  of a change (bubbling)
             Work Period
• Update Portfolio – Students will add
  assignments to their portfolio, make
  corrections, and complete a reflection on
  each assignment.
          Science Starter
Heat Energy
                 Turning The Dial
Professor Hunter is boiling water on the stove. She turns the
temperature dial up to high to boil the water. The water is
boiling vigorously with large bubbles quickly forming and
bursting at the surface. Professor Hunter then turns the dial of
the stove down to low. The water is boiling gently, with smaller
bubbles slowly forming and bursting at the surface. Professor
Hunter’s student, Michael, wonders if the boiling temperature
changes when she turns the dial down. What would you tell
Cooper? Write the best answer and explain reasoning.

A. The boiling temperature is greater when the dial is set at
B. The boiling temperature is greater when the dial is set at low.
C. The boiling temperature is the same at both settings.
         Turning the Dial
• The best response is C. The boiling
  temperature is the same at both
• Temperature is a measure of the
  average kinetic energy of the molecules
  in a system.
• When heat energy is applied to a liquid,
  the kinetic energy of the molecules
• The motion, and hence the temperature
  of the liquid reaches its boiling point.
              What is motion?
What do you Know        Want to know

On the right side of
your IAN
Take 3 minutes to
write down everything
you know and want to
know about motion.
Minimum 3 facts in
each column
         Force and Motion
• Benchmark Pre –Test
Students will complete a Force & Motion
  Pre-Test-10-question benchmark pre-test.
      Write Motion Cornel Notes
1.    What is motion?
2.    What are 3 examples of motion.
3.    What is a point of reference?
4.    Sketch an example of motion.
5.    Explain figure 2 pg. 283
6.    Compare displacement and distance.
7.    Define speed.
8.    Write formula for speed
9.    Copy Applying math steps, complete practice
10.   Compare average speed and instantaneous speed
11.   How can you represent the motion of an object on a
      graph? What type of graph?
12.   Complete figure 5 page. 286
13.   Compare speed and velocity
14.   Complete Section 1 review 1 - 5
          Closing Activity
• Create a Double Bubble Map, comparing
  Speed and Velocity.
GPS - S8P3. Students will investigate
relationship between force, mass, and the
motion of objects.
a. Determine the relationship between
  velocity and acceleration.

Essential Question
• When does the line on a distance-time
  graph become steeper?
     Motion Definition
Event that involves a change in
  the position or location of
           Types of Motion
• Uniform motion - constant speed in a
  straight line
• Accelerated motion – motion that is
  changing in speed or direction
• Circular motion - speed is constant but the
  direction of motion is changing
          Launch Lab pg 281
• Write the labs title
• Develop a hypothesis
If the _____ and or _____ of an object is changed
   then the collision will _________.
• List the materials needed
• Write the procedures
• Make a data table, sketch your observations
• Think critically
      Motion After a Collision
• How is it possible for a 70-kg football
  player to knock down a 110-kg football
• The smaller player usually must be
  running faster. Mass makes a difference
  when two objects collide, but the speed of
  the objects also matters.
• Explore the behavior of colliding objects.
• Make three columns in your log book
  student side.
• Make 5 entries for each column
• Column 1 Kinds of Movements
• Column 2 How U know it Moved
• Column 3 Moved Quickly or Slowly
           It’s Track Season!

• Picture yourself competing in a 100-m
• You begin just behind the start line
• When you pass the finish line, you are 100
  m from the start line.
• If the start line is your reference point, then
  your position has changed by 100 m
  relative to the start line, and motion has
           Motion is Relative
            (teacher side)
• Relative – it is described compared to a
• Look at Figure 2 page 283
• Sketch the two pictures.
• Explain how the position of the dog
• How do you know if an object has
  changed position?
    Distance and Displacement
•   Suppose you are to meet your friends at the
    park in five minutes.
•   Can you get there on time by walking, or
    should you ride your bike?
•   What would you need to know to calculate this?
•   Ans: If you said that you needed to know the
    distance you will travel to get to the park. You
    are correct!
•   What is distance?
•   Ans. Distance is the length of the route you will
    travel from your house to the park.
   Distance and Displacement
• Suppose the distance you traveled from your
  house to the park was 200 m. When you get to
  the park, how would you describe your location?
• Ans: You would say that your location was 200 m
  from your house.
• However your final position depends on both the
  distance you travel and the direction. This is
  know as displacement.
• Look at Figure pg 283. Compare the diagrams
• Brain Pop Distance, Rate and Time
GPS - S8P3. Students will investigate
relationship between force, mass, and the
motion of objects.
• a. Determine the relationship between
  velocity and acceleration.

Essential Question
• How is average speed calculated?
        Describe SPEED and

Seconds Remaining:   140
• SPEED - is the rate of motion, or the
 rate of change of position;
  – a measurement of distance traveled over
  – calculated by dividing the distance traveled
    by the time taken
• VELOCITY - measurement of the rate
  and direction of motion
  – an object's speed and direction of motion
            Mr. Birdley
     Speed, Distance, and Time
Before you read
1. Define Speed
2. What units are used to measure
   distance? Meter (m)
3. What units are used to measure time?
4. What different types of graphs might be
   used to show data?
     Speed, Distance, and Time
             Dr. Birdley
             Calling all actors!

Characters: Dean Owelle, Phyll, Dr. Birdley,
Props: Skates
            Performance Time!
            Read loud and clear
         After You’ve Read
1. How did Dean Owelle define speed?
2. What is a slope?
3. Look at the panel where Clarissa speeds
   up. What do you notice about the slope
   of her line in the graph at that point?
             Solving For Speed
A train travels a distance (d) of 500 meters in a
    time (t) of 50 seconds. What is the speed (s)?

1. Write out the formula   1. S = d / t           D
   you are using.
2. Write down all your     2. D = 500m        S       T
   known quantities.          t = 50s
3. Substitute these        3. S = 500 m/50s
   quantities into the
4. Solve                   4. S = 10 m / s
          What is the Speed?
• A dinosaur walks 600    •   S=d/t
  meters in 30 seconds.   •   D=
  What is the speed?      •   T=
   Show each              •   S = _____ / ____
                          •   Solve
                          •   S = _____
  You can also find speed by finding
    the slope of a line on a graph
1. Pick two points with
   coordinates (x1,y1) and (x2,
2. This graphs shows what
   points? (2,4) & (4,8)
              Speed Trials
• Problem: To calculate speed
• Background Information: Motion is a
  change in position measured by distance
  and time.
• Speed is the rate of change in position.
  Speed combines information about how
  far an object moves (distance) with how
  long it takes to move that distance (time).
         Distance and Time
• Speed is the rate at which an object
           Speed = distance ÷ time
• Distance and Time can also be calculated
  with these formulas:
          Distance = speed X time
   D      Time = distance ÷ speed

S    T
                                    Speed Trials
Problem: Which Speed is the Greatest?
•   Stopwatch 1m board Wood blocks; Toy car Calculator

1. Use three textbooks and the board to build a ramp
2. Put the toy car at the top of the ramp, with the front wheels
   behind the edge of the board.
3. On the signal, release the toy car so that it rolls down the
   ramp AND start the stopwatch.
4. Stop timing when the back wheels of the toy car leave the
   end of the ramp.
5. Record the data.
6. Repeat the procedure for a total of 5 times.
7. Average the data.
Trial   Distance Time (sec)   Speed m/s
3 books    (m)
1       1
2         1
3         1
4         1
5         1
• 1. Use your textbook to describe:
     a. Average speed b. Instantaneous speed

    c. Constant speed

• 2. How is instantaneous speed different from
      average speed?

• 3. If you drive 200 miles in 3 hours before
       stopping for 30 minutes for lunch and gas.
       After lunch you travel 150 miles in an hour
       and a half. What was your average speed for
       the trip? Show your work. Sketch a graph!
             Average Speed
• Comparison of time and distance
  – A scalar quantity [magnitude only]
  – Distance traveled per unit time


         Instantaneous Speed
• Speed at any instant
            Constant Speed
• Speed that does not change
  – Instantaneous speed that does not change
Speed Graphs
 Dr. Birdley Speed on a Graph
• Write and answer Study Questions pg. 15
  - 16
• Be prepared to defend your responses.
• Vocabulary Build Up
• Read pg. 17 and complete
• Speed AND direction
  – A vector quantity [magnitude & direction]
• A change in velocity
  – Speeding up
     • Positive acceleration
  – Slowing down
     • Negative acceleration
     • Deceleration
  – Changing direction
ENGAGE: What do you know about speed?
•   Materials: a marble (or toy car), a meter stick,
    masking tape and a stopwatch
•   Task: Find the speed of the marble by timing
    how long it takes to travel a meter.
•   Practice rolling the marble along the path of
    the meter stick for a few times, then start
    rolling it a little before the meter stick begins.
    When the marble reaches the start of the
    meter stick, begin timing. Stop when it reaches
    the end.
•   Record observations and timings
               And Velocity?
• Which direction was the marble moving?
• Velocity is speed with direction.
• Now try to roll the marble and change its speed
  without changing its direction.
• Attempt to roll the marble, then try to change its
  direction but not its speed.
• Now roll the marble, then change its direction
  and speed.
• Acceleration is a change in velocity, which can
  be a change in speed, direction or both.
  Describing Motion with Words
• Speed refers to "how fast an object is moving."
  Speed can be thought of as the rate at which an
  object covers distance.
• A fast-moving object has a high speed and
  covers a relatively large distance in a short
  amount of time.
• A slow-moving object has a low speed and
  covers a relatively small amount of distance in a
  short amount of time.
• An object with no movement at all has a zero
       Acceleration vs. Velocity
• Acceleration                   • Velocity
   – Change in velocity and/or      – Speed with direction
     direction                   • Always includes a
   – Acceleration is measured      reference direction
     in meters per second per
     second (m/s/s)                 – Example: 600 km/h south
                                      (plane travels)
• Negative acceleration
  (slowing down or                  – Constant velocity: always
  change in direction)-               moving along a straight
  decrease in velocity                line
   – Positive acceleration
   – (Speeding up-velocity
      Acceleration vs. Velocity
      Examples of                  How Velocities Change
A plane taking off                 Increase in speed –
                                   same direction (positive)
A car stopping at a stop           Decrease in speed and
sign                               direction (negative)
Walking then jogging on Speed and direction are the
a tread mill             same (constant)- the speed
                                   and direction don’t change –
                                   you are staying in the same

          Holt: Physical Science
   Speed, velocity and acceleration
• View the animation – describe the motion of each car:
   – Which cars are accelerating? Greatest acceleration?
   – Constant speed?

• Complete section review pg 287
• Write complete question and complete
• Try at home pg 285
• Let the Race Begin
  – Bring in empty cereal box, glue, rubber bands
         EXPLORE: Graphing
           Student Motion
• Arrange the instructions in order.
         Cookbook to Inquiry Strategy:
1.   Using the instructions in the envelope, arrange the steps of the lab in the
     order that makes the most sense.
2.   Assign students in the group roles: runner (1), time keepers (5), data
     recorder (1).
3.   Determine the distance interval to be measured and mark off with tape.
4.   Determine the IV, DV, CV and constants for the lab before collecting data.
5.   Five students with stopwatches should stand at uniform intervals of 1 – 3
     meters. The student who is running (or walking fast) begins at the starting
6.   When the runner is ready, he/she shouts, “Go!” All timers start their
     stopwatches and the runner begins to walk very slowly at first and
     increases his/her speed at a uniform at rate.
7.   When the runner passes a timer, that timer stops his/her watch.
8.   Record the data in the table using metric units. Round calculated
     measurements to the nearest 10th.
9.   Make a distance vs. time graph on the whiteboard. (Graph distance on
     the y and time on the x). Draw a line of best fit for the data.
    Graphing Student Motion
• Groups of 7
• Variables:
  – IV – time
  – DV – change in position
  – Constants -
• Roles:
  – 5 Timekeepers
  – Runner
  – Data Collector
Cookbook to Inquiry Strategy: Data
• Graphing Student Motion: Collect data;
  make graph on whiteboard; share results
  with class – page 4
• Tumble Buggy Lab: Give only the
  procedure, students develop data chart –
  page 1 & 2
• Design an Investigation: Involve students
  in activities where they generate questions
  to investigate – page 3
• Increasing the level of inquiry
• Friction is a force that opposes motion, or
  makes it difficult for an object to move
  across a surface.
• The amount of friction depends on the
  surface type and the force pressing two
  surfaces together.
           T- Chart - Sports
• Reducing the amount • Increasing the amount
  of friction is helpful of friction is helpful
  Extend: Investigating Friction
• You are part of the design crew for a new race track.
  The team is considering adding an incline to the track.
  Design an experiment using the following materials to
  assist the team in determining the best height and
  material for the incline. Be sure to get approval before
  beginning experiment.

Design an experiment using the following materials:
  Ramp      Match box cars      Stopwatch
  Various Surfaces: sand paper, carpet, towel, wax paper
  Marbles          Protractor    Meter stick
        Acceleration or NOT?
• You are riding your bike at 9 km/h. Ten minutes
  later, your speed is 6 km/h.
• (Acceleration occurred because speed
• You ride your bike around the block at a
  constant speed of 11 km/h.
• (Acceleration occurred because direction
• You ride your bike in a straight line at a constant
  speed of 10 km/h.
• (No acceleration occurred because neither
  speed nor direction changed.)
Compare and Contrast Web

       Acceleration        Velocity



O   The
C   Last
I   Word

                  Outline 10.2
I. What is motion
  A. Matter and Motion
   • 1. all matter is constantly in motion
   B. Changing Position
      1. Something in motion if it is changing position.
              Science Starter
            Define MOTION

Seconds Remaining:   140
Change in position of an
 object relative to a reference
                  Review Homework
 • Try at home pg 285 Measuring Average Speed.
 • Write as lab report, title, materials, procedures, data,
 Data Table
                  Average Speed Walking

           Trial 1           Trial 2           Trial 3           Trial 4           Avg
           Time              Time              Time              Time
                  Distance          Distance          Distance          Distance
           S         m S               m S               m S               m

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