# Speed

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```					Motion

Forces & Motion
Ms. Lovelace 2012
GPS - S8P3. Students will investigate
relationship between force, mass, and the
motion of objects.
a. Determine the relationship between
velocity and acceleration.

Essential Question
• How do you know if an object has
changed position?
Opening Activity
Review Science Syllabus
Review Rituals & Routines
Homework
Complete Go 4 Square Vocabulary Handout
Science Statements
1. Matter is made of atoms and molecules.
2. Matter is anything that takes of space and has mass.
3. Matter can never be created or destroyed
4. What goes into a reaction must come out – atom by atom. (You can
never have more than you started with)
5. Matter comes in four states: solid, liquid, gas, plasma.
6. Phase changes happen when certain temperature points are
reached.
7. Sometimes a liquid wants to become a solid when energy is
removed (phase change liquid to solid)
8. The molecules in a solid state are tightly packed, they vibrate, have a
definite shape and a definite volume. They are very difficult to
compress.
9. The molecules in a liquid state, take the shape of the container, but
have a definite volume.
10. The molecules in a liquid move freely past each other.
Science Statements continued
11. The number of atoms and the mass of the atoms do not
change with changes in temperature.
12. The temperature of a substance is directly related to
the average speed of its atoms/molecules.
13. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but it can
be transferred and/or transformed.
14. Within a system, one form of energy can be
transformed into one or more other forms of energy.
15. Any form of energy can be transformed to other forms
of energy and any form of energy can result from a
transformation.
Science Statements continued
16. Potential Energy - An object has energy
due to its position above the ground. The
higher an object is from the ground, the
more energy it has.
17. Kinetic Energy – An object in motion
has energy. The faster something is
moving, the more energy it has.
18. The faster the motion of the particles,
the hotter the object
Science Statements continued
19. Energy carried by waves includes light,
microwaves, radio waves, and X-rays
20. Energy created from moving electrons
(parts of an atom) such as Electricity can
only travel in special types of materials
known as conductors
21. Energy that is created when chemical
bonds are broken can be seen in the form
of a change (bubbling)
Work Period
• Update Portfolio – Students will add
assignments to their portfolio, make
corrections, and complete a reflection on
each assignment.
Science Starter
Heat Energy
Turning The Dial
Professor Hunter is boiling water on the stove. She turns the
temperature dial up to high to boil the water. The water is
boiling vigorously with large bubbles quickly forming and
bursting at the surface. Professor Hunter then turns the dial of
the stove down to low. The water is boiling gently, with smaller
bubbles slowly forming and bursting at the surface. Professor
Hunter’s student, Michael, wonders if the boiling temperature
changes when she turns the dial down. What would you tell
Cooper? Write the best answer and explain reasoning.

A. The boiling temperature is greater when the dial is set at
high.
B. The boiling temperature is greater when the dial is set at low.
C. The boiling temperature is the same at both settings.
Turning the Dial
• The best response is C. The boiling
temperature is the same at both
settings.
• Temperature is a measure of the
average kinetic energy of the molecules
in a system.
• When heat energy is applied to a liquid,
the kinetic energy of the molecules
increases.
• The motion, and hence the temperature
of the liquid reaches its boiling point.
What is motion?
What do you Know        Want to know

On the right side of
Take 3 minutes to
write down everything
you know and want to
Minimum 3 facts in
each column
Force and Motion
• Benchmark Pre –Test
Students will complete a Force & Motion
Pre-Test-10-question benchmark pre-test.
Write Motion Cornel Notes
1.    What is motion?
2.    What are 3 examples of motion.
3.    What is a point of reference?
4.    Sketch an example of motion.
5.    Explain figure 2 pg. 283
6.    Compare displacement and distance.
7.    Define speed.
8.    Write formula for speed
9.    Copy Applying math steps, complete practice
problems
10.   Compare average speed and instantaneous speed
11.   How can you represent the motion of an object on a
graph? What type of graph?
12.   Complete figure 5 page. 286
13.   Compare speed and velocity
14.   Complete Section 1 review 1 - 5
Closing Activity
• Create a Double Bubble Map, comparing
Speed and Velocity.
GPS - S8P3. Students will investigate
relationship between force, mass, and the
motion of objects.
a. Determine the relationship between
velocity and acceleration.

Essential Question
• When does the line on a distance-time
graph become steeper?
Motion Definition
Event that involves a change in
the position or location of
something.
Types of Motion
• Uniform motion - constant speed in a
straight line
• Accelerated motion – motion that is
changing in speed or direction
• Circular motion - speed is constant but the
direction of motion is changing
continuously
Launch Lab pg 281
• Write the labs title
• Develop a hypothesis
If the _____ and or _____ of an object is changed
then the collision will _________.
• List the materials needed
• Write the procedures
• Make a data table, sketch your observations
• Think critically
Motion After a Collision
• How is it possible for a 70-kg football
player to knock down a 110-kg football
player?
• The smaller player usually must be
running faster. Mass makes a difference
when two objects collide, but the speed of
the objects also matters.
• Explore the behavior of colliding objects.
Motion
• Make three columns in your log book
student side.
• Make 5 entries for each column
• Column 1 Kinds of Movements
• Column 2 How U know it Moved
• Column 3 Moved Quickly or Slowly
It’s Track Season!

• Picture yourself competing in a 100-m
dash.
• You begin just behind the start line
• When you pass the finish line, you are 100
m from the start line.
• If the start line is your reference point, then
your position has changed by 100 m
relative to the start line, and motion has
occurred.
Motion is Relative
(teacher side)
• Relative – it is described compared to a
REFERENCE POINT
• Look at Figure 2 page 283
• Sketch the two pictures.
• Explain how the position of the dog
changed.
• How do you know if an object has
changed position?
Distance and Displacement
•   Suppose you are to meet your friends at the
park in five minutes.
•   Can you get there on time by walking, or
should you ride your bike?
•   What would you need to know to calculate this?
•   Ans: If you said that you needed to know the
distance you will travel to get to the park. You
are correct!
•   What is distance?
•   Ans. Distance is the length of the route you will
travel from your house to the park.
Distance and Displacement
• Suppose the distance you traveled from your
house to the park was 200 m. When you get to
the park, how would you describe your location?
• Ans: You would say that your location was 200 m
• However your final position depends on both the
distance you travel and the direction. This is
know as displacement.
• Look at Figure pg 283. Compare the diagrams
Closing
• Brain Pop Distance, Rate and Time
GPS - S8P3. Students will investigate
relationship between force, mass, and the
motion of objects.
• a. Determine the relationship between
velocity and acceleration.

Essential Question
• How is average speed calculated?
Describe SPEED and
VELOCITY

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• SPEED - is the rate of motion, or the
rate of change of position;
– a measurement of distance traveled over
time
– calculated by dividing the distance traveled
by the time taken
• VELOCITY - measurement of the rate
and direction of motion
– an object's speed and direction of motion
Mr. Birdley
Speed, Distance, and Time
1. Define Speed
2. What units are used to measure
distance? Meter (m)
3. What units are used to measure time?
hour
4. What different types of graphs might be
used to show data?
Speed, Distance, and Time
Dr. Birdley
Calling all actors!

Characters: Dean Owelle, Phyll, Dr. Birdley,
Clarissa
Props: Skates
Performance Time!
Read loud and clear
1. How did Dean Owelle define speed?
2. What is a slope?
3. Look at the panel where Clarissa speeds
up. What do you notice about the slope
of her line in the graph at that point?
Solving For Speed
A train travels a distance (d) of 500 meters in a
time (t) of 50 seconds. What is the speed (s)?

1. Write out the formula   1. S = d / t           D
you are using.
2. Write down all your     2. D = 500m        S       T
known quantities.          t = 50s
3. Substitute these        3. S = 500 m/50s
quantities into the
equation
4. Solve                   4. S = 10 m / s
What is the Speed?
• A dinosaur walks 600    •   S=d/t
meters in 30 seconds.   •   D=
What is the speed?      •   T=
Show each              •   S = _____ / ____
step!
•   Solve
•   S = _____
You can also find speed by finding
the slope of a line on a graph
1. Pick two points with
coordinates (x1,y1) and (x2,
y2)
2. This graphs shows what
points? (2,4) & (4,8)
Speed Trials
• Problem: To calculate speed
• Background Information: Motion is a
change in position measured by distance
and time.
• Speed is the rate of change in position.
Speed combines information about how
far an object moves (distance) with how
long it takes to move that distance (time).
Distance and Time
• Speed is the rate at which an object
moves.
Speed = distance ÷ time
• Distance and Time can also be calculated
with these formulas:
Distance = speed X time
D      Time = distance ÷ speed

S    T
Speed Trials
Problem: Which Speed is the Greatest?
Materials:
•   Stopwatch 1m board Wood blocks; Toy car Calculator
Procedure:

1. Use three textbooks and the board to build a ramp
2. Put the toy car at the top of the ramp, with the front wheels
behind the edge of the board.
3. On the signal, release the toy car so that it rolls down the
ramp AND start the stopwatch.
4. Stop timing when the back wheels of the toy car leave the
end of the ramp.
5. Record the data.
6. Repeat the procedure for a total of 5 times.
7. Average the data.
Data
Trial   Distance Time (sec)   Speed m/s
3 books    (m)
height
1       1
2         1
3         1
4         1
5         1
Average
Questions
• 1. Use your textbook to describe:
a. Average speed b. Instantaneous speed

c. Constant speed

• 2. How is instantaneous speed different from
average speed?

• 3. If you drive 200 miles in 3 hours before
stopping for 30 minutes for lunch and gas.
After lunch you travel 150 miles in an hour
and a half. What was your average speed for
the trip? Show your work. Sketch a graph!
Speed
Average Speed
• Comparison of time and distance
– A scalar quantity [magnitude only]
– Distance traveled per unit time
•S=d/t

•T=d/s

•D=sxt
Speed
Instantaneous Speed
• Speed at any instant
Speed
Constant Speed
• Speed that does not change
– Instantaneous speed that does not change
Speed Graphs
Dr. Birdley Speed on a Graph
• Write and answer Study Questions pg. 15
- 16
• Be prepared to defend your responses.
Closing
• Vocabulary Build Up
• Read pg. 17 and complete
Velocity
• Speed AND direction
– A vector quantity [magnitude & direction]
Acceleration
• A change in velocity
– Speeding up
• Positive acceleration
– Slowing down
• Negative acceleration
• Deceleration
– Changing direction
ENGAGE: What do you know about speed?
•   Materials: a marble (or toy car), a meter stick,
masking tape and a stopwatch
•   Task: Find the speed of the marble by timing
how long it takes to travel a meter.
•   Practice rolling the marble along the path of
the meter stick for a few times, then start
rolling it a little before the meter stick begins.
When the marble reaches the start of the
meter stick, begin timing. Stop when it reaches
the end.
•   Record observations and timings
And Velocity?
• Which direction was the marble moving?
• Velocity is speed with direction.
• Now try to roll the marble and change its speed
without changing its direction.
• Attempt to roll the marble, then try to change its
direction but not its speed.
• Now roll the marble, then change its direction
and speed.
• Acceleration is a change in velocity, which can
be a change in speed, direction or both.
Describing Motion with Words
• Speed refers to "how fast an object is moving."
Speed can be thought of as the rate at which an
object covers distance.
• A fast-moving object has a high speed and
covers a relatively large distance in a short
amount of time.
• A slow-moving object has a low speed and
covers a relatively small amount of distance in a
short amount of time.
• An object with no movement at all has a zero
speed.

http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/1DKin/U1L1d.html
Acceleration vs. Velocity
• Acceleration                   • Velocity
– Change in velocity and/or      – Speed with direction
direction                   • Always includes a
– Acceleration is measured      reference direction
in meters per second per
second (m/s/s)                 – Example: 600 km/h south
(plane travels)
• Negative acceleration
(slowing down or                  – Constant velocity: always
change in direction)-               moving along a straight
decrease in velocity                line
– Positive acceleration
– (Speeding up-velocity
increases)
Acceleration vs. Velocity
Examples of                  How Velocities Change
Acceleration
A plane taking off                 Increase in speed –
same direction (positive)
A car stopping at a stop           Decrease in speed and
sign                               direction (negative)
Walking then jogging on Speed and direction are the
a tread mill             same (constant)- the speed
and direction don’t change –
you are staying in the same
place

Holt: Physical Science
Speed, velocity and acceleration
• View the animation – describe the motion of each car:
– Which cars are accelerating? Greatest acceleration?
– Constant speed?

• http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/1DKin/U1L1e.html
Homework
• Complete section review pg 287
• Write complete question and complete
• Try at home pg 285
• Let the Race Begin
– Bring in empty cereal box, glue, rubber bands
EXPLORE: Graphing
Student Motion
• Arrange the instructions in order.
Cookbook to Inquiry Strategy:
Procedure
1.   Using the instructions in the envelope, arrange the steps of the lab in the
order that makes the most sense.
2.   Assign students in the group roles: runner (1), time keepers (5), data
recorder (1).
3.   Determine the distance interval to be measured and mark off with tape.
4.   Determine the IV, DV, CV and constants for the lab before collecting data.
5.   Five students with stopwatches should stand at uniform intervals of 1 – 3
meters. The student who is running (or walking fast) begins at the starting
line.
6.   When the runner is ready, he/she shouts, “Go!” All timers start their
stopwatches and the runner begins to walk very slowly at first and
increases his/her speed at a uniform at rate.
7.   When the runner passes a timer, that timer stops his/her watch.
8.   Record the data in the table using metric units. Round calculated
measurements to the nearest 10th.
9.   Make a distance vs. time graph on the whiteboard. (Graph distance on
the y and time on the x). Draw a line of best fit for the data.
Graphing Student Motion
• Groups of 7
• Variables:
– IV – time
– DV – change in position
– Constants -
• Roles:
– 5 Timekeepers
– Runner
– Data Collector
Cookbook to Inquiry Strategy: Data
• Graphing Student Motion: Collect data;
make graph on whiteboard; share results
with class – page 4
• Tumble Buggy Lab: Give only the
procedure, students develop data chart –
page 1 & 2
• Design an Investigation: Involve students
in activities where they generate questions
to investigate – page 3
• Increasing the level of inquiry
Friction
• Friction is a force that opposes motion, or
makes it difficult for an object to move
across a surface.
• The amount of friction depends on the
surface type and the force pressing two
surfaces together.
T- Chart - Sports
• Reducing the amount • Increasing the amount
of friction is helpful of friction is helpful
Extend: Investigating Friction
• You are part of the design crew for a new race track.
The team is considering adding an incline to the track.
Design an experiment using the following materials to
assist the team in determining the best height and
material for the incline. Be sure to get approval before
beginning experiment.

Design an experiment using the following materials:
Ramp      Match box cars      Stopwatch
Various Surfaces: sand paper, carpet, towel, wax paper
Marbles          Protractor    Meter stick
Acceleration or NOT?
• You are riding your bike at 9 km/h. Ten minutes
later, your speed is 6 km/h.
• (Acceleration occurred because speed
decreased.)
• You ride your bike around the block at a
constant speed of 11 km/h.
• (Acceleration occurred because direction
changed.)
• You ride your bike in a straight line at a constant
speed of 10 km/h.
• (No acceleration occurred because neither
speed nor direction changed.)
Compare and Contrast Web

Acceleration        Velocity
V

E

L

O   The
C   Last
I   Word
T

Y
Outline 10.2
I. What is motion
A. Matter and Motion
• 1. all matter is constantly in motion
B. Changing Position
1. Something in motion if it is changing position.
Science Starter
Define MOTION

Seconds Remaining:   140
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Motion:
Change in position of an
object relative to a reference
point.
Review Homework
• Try at home pg 285 Measuring Average Speed.
• Write as lab report, title, materials, procedures, data,
Analysis
Data Table
Average Speed Walking

Trial 1           Trial 2           Trial 3           Trial 4           Avg
Time              Time              Time              Time
Distance          Distance          Distance          Distance
Speed
S         m S               m S               m S               m
Slowly
Safely
&Quickly
Homework

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