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Pioneers - Greenbush

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					                                                          Pioneers

                          The Pioneers.                                    10-20-1891 ; Ellerth 1-24-1893; Lena 8-2-1895; Einar 7-30-1900;
                    Trailbtazers of Greenbush                              and Alfred 8-23-1902.
                                                                              The oldest child, known in later years as Ole, was called K. O.
   We have, in part, dedicated this book to "the pioneers who were         Aamodt in the early Greenbush Tribunes. K. O. or Ole Aamodt,
brave enough to come first and blaze a trail for the rest of us to         born in Norway, never married. K. O. was involved in bringing
follow, leaving a legacy of courage, strength, faith, and values." In      wild horses from Montana and North Dakota, training the horses,
this section we tell their stories.                                        and selling to area farmers. In 1920, the Aamodt brothers adver­
  Who were the pioneers? Every era, every decade has its own pio­          tised two carloads of North Dakota horses for sale, broke or unbro­
neers, trailblazers not only ofthe land, but in progress, technology,      ken. They also offered to trade for cattle, sheep, lumber, cordwood,
and lifestyle. However, for this section of the book, the committee        or fence posts. Nephew, Ray Johnson, said Ole wasn't afraid of the
arbitrarily defined pioneers as those people who were married or           wild horses and could walk up to any of them. The horses seemed
working in the Greenbush area before 1920. Though we respect­              comfortable with him. K. O. was one of eighteen members who
fully bow our heads to all of the pioneers of the area, due to space       organized the Greenbush Cooperative Creamery in April 1905.
constraints this section is reserved for the very early pioneers. This       The first Nels was born in Norway, but died at a young age. Annie
effectively covers the area's very early trailblazers, the first twenty­   was also born in Norway.
five to thirty years of settlement.                                          Annie's first husband was Michel Grumbo (Granbois). Her sec­
   We have made many attempts to persuade people to submit sto­            ond husband was Willie Botoshe. They had eight children: Cecelia
ries of the early pioneers in their families, and we thank those who       Gustafson, Mary Johnson, Hilda Svegdahl, William, Mae Martell,
responded. The committee has researched and written some addi­             Caroline, Francis Halvorson, and Norman.
tional pioneer stories, but we are aware that we have not told the            The second Nels, who was named so because the first Nels died
tale of every early Greenbush-area pioneer. Some pioneers left no          young, married Louise Ludwig and lived in ThiefRiver Falls. Their
family and little else to tell us of their lives; most were struggling     children were Iona Mae, Delores, and Kenneth.
for survival and had no time to think of preserving historical ac­           Thea was born at Northwood, North Dakota. She married Gustav
counts.       hope the stories that we have told will convey the cour­     (Gust) Waage. They farmed in Barnett Township and had four sons,
age, strength, and faith that brought them through the difficulty and      Selmer, Otto, Olaf, and Enock, from whom all the Waages have
toil involved in the settling of this area.                                descended.
   May the stories also spark an appreciation of how the pioneers            Nothing much is known about Sarah, who died as a young woman.
survived with primitive shelter and heating systems, non-thermal           The Tribune, in 1911, reported that she took her younger brother
clothing, and food that came not from the grocery store, but from          Alfred to visit the neighbors. She was twenty years old at that time.
the sweat of the field and kitchen.                                        Sarah is reportedly buried in the Hvidso Cemetery, but no marker
  May they also inspire you to record the stories of your family. To       has been located for her according to her nephew Ray Johnson.
quote Grant Nelson,* "We lose a little of our history every day.           *Her death certificate gives her name as Sigrid Sarah Aamodt.
History's gold mines sit in retirement homes and some will carry              Ellerth married Katie Hogan. They lived in Michigan and had
their wealth to the grave." Listen to the oldsters. Record what            five children, Claudia, Edith, Edward, Johnny and Vivian.
have say. Rescue that wealth of historical memories. Even the                 Lena married Ernest Johnson of Karlstad. Their children were
little things will become important with time.                             Floyd, Maynard, Adeline, and Ray.
Submitted by Eunice Korczak. Grant Nelson writes Rural Reflec­                Einar married Mabel Paulson and lived in Section 24 of Hereim
tions, a column that appears in the Grand Forks Herald's Yester­           Township. Their two children were Betty Jean and Janice.
years supplement. The quote is from Saturday, January 22, 2005.              Alfred married Lena Eeg and lived in Section 26, Hereim Town­
                                                                           ship. Their children were Eugene, Edward, Jovenia, Alton and Carol.
                   Erick and Johanna Aamodt                                Alton still farms that land along Highway 32 south of Greenbush.
                                                                           Submitted by Myrna Sovde. Sources: Obituaries from Roseau
  Erick Aamodt, April 11, 1864, to January 25, 1927, was born in           County Museum, Leona Emery, Ray Johnson, Pat Hogan, *Roseau
Norway. Johanna Aamodt, maiden name unavailable, was born in               County Courthouse.
Tislebakke, Sigdahl, Norway, on October 5, 1858. In 1885 she
married Erick Aamodt. Five years later they came to the United                         John and Bertha (Skat-Williamson) Aas
States and settled near Northwood, North Dakota. In November of
1902 they homesteaded near Greenbush and farmed in the commu­                Bertha's parents, Knute and Kari Skal (Skal was the farm name,
nity until their deaths. Both are buried in the Zion Lutheran Cem­         which was later dropped and Williamson was used) immigrated
etery east ofGreenbush. Mrs. Aamodt's obituary called her a quiet,         from Norway in 1890 with six children. Bertha was about eleven
God-fearing woman, interested in the work of the church, who had           years old. The baby, Gutrom died on the voyage. The Williamson
endeared herself to her neighbors and acquaintances. Erick and             family settled in Waseca County, moved to Stearn County, then
Johanna had ten children: K. O. or Ole 1-30-1885; Nels 9-17-1886;          pioneered in Roseau County in 1901 .
Annie 1-11-1888; Nels 1-12-1889; Thea 7-25-1890; Sarah/Sigrid                Born in Gjovik, Norway, on May 20, 1880, John was the oldest

                                                                       455

son of Haaken and Regine Aas. Having been baptized in Norway,
John was two years old when he came with his mother, Regina
Skorstad and her family to this country. They sailed from Oslo and
16 weeks later arrived in Quebec. From there, they came by train
to Barnesville, Minnesota. The family homesteaded in Tansem
Township, Clay County, near Pelican Rapids . John was confirmed
in the Christian faith in North Emmanuel Church near Pelican Rap­
ids. He attended five years ofschool, helped his stepfather, Haaken
Aas, farm, and did light carpentry. Entertainments he enjoyed were
skiing, skating, fishing, muskrat trapping, and violin playing for
area dances.
  After visiting former Pelican Rapids residents in the Haug area in
 1901 and again in 1903, when he stayed in Badger to work for the
winter, John came to Greenbush to stay in               of 1905.
   Bertha was a cook at a hotel where he stayed. John and Bertha
were married in 1908 at her family farm home.                                         John Aas holding great grandchild Anne Hedman.
                                                                                              (photo courtesy ofLois Hedman)
                                                     John'was a very
                                                   active man in the        Preceded in death by Bertha, his wife, (1954) John died in De­
                                               r   Greenbush area.        cember of 1979 at the age of 99 years, 7 months, and 2 days. Offi­
                                                   He worked in the       ciating at his funeral was Pastor Kasperson. Mangeline Forsness
                                                   elevator and also      was organist. Soloist, Mrs. Art Boese, accompanied herself on the
                                                   managed elevators      guitar. Pall bearers were : Axel Lieberg, Bob Wollin, Ben
                                                   in Middle River        Christianson, Arvid Dvergsten, Manvil Dvergsten, and Vernon
                                                   and Strathcona.        Fugleberg.
                                                   For several years,       John was a self-educated man who kept himself informed about
                                                   he was in the grain    current events. He enjoyed the fact that his 99 years allowed him to
                                                   buying business in     experience incredible changes in every aspect of life. To empha­
                                                   Climax, Middle         size that enjoyment, at his funeral just two days after Christmas,
                                                   River,          and    the final hymn was        to the World."
                                                   Strathcona. From       Submitted by Eunice Korczak. Based on an article by Lois Paulson
                                                   1928 to 1954, John     Hedman published in Roseau County Heritage and an extensive
                                                   worked in a variety    obituary published in the Greenbush Tribune.
                                                   of positions for the
                                                   Village.          of                      A. K. and Amelia Anderson
                                                   Greenbush. Ac­
                                                   cording to his           I had heard about A. K. Anderson all my life because my mother's
                                                   obituary in the        parents, Bessie and Charles Keuhn, moved to that farm when A.K.s
                                                   Greenbush Tri­         left. However, I didn't know what the A. K. stood for. When I fi­
John Aas and Bertha Williamson marriage picture in bune      served as    nally asked, for this write-up, it became clear as to why he went by
 1908. (photo courtesy ofLois Hedman)              the            con­    initials. The A stood for Albert, and Albert O. Anderson lived only
stable for many years and was truly a peace officer." As constable,       a half mile north. A. K. lived on the SE 1/4 Section 12 in Lind
picking up moon-shiners was one of his most unpleasant tasks, but         Township.
one of his toughest jobs was helping an undertaker take care of two          A. K . and Amelia Anderson came from Paynesville, Minnesota.
bodies after a fire . One area resident recalls that John Aas was         In 1921, his name was at the top of the list petitioning to split Dis­
large and impressive, effective in breaking up bar fights,        he      trict 26, with the north school (Svegdahl) becoming a separate school
seemed a gentle man."                                                     district. It became District 33 and was one ofthe later rural schools
  John also drove people to the Bratrud Clinic at Warren in his 1909      to continue operation. A. K. was also active with the shipping as­
Buick.                                                                    sociation. Amelia was very active in church and Sunday School
   The Aas family were active members of the Bethel Lutheran              and directed the Bethlehem girls' choir.
Church, where John was custodian for many years. Though this                They had three children: Mildred born in 1910, Ivan born in 1913,
took more of his time than such positions do now, John attended to        and Luella who was born in 1922. According to the records, Luella
his job faithfully and was patient with the children. Grandchildren       was the only one baptized in Bethlehem. The Andersons were re­
especially liked to help him ring the bell because they were allowed      membered long after they left the area and returned to Paynesville
to ride on the rope.                                                      in 1934 or 35.
   On his 95th birthday, people streamed to the celebration at the           Edwin and Adelia Anderson were the last to live in the house A.
William Paulson home to express their affection and appreciation          K. built. The house was moved to Springsteel near Warroad, Min­
for what he had done for the town.                                        nesota. Edsel Anderson, grandson ofAlbert O. owns the land now.
  John and Bertha had six children: Clara Paulson, Richard (Hank)         Submitted by Myrna Sovde. Sources: school and church records,
Aas, Kenneth Aas, Gilman Aas, Joseph Aas, and Alice Errigo.               Carol and Harold Johnson, Palma Stenberg, Edsel Anderson.


                                                                      456

                  Albert Q. and Annie Anderson                                Henrick Bjorkel in 1933, and had two children, Olafand Jon. Judith,
                                                                              1907-1994, married Otto Mathiasen in 1953. Orville, 1910-1974,
  Annie Bagstad (1877-1969) came to Badger from Adams, Min­                   married Rose Johnson; their children are Allen and Avis. Arnold,
nesota, with her Aunt Johanna. When she was of legal age she                  1913-2000, married Pearl Anderson and had two children, Arlyn
homesteaded in Moose Township. During this time she operated a                and Paula. Palma, 1915, is the sole survivor in 2004. She married
millinery shop in Badger.                                                     Norman Stenberg and their children are Lucille, Sharon, Stuart,
  Albert O. Anderson (1876-1967) came from Manvel, North Da­                  Marcia, and Arlene.
kota. When his party came to the Red River (no bridges) they                   The Andersons farmed small grains, raised Shropshire sheep, grey­
weren't too sure they could make it across so they sent an old horse          hounds, and purebred hogs . They also raised registered Red Poll
that wouldn't be much of a loss, across the river. The old horse              cattle, which they showed at the Roseau County Fair.
crossed the river without mishap. To prepare for crossing, they tied                                                           After Albert and
the wagon box down to prevent it from floating off the wheels.                                                             Annie's deaths, their
When they came to an old shack at Stephen, they found part of a                                                            son Benard took over
sack of wheat in the comer. They cleaned a little of it and cooked                                                         the farm. Benard later
mush.                                                                                                                      sold the farm to his
   Annie and Albert were married July 7, 1901. A year later they                                                           nephew, Edsel Ander­
moved to the homestead in the NW 1/4 Section 7            Township.                                                        son, so the farm is eli­
In April, their first child, Edwin was born in Badger. At some point                                                       gible to be a Century
Annie's parents moved north of Badger. Two of Albert's brothers,                                                           Farm. In 1982, Edsel
Andrew and Iver, homesteaded in the same section as Albert did,                                                            and his wife, Donna, re­
while a third brother. Martin, later lived on the next section.                                                            modeled the stately two
                                                                                                                           story house into one
                                                                                                                           story and added on.
                                                                                                                           They continue to live
                                                                              Back: Arnold, Palma, Judith, Orville, Alice, there at the present

                                                                              Benard, and Edwin. Front: Albert and Annie time.

                                                                              Anderson. (photo courtesy ofNoreen Lorenson)


                                                                              Submitted by Myrna Sovde. Sources: Edsel Anderson, Palma
                                                                              Stenberg, Greenbush Tribune.

                                                                                               Andrew Q. and Thone Anderson

                                                                                Andrew O. Anderson was born September 5,1874, in Blooming
                                                                              Prairie, Minnesota, to Ole Andersson Skjaekkermo and Jorend
                                                                              (Oleson) Anderson (the name Skjaekkermo was dropped and one
                                                                              of the s's was deleted from Anderson).
Bernard Anderson plowing with the Rumley. (photo courtesy ofLois Dvergsten)      There is a family legend that has been passed down the genera­
                                                                              tions about the time when the Anderson family lived in Blooming
  Albert was very active in community affairs in the township and             Prairie. When Andrew was an infant, two strangers rode up and
in Greenbush, especially considering he lived eight miles from town           asked Jorend if she had anything to eat. Having a large family,
in      when travel was so inconvenient. He was a director of the             bread making was almost a daily task and Jorend had made bread
                                        Farmers Cooperative Cream­            that day. She gave the two strangers a loaf of bread and they gave
                                        ery when the new creamery             her a quarter. Later more men showed up at the farm, asking if two
                                        was built, was one offifteen in­      strangers had been seen. It was admitted they had been at the farm.
                                        corporators of the Greenbush          The first two strangers were Frank and Jesse James; they were on
                                        Credit Corporation and was a          their way after robbing the bank in Northfield, Minnesota.
                                        county commissioner.                     Later, the family moved from Blooming Prairie to Mekinock,
                                             Annie was active in              North Dakota. When Andrew was 12 his father died. His siblings
                                        Bethlehem Ladies Aid and              included Iver, Randina, Albert, Ole, John and Martin. Three years
                                        served as an officer. She often       after the death ofher husband Ole, Jorend married August Forsman
                                        hosted Ladies Aid meetings            of Badger, Minnesota. The family moved to Moose Township after
                                      i especially after their new house      the marriage. More children were born to this family: Augustina,
                                      , was built in 1923.                    then Josephine, followed by Ericka, and a son Karl.
                                          Annie and Albert had seven
           Andrew left the family home at the age of 16 to begin life on his
                                      . children: Edwin, 1902-1991,
          own. Initially he went back to Mekinock, North Dakota, and worked
                                   , . married            Hermanson in
       on the farm of Reverend OlafHoukom. He lived with his maternal
                                        1933, and had two children,
          uncle, Lewis Olson, and family.
         .                        . Edsel and Ronald. Benard,
                   Thone (Gjersund) Anderson came to the United States from
Front: AlIce and Benard. Back: Judith                                .
and Edwin. (photo courtesy of Pearl 1903-1983, never marned.                  Morgedal, Norway. Thone's parents were Olav and Aslaug
Anderson)                               Alice, 1905-1976, married             Gjersund. Her siblings were Knut, Olav, Jorgen, Anders, Tillie,

                                                                          457

Aslaug, and Aste. Thone's mother died during childbirth. At the              Thone and Andrew were very active in Bethlehem Lutheran Church,
age of 17, Thone boarded a small ship called, "The Restauration."            and their community. The cream checks were a source of income
Because the ship was small, there were only 53 passengers. The               for them. It was published in the Greenbush Tribune how much
trip took three anda half months. The trip from Norway to New                each farmer would make, and at one point Andrew was able to take
York cost about 54 dollars, and the train trip from New York to              home a check for 400 dollars, which was a great deal of money
Minneapolis, where she ended up, cost about 18 dollars. Thone's              during that time. Thone assisted in the delivery of many babies in
first stop was at Ellis Island in New York.                                  the area. She was proud to admit, in all of the children she deliv­
  Immigrants coming into the United States at this time were given           ered, she never lost a mother or a child. She lost count of how
literacy and mental tests, which consisted of arithmetic problems            many children she helped deliver.
and wooden puzzles. Thone found work in St. Paul, working for a                                                                    Andrew died in
doctor and his family as a housekeeper. While in the employ of the                                                             1963 and Thone in
doctor, she studied English and it was after this study she decided                                                            1964. They are bur­
to "Americanize" her last name to Jorgenson.                                                                                   ied at Bethlehem
   In 1897, Thone traveled to Mekinock, North Dakota, with her                                                                 Lutheran Church
sister Tillie to visit her cousin, Reverend OlafHoukom. While there                                                            Cemetery in rural
she met the man who was to eventually become her husband. An­                                                                  Greenbush.
drew was 24 at the time.                                                                                                          In the summer of
  A year later, in 1898, Andrew decided to return to Roseau County.                                                            2000, a large tree
He hoped to find a homestead that would be closer to his four broth­                                                           came       crashing
ers. He found a plot of land which suited his needs, and had a                                                                 through the top of
natural-fed beaver pond. Andrew walked the nearly 80 miles from                                                                the old house, after
his homestead plot of 160 acres, to Crookston, Minnesota, to file                                                              a straight-line wind­
his claim. The claim was filed on June 15, 1898. Fifty years to the                                                            storm, causing the
day, electricity was brought to the farmstead.                                                                                 house to split in
    On June 30, 1901, Andrew and Thone were married at the                                                                     half. Although it
Bethlehem Norwegian Lutheran Church in Minneapolis, Minne­                                                                     was sad to see the
sota. Soon after the wedding they moved to the farm in rural Green­           Andrew and Thone Anderson in California in 1963. old house come
bush. Seven days later Andrew's brother, Albert, married Annie                    (photo courtesy ofRoseau County Museum)      down, the general
Bagstad. They lived on the west side of the same farm section.               feeling in the family was that the core ofthe family had passed with
   The homestead shack Thone and Andrew initially lived in was               the death of my dad, Joe D. Anderson, in November of 1999. He
very small and humble. In 1913, the two-room shack was moved                 was the last survivor of that generation. Our thoughts are that they
to the current location of the farmhouse. A large kitchen, porch,            are all in a better home now and do not need this house anymore.
pantry and four upstairs bedrooms were added to the house. The               Submitted by Toni M Anderson-Donarski. References: "Here Come
source of heat for this home was the warm kitchen             not to         the Norwegians "- written by Carol (Hanson) Schwinkendorf, Ro­
mention the love that emanated as the family grew.                           seau           Historical         Family file archives.
   To this family nine children were born. Arthur (1901) married
Julie Loyland; Agnes (1904) married Olaf Hanson; Leonard (1906)                         Arthur M. Anderson. Sr. and Alma Anderson
died in 1927; Barney (1908) married Mable Myran; Sylvia (1910)
marriedArthur Copeland; Thelma (1912) married Maurice Carrico;                Arthur M. Anderson, Sr., was born at Hatton, North Dakota, on
Joseph (1914) married Dorothy Ann Simpson; Hildor (1916) mar­                November 16,1893, the son of Knute and Bertha Marie (Olson)
ried Margaret Vacura; and Valborg (1919) married Louis Dillon.               Anderson. He moved with his family to Dewey Township in 1900.
                                                                             They moved back to North Dakota in 1904, where Arthur grew to
                                                                             manhood. He attended school at the University of North Dakota




Building the barn on the Andrew Anderson homestead. On the right are An­
drew Anderson and Albert Anderson. (photo courtesy ofLilly Bingaman)

 In the years Andrew and Thone lived on the farm, they kept them­
selves very busy with raising sheep, milk cows and small grains.              Front: Art and Alma Anderson. Children: Audrey, Art Jr., Delford andDelores.

                                                                           458

and at Crookston, and started teaching at Juneberry in 1915. His        construction, building the Alaska Highway. When Bert returned to
family returned to the farm in Dewey in 1917. He also taught at         Greenbush, he lived in town with his father, Knute. Bert had two
Halma, Roosevelt, and Homolka (Grass Lake). Arthur taught school        children, Kenneth and Shirley. His marriage ended in separation.
until 1926, when he bought the Ed Watterud farm, married Alma           He passed away at the nursing home in Greenbush about 1972.
Pederson, began farming, and raised a family there. Arthur and          Submitted by Art Anderson.
Alma had four children: Art (Helen Kirkeide), Audrey (Clifton
Kirkeide), and twins Delores (Glenn Bjerk) and Delford (Arlene                            Eddie and Pauline Anderson
Schafbuch).
  Arthur was a World War I veteran, serving in France. He helped           Eddie Anderson was born March 3, 1891, in Steele County near
organize the Greenbush Co-op Elevator in the late thirties and served   El1endale, Minnesota. He grew up on a farm near Ellendale, at­
on other community boards. He played a comet in the old Pelan           tended school and church there. He played on an organized bal1
Band and in the Greenbush Community Band; Alma played alto              team that travelled between nearby towns.
hom in the Greenbush Community Band. Alma was ajanitor at the                                                   He married Pauline Hatle on
Greenbush School in her later years. Arthur and Alma were mem­                                                June 14, 1913. She was born
bers of the Pauli Lutheran Church. Art Anderson Jr. passed away                                               March 4, 1889, in Freeborn
February 23, 2005.                                                                                            County, Hartland, Minnesota.
Submitted by Art and Helen Anderson.                                                                          The smal1 towns were ten miles
                                                                                                              apart.
            Bert C. and Minnie (Paulson) Anderson                                                                In 1916 they came to the
                                                                                                              Greenbush area from southern
  Bert C. Anderson, (1888-1964) farmed for most of his life in the                                            Minnesota by train to occupy
SE 1/4 Section 10 of Lind Township. Bert was cal1ed Bert C. to                                                the land and home they had
distinguish him from Bert T. Anderson, a nearby neighbor. Bert                                                purchased one year prior to
married Minnie Paulson, (1894-1947) who died when Carol Lou                                                   this, in Section 34 in Hereim
was eleven years old. Bert and Minnie had five children: Florence                                             Township. The house had for­
(Vernon Olson), Arlo (Hazel Johnson), Orville (Pearl LaTray),                                                 merly been the Dock Post Of­
Vernon Ray, and Carol Lou (Robert LaTray).                                                                    fice. The school which was
  A few years after Minnie's death, he married Inga Fox Danielson.                                            located on their land, was
According to a 1912 postcard saved by Inga, Bert had been her                                                 known as the Dock School.
special friend before he married Minnie in 1916.                                                                 They had three daughters:
  Bert played in the Greenbush Community Band.                                                                Marcella born in 1914, Alice
  A few years after Minnie's death, he moved into Greenbush and                                               born in 1918 and Pearl born in
worked as maintenance man at the hospital for many years. It was              Eddie and Pauline Anderson      1921. Their daughters com­
during this time Bert married Inga and Carol Lou was in high school.         (photo courtesy of Alice Miller) pleted eighth grade in the one
They lived in the stone house on the southeast comer of the hospi­                                            room school on their property.
tal block. The house, owned by the hospital, was later tom down to      The teachers stayed with Eddie and Pauline during the week, and
make room for the addition to the south end of the hospital.            walked to school every morning. Marcel1a and Alice both became
  Florence and Vernon Olson and family lived on the farm for sev­       teachers. Alice taught in rural schools before her marriage and in
eral years in the 1950s. Later, Bert sold his farm just north of the    later years in Greenbush for a total of 24 years. Marcel1a taught for
Bethlehem Church to Leif and Norma Hagen.                               a few years before her marriage.
  Bert's parents, John and Emma (Benson) Anderson homesteaded              The Andersons raised livestock of al1 kinds and did smal1 grain
the NE 1/4 Section 5, Lind Township. Bert had a brother, Elmer,         farming. They were proud oftheir Holstein cows that they brought
who was a jeweler in Roseau. Elmer's wife, Olga, was a sister to        in a box car from southern Minnesota.
Bert's wife. Bert's sister, Jessie, married Ralph Zrust and had one       Eddie was town clerk for many years and also treasurer for Dock
child, Raymond.                                                         School.
    Minnie was the daughter of Ole K. and Mathilda (Hanson)               Travel in the winter created many hardships. No cars were used.
Paulson. She had eleven brothers and sisters including: Herman,         The cars were put in the shed on cement blocks. Al1 travel was
Henry, Olga, Victor, Oscar, William, Harry, Mabel, El1erd, Arnold,      with horses or by foot. Northern Minnesota blizzards made roads
who was known as Lloyd, and Earl.                                       often impassable.
Submitted by ArtAnderson and Myrna Sovde. Source:           LaTray         Marcella married Marvin Nelson and moved two miles south.
and Bethlehem Church records.                                           Alice married Ernest Miller and lived four miles east. Pearl mar­
                                                                        ried Arnold Anderson and lived in another house on the home place.
                        Bert T. Anderson                                Pearl's son, Arlyn Anderson, has a home on the same property.
                                                                        Arlyn's son, Tad and family, the fourth and fifth generations live at
  Bert T. Anderson was born at Hatton, North Dakota, in 1895 to         the school site.
Knute and Bertha Marie Anderson. They moved to Dewey Town­                 In 1982, Pauline and Eddie celebrated sixty-nine years of mar­
ship in 1900. Bert farmed most of his life. He had an eighty in         riage, a-feat unequalled by few. Pauline died in 1982 and Eddie in
Section 33 of Dewey Township and an eighty across the road in           1988. They are buried in the Bethel Lutheran Cemetery.
Section 4 of Lind Township.                                             Submitted by Alice Miller and added to by Myrna Sovde.
  In 1941, Bert went to Alaska with Herb Reese working on road
                                                                    459

           Edwin and Adelia (Hermanson) Anderson                                           Jacob and Hansine (Olson) Anderson­

                                                                                                 Please see article under Sather

  Edwin, April 13, 1902, to November 27,1991, was the eldest son
ofAnnie and Albert O. Anderson. Albert and his brothers were the                          Joseph and Luella (Jacobson) Anderson
first settlers in Deer Township around 1898. Adelia Hermanson,
February 20, 1905, to August 26, 1998, was the daughter ofTron                  Joseph Anderson was born on September 3, 1896, in Steele County
and Theodora Hermanson, who were among.the first settlers near                to Ole 1. Anderson born in Wisconsin and Mary Ellingson born in
Pelan in 1895. Adelia's sister, Anna, was the first child baptized            Norway. He married Luella Jacobson, also born in Steele County,
into the Bethlehem Congregation.                                              on March 22, 1916. Exactly a year later, the couple settled on a
   Before her marriage, Adelia taught in many rural schools in the            farm near Greenbush, Minnesota.
area, including but not limited to Pelan, Pauli, and Svegdahl schools.           In 1919, Mrs. Anderson died, leaving a two-year-old daughter,
Edwin did farm work in the Manvel and Sharon, North Dakota ar­                Harriet, and an invalid son, who died later the same year. In the fall
eas, and in Canada, and worked in the sugar beet plants in East               of 1919, Joseph's parents came to live with him. According to his
Grand Forks, Minnesota.                                                       obituary, Joseph became ill with "acute nephutis" on July 6, 1924,
   Edwin and Adelia were married November 6, 1933. After their                and spent time at hospitals in Warren, Crookston, and Minneapolis.
marriage they built their farm home on Section 6 Deer Township, a             Although he seemed to improve for a time, he died February 18,
mile north ofhis parents, and worked together until retirement. After         1927, in Hereim Township leaving Harriet, now nine years old.
their son Edsel married, Edwin and Adelia moved to the fonner A.                 Joseph was buried at the Haug Cemetery in Barto Township.
K. Anderson farm, the SW 1/4 Section 12 in Lind Township, a half              Submitted by Eunice Korczak with thanks to Lisa Hansonfor birth
mile south of Edwin's parental home.                                          and death research.

                                                                                               Joseph G. and Mamie Anderson

                                                                                 Mamie Anderson didn't have to change her name when she mar­
                                                                              ried Joseph Anderson in 1924 in the Pauli Church. Mamie, the
                                                                              daughter of Knute and Bertha Marie Anderson, was born at Hatton,
                                                                              North Dakota in 1900. At six months of age, she came to Dewey
                                                                              Township to her parents' homestead south of the "Two River." In
                                                                              1907, her family moved back to North Dakota but returned to the
                                                                              homestead in 1917. Mamie was schooled in both Minnesota and
                                                                              North Dakota. Her siblings were: Art, Bert, Edna, Lillian, Myrtle,
                                                                              Gladys, Roy, Garvin, and Harley.
                                                                                Joe was born in 1895 at Belgrade, Minnesota, to John and Gunhilde
                                                                              Anderson. During WWI, Joe served in the army in France and
                                                                              Germany. His father sold the family farm after Joe got out of the
                                                                              army in 1919. Joe's brother was farming near Karlstad so Joe bought
                                                                              a farm there too. Joe's siblings were Selmer, Gust, and Stina.
1917 Confirmation class at Bethlehem Church. Front row: unidentified, Inga       The story of how Joe met Mamie is rather cute. When she was
Haagenson (Langaas), Rev. Berge Olson, Edwin Anderson, Arthur Anderson.       teaching northeast of Karlstad, he saw her through the window and
Back row: Julia Langaas (Johnson), unidentified, Rueben Bratlie, and Edwin
Rue. The two girls not identified are Signe Knudsen and Opha Jenson. (photo   said to himself, "I'm going to have a date with that girl." He got a
courtesy ofNoreen Lorenson)                                                   date with her at the basket social. Joe courted her with a team of
                                                                              beautiful black horses and a buggy, and when road conditions were
    Both Edwin and Adelia were active in the Bethlehem Lutheran               good, with a Model T.
Church. Edwin often treated the congregation to his musical tal­                 They started farming with 218 acres and a dairy business near
ent. Particularly memorable were his renditions on the saw. It was            Karlstad. In 1930, they bought a fann near Greenbush, but soon
just an ordinary carpenter's saw, but Edwin could make it sing. To            moved to a 320 acre farm southeast of Greenbush in Section 29,
choose a saw, Edwin would go to the hardware store and pound on               where they had a good herd of Holsteins and raised their family.
a saw he was interested in. The cheapest saws usually worked the                                                                  Joe and Mamie
best for making music. Music was a big part of their family's home                                                             had seven children:
life with Edsel and Ronald acquiring Edwin's musical ability. Both                                                             Glenee, Kennis
played the violin, piano, and accordion while Ronald also played                                                               (Lila Lorenson),
the saw and the tuba.                                                                                                          Mayvis (James
  . Edsel (June 4, 1935) married Donna Bergeson Faken, a widow,                                                                Lerum), Virgil
who brought two children, David and Marilyn (Wolff) to the mar­                                                                (Bernice Benz),
riage. They had a daughter Lynelle (Strand). Ronald (June 11,                                                                  Dale     (Dorothy
 1940) married Nancy and has two children Tania, and Douglas.                                                                  Seydel, Kay Bra­
Submitted by Myrna Sovde. Sources: Donna and Edsel Anderson                                                                    zier), Adrian (Don
(see Tron and Theodora Hermanson andAlbert 0. andAnna Ander­                      •    "      .              .                 Pietig) and Cassel.
                                                                              Joseph and MamIe Anderson famIly; Back: Glenee,              ' .
son histories).                                                               Virgil, Adrian, Dale, Kennis; Front: Mayvis, Mamie,       Mamle taught
                                                                              Joseph, and Cassel. (photo submitted by Lila Anderson) school off and on

                                                                          460

 after their marriage. The last years she taught were from 1946-49                      Martin and Laura (Langaas) Anderson
 when she taught at Island Home School, District 22, north of
 Greenbush. At that school, Adrian stayed with her for one year and           Martin Anderson was born in Polk County near Fosston, Minne­
 Cassel the other two years.                                               sota, on April 12, 1885, to Ole and Jorend Anderson. His dad, Ole,
  Joe was active in community activities, serving on school boards,        was born in Helgadal, Norway, and came to America in 1871 . His
 church council, town board, the draft board for ten years, ASCS           mother, Jorend, was born in Rock Prairie, Wisconsin. Her parents
 county committee, as secretary of the local Farmers Union, and            had both immigrated from Norway. Those immigrants who came
 Hereim Township assessor for ten years.                                   to homestead here had little money and worked hard to provide for
 Submitted by Art Anderson and Myrna Sovde.                                their families. Martin had ten brothers and sisters, Albert, Andrew,
                                                                           Iver, Ole, Johnny, Radina, Augustine, Erika, Josephine, and Carl.
               Knute and (Bertha) Marie Anderson                             In 1908, Martin and brother Ole went to Buchanan, Saskatchewan,
                                                                           Canada, to partake ofthe homesteading opportunities there. Within
     Knute Anderson was born in Valdres, Norway, in 1867. At age           a year, Ole became ill with TB so the brothers returned to their
  17, he came to America to Sauk Center, Minnesota where he mar­           parents' home in Badger. Ole died one year later, and Martin never
  ried Bertha Marie Olson in 1892. They moved to Hatton, North             did return to Canada. In 1912, he purchased the farm presently
  Dakota. In 1900, Knute took a homestead in Section 34 of Dewey           owned by Kenneth Langaas in Lind Township.
  Township. After erecting a house and bam,         returned to Hatton       Laura E. Langaas was born in rural Greenbush on March 26, 1905,
  to get his wife and four children.                                       to Ole and Lena (Lauritzen) Langaas who homesteaded in Lind
                                                       Knute, assisted     Township in 1901. Laura's parents died in 1925, leaving twenty
                                                   by his brother-in­      year old Laura to care for the farm. Laura had three sisters: Eleanor,
                                                   law, Mr. Olson,         Mary and Julia. Her sisters, Mary and Julia, who were teachers,
                                                   hauled the house­       assisted her with farm work in the summer.
                                                   hold goods and ma­                                            In 1931, Laura became Martin's
                                                   chinery and drove                                          bride at Bethlehem Lutheran
                                                   the cattle behind the                                      Church. Martin sold his farm to
                                                   wagon. The family                                          John Langaas, Laura's cousin, and
                                                   came by buggy                                              they resided on the farm Laura man­
                                                   with       Grandpa                &A::!\i~l'JP~~~ aged after the death of her parents.
                                                   Olson as driver.                                           After her marriage, Laura continued
                                                       When they first                                        to work in the fields shocking grain,
                                                   came there were                                            riding the binder, pitching hay, and
                                                   only wagon trails                                          doing whatever needed doing.
                                                   and cross-cuts from                                          Laura was active in the Ladies Aid
                                                   neighbor to neigh­                                         at Bethlehem Lutheran Church,
                                                   bor. The nearest                                           Laura quilted and Martin made a
                                                   railroad was in                                            quilt stretcher. He also made stilts
                                                   Stephen. The stage                                         for their two children.
                                                   brought mail from                                             In the early years, hunting and
                                                   there      to    the                                       trapping were Martin's main occu­
          Knute and Bertha engagement 1890.        Greenbush area.                                            pations and remained his hobbies
          (photo submitted by Helen Anderson)                              Laura Anderson shocking flax in        'I h' d hi         '   h h
                                                     They moved back
                                                                           Li nd .owns h' IPh oto courtesy OJ unt! . IS eat , n wmter e unted
                                                                                        Ip.                                           •
                                                   to North Dakota for     Lois Dvergsten)                    on hIS homemade SkIS or by horse­
  a while but returned to Greenbush in 1917.                                                                  back. He had many hunting stories
     Knute and Marie had ten children: Art (Alma Pederson), Bert           to share with his family. He had several greyhound hunting dogs
  (Minnie Hagen), Edna (Jens Pederson), Mamie (Joseph G. Ander­            and often hunted with his brother Albert and nephews Benard and
  son), Lillian (Ingvald Hagen), Myrtle (Ole Berntson), Gladys (Gil­
  bert Bratlie), Roy (Mable Bertilrud), Garvia died at age 17, and
  Harley (Thelma Eeg). After their daughter Myrtle died, they raised
  her two daughters, Lavonne and June Berntson. Art, Edna, Mamie,
  and Gladys all became teachers.
    Knute was a farmer all his life, but according to the Tribune of9­
  14-1923, he was one offifteen incorporators ofthe Greenbush Credit
. Company organized provide loans for farmers .
    In 1938, they built a home in Greenbush. Marie died in 1946 and
  Knute in 1951. They were members ofthe Pauli Lutheran Church.
    See "Honeycomb Bam" in the farming section, and the Edna and
  Jens Pederson pioneer history for a more complete story about Knute
  and Marie.
  Submitted by Arlaine Pederson Duray and Myrna Sovde.                     Martin Anderson by his homestead shack in Lind Township. Notice the wolf
                                                                           and weasel pelts. (photo courtesy ofLois Dvergsten)

                                                                       461

  Arnold. At deer hunting time extra hunters were always joining the                         Dve and Camjlla <Holm) Anderson
  hunt.
     Nothing was wasted. The skins were sold and deer meat was                 Ove Anderson was born in 1889 and came to America when he
  eaten, either canned or made into dried venison. No freezers or            was five years old. His father, Jacob Anderson, passed away in
  refrigerators until the late 1940s made for a lot of work to process       1900. His mother, Hansine, married Ole Sather in 1902. Being the
  meat and ofcourse canning berries and garden vegetables, too. Our          oldest of fourteen children, necessity put him to work at an early
  pioneers would not believe the luxuries we have today!                     age. He acquired a threshing machine and during harvest season
    But there were happy times too. They hitched up the horses and           threshed for area farmers.
  sleigh with bells on the harnesses and went visiting to all the nearby
  neighbors. There was food for all: homemade bread, sauce from
  wild strawberries, raspberries and blueberries, and homemade but­
. ter and cheese. Everything was hand labor.
    Two children were born to this union: Lois (Arvid) Dvergsten of
  Greenbush and Orleen (Dianne) Anderson, who presently live on
  the family farm. Martin and Laura had five grandchildren, Marla
  Dvergsten Lange, Arlyn Dvergsten, Sharon Dvergsten Emery, Jill
  Anderson Wahl, and Mardy Anderson. Nine great-grandchildren:
  Matthew and Laura Lange; Jaime, Benji, and Lynsi Emery; Dustin
  Wahl; and Tyler, Terhya, and Teahna Anderson.
    Martin died in 1958 and Laura in 1996. They are buried in the
  Bethlehem Lutheran Cemetery in Lind Township.                                   Ove's threshing crew. (photo courtesy ofJane (Anderson) Lorenson)
  Submitted by Lois Anderson Dvergsten and Myrna Sovde.                        Judith Camilla Holm was born in Skagen Township in 1899. She
                                                                             and Ove were married on June 18, 1919. They moved into
                      Nels and Louise Anderson                               Greenbush, and in 1923, he began work as custodian at the local
                                                                             high school, where he became well-known to the many who passed
   Nels and Louise Anderson met and married in Minneapolis. In               through the halls in the 33 1/2 years he worked there. The 1948­
 1920, they came to Hereim Township to the farm Section 5 SW 1/               1949 school annual was dedicated to him, and he was awarded an
 4 on County Road 4, two miles west of Greenbush. The hard times             honorary diploma in 1958. After retirement, he turned to wood­
 caused them to lose their farm to Rural Credit several times.               working, building cabinets and numerous other items for people in
    They had       children: in 1919 Helen (Ed) Johnson, in 1927             the area. He was a great craftsman and a perfectionist in every­
 Irene (Frank) Ratkovec, in 1933 Richard, who died from diphtheria           thing he built.
 in infancy.                                                                                                                  Camilla was a great
                                                                                                                          homemaker. She was a
                                                                                                                          member of the Bethel La­
                                                                                                                          dies Aid and was very ac­
                                                                                                                          tive in serving there. To­
                                                                                                                          gether with Mrs. Gust
                                                                                                                          Williamson, they led the
                                                                                                                          L.D.R., Lutheran Daugh­
                                                                                                                          ters Reformation. They
                                                                                                                          held meetings with the
                                                                                                                          young girls, teaching them
                                                                                                                          embroidery. They orga­
                                                                                                                          nized an operetta and pro­
                                                                                                                          ceeds from that and the
     Nels P. Anderson family: Nels P., Helen, Louise and Irene Anderson.
                         (photo by Irene Ratkovec)
                                                                                                                          embroidered pieces went
                                                                                                                          to the missions.
    Nels was manager of the Farmers' Union Shipping Association.                                                             Camilla passed away in
 He listed livestock and hired a trucker to haul to St. Paul, Minne­                                                      1941 and Ove in 1968.
 sota. He remembered one shipper who wasn't paid for his live­                                                            They were laid to rest at
 stock but still had to pay freight.                                                                                      the Bethel Cemetery.
    They were members of Bethel Lutheran Church. Nels passed                 Ove and Camilla (Holm) Anderson (photo cour­     Ove and Camilla had
        from cancer in 1953. Louise liked to garden and was a good           tesy ofJane (Anderson) Lorenson)             three children: Olafdied at
 cook. Her canning and fresh vegetables often froze in a dugout                                                           birth; Stella, who was the
 cellar. She passed away in 1967.                     .                      local telephone operator for several years, passed away in 1958;
    They had six grandchildren, Glen Johnson, Donavan Johnson,               and Jane, who married Melvin Lorenson, has five children: Merle
 Marsha Erickson, Connie Johnson, Ryan Ratkovec, and Dyan                    (Karen) Lorenson, Marcia (Erich) Sclunidt, Judith (Doug) Bergsnev;
 Wojciechowski.                                                              Ricky (Vandra) Lorenson, and David (Becky) Lorenson.
   Irene and Ryan Ratkovec continue to live on the family building site.     Submitted by Jane (Anderson) Lorenson.
 Submitted by Irene (Anderson) Ratkovec.
                                                                           462

               John Axning and Jorgina Rolandson                             worked on a claim (homestead) where the house burned down. After
                                                                             proving up on the tree claim he had the right to file on a homestead.
  John Axning and his sister, Jorgina Rolandson, came to America             That was the law then. A big wind came and blew the roof off the
from Namdahlen, Norway, at a young age without their parents.                first house. There were not much nails at that time. Father moved
They were sent with other relatives or foster parents because their          the house and bam on the homestead, put the two together and had
parents couldn't afford to care for them in Norway. Many parents             horses in one part while (during) that winter 1881 .
couldn 't afford to take care of their children, and in most cases the           He got logs for the other bam. Later for the granary. He had
older children were farmed out to more well-to-do families where             simple tools and machinery (the reaper). Our mother and father
they had to work very hard just to have food to eat and a place to           worked for P. Y. It took two to tie the bundles. After marriage and
sleep. Some children weren 't treated very well either. For John             a year later, a baby was born on July 14. Mother took the baby
and Jorgina to be able to come to America when their parents were            from shock to shock and followed the reaper. The baby weighed
so poor was extremely rare, and for the children, very fortunate.            only three and a half pounds at birth. It is a wonder the crickets
   Why was John 's last name Axning, and Jorgina's Rolandson?                didn't eat her up.
Perhaps John took the name of the farm he came from, which was                  (The second page showed sketches of Tillie, Martha, Nora, and
very common. Their parents were Johan and Ingeborg Rolandson.                Girty by the cabin, and mother and father (P. Y.) in the wagon.)
                                            John was born in 1870. He           The four little girls waving good-bye to Ma and Pa as they went
                                         settled near Viking, Minnesota,     to town. They took Albert, the baby along. The hired man was to
                                         before coming to Lind and           take care ofus. He came in and the fire was out. He started a good
                                         Dewey Township. Jorgine ,           fire in the box stove. There was an arch between the kitchen and
                                         born in 1875, lived with foster     front room. That is where it caught fire. The hired man came in and
                                         parents near Viking where she       took us out. And that is all that was saved, the four kids.
                                         attended school and was con­           P. R. Johnson's sister came and took us to their place. The path
                                         firmed.                             going into the timber had melted snow with about a foot of water
                                            John and Jorgine joined the      standing. She took Nora and Girty, and waded through the water,
                                         Bethlehem Church in 1904, so        took the shawl off.her head and put us on it. Then went back after
                                         they were in the area before that   Tillie and Martha.
                                         time. The exact year they ar­          Mother used to raise her sheep, shear them, spin, wash, and dye
                                         rived wasn't found in this re­      the wool. Then knit, knit for her family while she was plowing.
                                         search. John owned 240 acres:       Mrs. Zeble, the neighbor woman, brought over wool for mother to
    - .......                      ..... the south half of Section 34 in     knit for her while mother is nursing the baby and resting.
             John Axning
  (photo courtesy of Shirley Langaas)Dewey and the N 1/2 NW 1/4                 Father built right away. There was only shiplap on the outside.
                                     Section 3 in Lind.                      On a nice March day we moved in. A big snow storm came up. We
  In the later years John did exterior and interior painting. He had         had a big round heater stove. Father fired it up until it was red hot.
been a farmer until 1937 or 1938 when he, along with             and         Not much wood was around, and were we cold. The bedding and
her husband, Haaken Haagenson, moved into Greenbush and lived                clothing had all burnt (before). The horses and sled were at the old
together in the house now occupied by Ernest and Alice Miller.               place a mile away. Father said, 'We will freeze to death if we stay
John was buried in the Bethel Cemetery.                                      here. We will have to make it for the woods to P. R. Johnson.'
Submitted by Shirley Langaas and Myrna Sovde. Sources:                       Father went first, tramped down the snow, then came after us. Not
Bethlehem records, Greenbush TribuneJamily records. (see Haaken              much clothes on.
Haagenson and Henry Langaas histories)                                          Then father moved that old bam from the old place, put a straw
                                                                             roof on. Albert and Lawrence had matches. And this is what hap­
                       Nora (Johnson) Becker                                 pened. Mother beating the daylights out of one, the other ran for
                                                                             his life. Then father moved the granary from the old place and put
  Nora Johnson was the third child ofP. Y. (Peter) and Mary Johnson,         shingles on for a bam.
the first postmaster of Leo, Minnesota, in Barto Township. At age              Mr. Daley contested that tree claim across the road as illegal. In
96, Nora told her niece, Leona Johnson Emery, that her secret for a          the meantime Mother's parents in Minto, North Dakota, were get­
ripe old age and a happy life was "to get married late and don't             ting old and willed their farm to P. Y. Johnson (Father). In March
have kids." She married Charles Becker when she was in her 50s.              1892, we moved there to Grandpa's place, four miles west of the
  Nora was born in Perham, Minnesota, April 18, 1879. She moved              Red River. Wonderful crops, 40 bushels to an acre of wheat. The
with her parents to Barto Township about 1895. When Nora was                 crop of 1891 was left over winter in stacks and shocks all frozen in
93 years old, she wrote and sketched a story ofher youth and memo­           ice. There were not (enough) threshing rigs to handle the crop.
ries of her parents early years of homesteading. Her story follows :         Father took (harvested) two years crop (the next fall) .
 ' November 25, 1965, written by Nora Johnson Becker:                            In 1894 Father got a letter from the land office about the tree
   "Father had a yoke of oxen when he first started out. ,He hauled          claim that Mr. Daley had contested as illegal, saying that father can
logs. The oxen ran away. He fell down, broke his left        between         have it back or get another claim. Roseau County opened up home­
the elbow and wrist. When he came to, he straightened the break,             steads, so that is where we moved.
wrapped it up, put splints around and doctored it himself. There                (Nora drew a sketch showing when they came to Pelan.)
was no doctor at the time.                                                     Coming down the ridge from Pelan, Albert was driving the cattle
   In 1870, P. Y. Johnson filed on a tree claim. In 1875 he proved up        most of the way. He was only 14 years old. Mother was in the
on the tree claim. It was wonderful timber. At the same time he              covered wagon with her twelve children. Four months later Leo

                                                                         463

was born in January. Mother and Father worked here in July and                 supervisor and was on the school board of District 61. They had
August, built that home, made hay, cut wood, and dug wells for                 three children: Christine (Norman) Svegdahl, born December 3,
water. Then Leo was born in January, the 13th child. The home                  1932; Art (Kathryn Werner), born February 19, 1934; and Harvey
was sixteen miles northeast of here (Pelan).                                   (Lois Kaml), born April 8, 1935.
  The stage had five horses. They always had an extra along be­                   Harvey married Lois Olson Kaml on June 15, 1962, and they
hind in case one wears out. It hauled mail and passengers.                     took over the farm in 1966. They had four children: Leona Ann
  The blue sky and God's green earth, wild animals, and rocks.                 Harrison, born March 23,1963; Kay Lynn Marie, born May 2,1965,
These rocks are the rocks that the ice age brought down from the               and died in 1986;Lynette Charlene Gustafson, born March 6, 1969;
north.                                                                         and Brian Evan Berge, born April 16, 1975.
                                                                                 Brian took over the farm in 1996, so it will qualify as a Centen­
                                                                               nial Farm in 2005.
                                                                               Submitted by Harvey and Lois Berge.

                                                                                                          Harry

                                                                                  Harry Berger, the eldest child of John and Emma (Svensrud)
                                                                               Berger, was born March 28, 1901. He was baptized at the Poplar
             P.Y. Johnson homestead at Leo. (by Nora Johnson)
                                                                               Grove Church, and confirmed into the Bethlehem Lutheran con­
   Leo was born at this place. Mother and Father passed away at                gregation in 1915. Harry lived all his life on his family's home­
this place. We all moved there. The back lean was the barn that                stead in the SW 1/4 of Section 32 Hereim Township. He attended
winter. The boys grew up and made good nice buildings. We had                  school at the Gavick School District 60 in Deer Township, although
cattle, horses, and machinery and all went good for parents and                their land was not in any school district until 1913.
children. Then mother took sick with dropsy. Two years later                     Although Harry wished to marry at one time, he remained a bach­
passed away on March 12.                                                       elor all of his life because his parents disapproved of his choice.
  Later Albert got married, then Clementine, then Joe, later Frances,          The girl never married either.
then Leo. Leo got the home place. Father and Bertha stayed with
Leo. Two years later, Leo's wife died in 1926. Father passed away.
In 1929 Leo married again. Depression came and he lost the home.
  Then Leo went to Juneberry, worked hard and made good. Leo at
                                                      the age of55 passed
                                                      away, December 4,
                                                      1949, left a wife and
                                                      five children. Leo
                                                      was the first one that
                                                      died of P. Y.
                                                      Johnson's family of
                                                      thirteen children .
                                                      Leo was the young­
                                                      est in the family."
                                                         (Nora lived to be     The older John and Emma Berger children; Harry, Clifford, Edwin, Gilmer
                                                      I06, living the last     and Ella. (photo courtesy ofLilly Bingaman)
                                                      few years in a nurs­
                                                      ing home.)                 Harry was the eldest of seven children. His brothers and sisters
                                                      Submitted by Leona       were Clifford, Edwin, Gilmer, Ella, Rudy, and Gladys. They lived
                                                      Emery. Edited by         across the section from their double cousins, the Harold and Sina
Nora Becker's I06th Birthday; Leona Emery, Donald
Rinowski, Nora Becker, Lizzy (Schires) SchaUer, Agnes Myrna Sovde.             Johnson family. Harold was a cousin to Emma Berger, and Sina
(Troskey) Paulson.                                                             was a sister to John Berger.
                                                                                  In the Bethlehem Church, the unmarried men and women, no
                       Eivind and Anna                                         matter how old, were considered members of the Luther League.
                                                                               Harry was an active member throughout his youth until in his early
  Eivind E. Berge, born in 1865 in Norway, and Anna (Thompson)                 forties. He also played a comet in the Greenbush Community Band
Berge, born in 1862, came to the United States in 1899. They bought            and in the Pelan Band in the 1930s and 1940s.
squatter's rights in Huss Township around 1901-1909, and acquired                Harry, a life-long farmer, farmed with his brother Clifford. Be­
homestead patents in 1910. They raised chickens, cows, pigs and                sides grain farming, he had a few chickens and milked cows until
horses, and belonged to Farmers Union.                                         he was quite old. After the death of his mother in 1959, he lived
  They had five children: Helga Forsness Thompson, born in 1889;               alone in the big farm house until the last few years when he lived
Evan, born January 7, 1892- married Emma Holen, born December                  with Clifford and Effie across the road. Harry died in 1984 and is
I, 1898; Alice Hofdahl, born in 1894; Ingaborg (Oscar) Nesteby,                buried in the Bethlehem Cemetery.
born April 25, 1897; and Annie Asplund, born in 1899.                          Submitted by Myrna Sovde, Goddaughter.
   Evan and Emma bought the farm in 1943. He was a township
                                                                           464
                  John and Emma Berger Family                                    John was on the creamery board when the new creamery was
                                                                               built and was active in the Bethlehem Church, particularly in reli­
                                                                               gious education and was concerned about public education. Emma
                                                                               served as an officer of the Bethlehem Ladies Aid.
                                                                                 The bam, which was state of the art at that time, included a roll­
                                                                               ing track in the hay mow and a built in ventilation system. John




The Berger family on their homestead. Harry, Edwin, Emma's mother, (Gunhild
Svensrud), Ella, Emma, Clifford, Gilmer and John with stallion. (photo cour­
tesy ofLilly Bingaman)


   John Berger was born in Norway in 1871 and immigrated to
America as a young man. His birth name was Hanson, but there
were so many Hansons in Minnesota when he arrived, he decided
to change it to Berger which was the name of the farm in Norway.                     Berger's state of the art barn. (photo courtesy ofMark Stephens)
First he          the Rustans at Woodside south of Erskine, Minne­
sota. In 1889 he married Miss Omang. She died in childbirth and                built this bam with dimension planed fir lumber shipped in by rail
was buried at Woodside. *                                                      car from Washington state. Enough lumber was left over when the
  John returned to Norway in 1898 and married Emma Svensrud,                   bam was completed to erect a 12x12 foot wellhouse. The bam was
(born 1875) from Oslo, Norway. He brought his new bride back to                also one ofthe first in the area to have gas lights and cupolas on the
McKinley, Minnesota. John worked in lumber camps in eastern                    roof. The carpenter employed for this task was Hans Bratlie. This
Minnesota and Montana before settling in rural Greenbush.                      project took an entire season to complete. Everything was hand
  They started their homestead in 1900 on the SW 1/4 Section 32 in             labor and the carpenter stayed with the family. The bam remains
Hereim Township, "proving up" 160 acres. When completed they                   today, although the roof was lowered to be used for grain and ma­
received their homestead certificate which was a deed signed by                chinery storage by Waage Farms, who own the land today.
President Theodore Roosevelt.
  John's sister, Sina, married Harold J. Johnson. They lived on the
next section to the west. Their brother, Hilmer, also lived in the
area at different times.
  John raised Shorthorn cattle, small grains, and grass seeds as did
many farmers of the day. They built a small two room log house
where most of their seven children were born. Harry 1901-1984;
Clifford 1902-1978; Edwin 1904-1981; Gilmer 1906-1994; Ella
1909-1986; Rudy 1911-2003; and Gladys
                                                          John was a
                                                       hard working,
                                                       pros pe rou s                         Tbe Berger bouse built by Hans Bratlie in 1919.
                                                                                              (photo courtesy ofMark and Karen Stephens)
                                                       farmer and a
                                                            astute busi­          The farmstead was featured on the front page of the "Minnesota
                                                       nessman. In             Farmer" magazine in 1940 as one ofthe most improved, up to date,
                                                       1918 he built a         farms of the day. The house was built in 1919 by the same carpen­
                                                       large dairy barn        ter and the same material as the bam. At 28x28 feet square, it was
                                                       with a hip roof         one of the largest and most impressive houses of the time. It had a
                                                       and hay mow.            full basement (cement) that featured a furnace that heated two full
                                                       He continued to         floors. There was also a sizeable attic for storage with a widow's
                                                       increase his            peak on top. A large front porch (later enclosed) graced the south
                                                       herd of cattle          side. Like the bam, the house also had built in gas lights. The
                                                       and other live­         woodwork throughout the home was ofbeautiful native fir and oak.
                                                       stock that in­          The upstairs featured four large bedrooms with built in closets in
                                                       cluded . hogs,          each room which was unusual for the time.
                                                       chickens, and              The farm was well known for the pretty lilac and peony bushes
                                                       sheep.       The        that surrounded the house and the water and flower gardens and
Torkelson wedding in December 1942. Back: Clifford and farm acreage in-        lily pond that required much attention to maintain their beauty.
Ella Torkelson, Astrid and Gilmer Berger, Front: Myrna        dt               Weddings were held at the home as well as other social events such
Jobnson and Larry Stepbens. (photo courtesy of Myrna crease 0 over
(Johnson) Sovde)                                        1100 acres.            as ladies aid and sewing circle. Visiting pastors stayed overnight

                                                                           465

 with the Berger family, as did traveling salesmen on occasion. John        originally been homesteaded by her uncle John Byhre in 1904. Here
 and Emma were gracious hosts.                                              they maintained their home for 48 years. Gilbert and Hilda had
   John Berger died in 1950 and Emma in 1959. They are buried in            three children: Clarice Martinson (Rudy) 1923 Thief River Falls,
 the Bethlehem Cemetery, the church they joined in 1914. The older          Gilman (1925-1981), Selvin Bertilrud (Minda) 1931 Fargo, ND.
 children were baptized in Poplar Grove, South Bethania, and West           Hilda Bertilrud passed away in October 1969 and Gilbert Bertilrud
 Poplar Grove.                                                              in June 1970.
   Harry and Clifford remained on the farm. Clifford married Effie            Some recollections of our parents were the raising of many chick­
 Peterson from Middle River and adopted Duane and Darlene. They             ens; we assume the time was in the 1930s. The picture with Mother
 lived across the road from the original homestead.                         feeding the chickens was how the grain was scattered by hand, out
    Edwin married Alvina Torkelson from Erskine. He worked as a             ofa pail, onto the ground. We remember the incubators in the house.
 buttermaker at Mentor before moving to Washington state where              They were heated by kerosene lamps as they had no electricity at
.he worked in a nuclear energy plant. Their children were Betty,            the time. They must have fed the chicks "starter", but Mother would
 Doug, and Don.                                                             hard boil eggs, then mash them with a fork and feed it to the chicks.
    Gilmer married Astrid Nelson, a schoolteacher. They lived with          They also bought what we called "chicken oatmeal in bags" to feed
 his parents for several years before moving to a farm one mile away.       the chicks. Dad would exhibit chickens at the Roseau County Fair
 They had one son Gilmer "Budd."                                            and won many blue ribbons.
   Ella married Clifford Torkelson at the Berger farm in 1943. They           We lived in a two room log house, which tragically, on December
 lived on a farm near Erskine that is now a part of the Rydell Wild­        11, 1931, burned to the ground. It was so cold that morning, but
 life Refuge. Their children were Sonja, James and Diane.                   luck was with us as they had planned to butcher turkeys that day
    Rudy was in Europe during WWII. In 1947 he married Erma                 and a brooder house was already being heated with a wood stove
 Hanson ofNewfolden. They had nine children, Steve, Karen, Blaine,          for that purpose. That really saved us because we all had a place to
 Lenay, Shelly, Kathy, Kim, Shane, and Joni. They moved to Wash­            stay while the house burnt. Anton Foss (Mother's brother) came
 ington state in 1959 when soil bank came in. He worked construc­           over, riding a horse, as he had seen the smoke. He went home and
 tion.                                                                      got a sleigh and took us over to their place. What a delicious din­
    Gladys married Richard (Choppy) Stephens at the Berger home             ner, his wife Amanda, had cooking. We then stayed at Andrew
 in 1937. Their six children are Larry, Brian (Ron), Stuart, Cheri,         Andersons for a week. It is amazing we survived living in the two
 Mark and Lance. They farmed south of Greenbush until 1959 when             brooder houses the rest ofthe winter; but we did. Dad began build­
 they too moved to Washington. Gladys worked as a cook for the              ing the new house on nice days during the winter. When spring
 King County School District.                                               came he constructed the foundation and basement. They then moved
  )ubrriitted by      Stephens and Myrna Sovde. Sources: oral his­          the new house on the basement-- all by horses.
 tory, church records, and *Harold S. Johnson. See also Emma
 Svensrud.

        Gulbrand ("Gilbert") and Hilda (Foss) Bertilrud

  Gulbrand (or Gilbert as he was better known in this country) was
born in 1884 in Hedalen, Valdres, Norway. He was the youngest of
ten children and was four years old when the family immigrated to
America in 1888. The Bertilruds first settled in Portland, ND, but
the following year, 1889, they moved to Ross where they home­
steaded.            his youth, Gilbert worked on farms, both in ND
and Canada, worked in lumber camps and in railroad construction
in Canada and Minnesota.
                                             In 1909, he filed on a home­
                                           stead in Canada but moved
                                           back to Roseau County with­
                                                                                              Hilda Bertilrud feeding the chickens.
                                           out proving up and instead he                  (Clarice Martinson and Selvin Bertilrud photo)
                                           filed on a homestead in Sec­
                                           tion 18 of Deer Township,          There were many blizzards through the years but the notable one
                                           south of Greenbush. In 1920,     was March 15, 1941. Clarice was home, from school, for the week­
                                           he sold this farm and bought     end. Dad was on the township board and he left Saturday after­
                                           another in Section 5 close to    noon, walking to Syver Haugtvedt with some papers. A terrific
                                           the homestead of his brother     blizzard started towards evening and he had not come home. Mother
                                           MikkeJ. In 1922, he was mar­     and Gilman did the chores that evening and the next morning, and
                                           ried to Hilda Foss. Hilda was    we were getting quite anxious. We had no phone at that time. But
                                           born in 1896, the daughter of    Sunday afternoon he came walking home. He had stayed at Majer's
                                           Otto and Anne Foss. She was      place overnight. Many stories have been written about that storm­
                                           one of eleven children. Mr.      no warnings and no communication. It covered a large area from
                                           and Mrs. Gilbert Bertilrud       Canada to North Dakota and Minnesota. Because the day was so
Gilbert Bertilrud (courtesy olRe/en Kilen) lived on their farm, which had   mild, many people were away from home and were caught in it.

                                                                        466

Many lives were lost. There had also been a terrific blizzard the
preceeding fall (October, 1940) which we named the Armistice Day
storm. Many lives were also lost in this storm.
  Think of the changes and accomplishments that these pioneers
saw in their lifetimes-- living as they did then...to witnessing man
landing on the moon.
Submitted by Clarice Martinson and Selvin               .

                  Mikkel and Anna Bertilrud

   Mikkel Bertilrud, better known as M. G. Bertilrud, was born at
Hedalen, Valdres, Norway, to Gulbrand and Kjersti Bertilrud on
April 4, 1878. In 1888, the Bertilrud family came to Portland, North
Dakota, where they stayed for several months with a family before
                                                                              Mikkel with dug out house. (photo from Helen (Berti/rud) Kilen)
settling in Ross, Minnesota.
   During his early youth, Mikkel worked in the lumber camps at         Charlie, and a horse named Daisy. Mikkel cleared the land of trees
Sprague, Manitoba, Canada. Walking was his only means of travel         and got it ready for cultivation with a one blade plow and oxen. He
until he made enough money to buy himself a bicycle. He also            also helped build roads in the area, including the road to Strathcona,
hauled freight to Stephen, Minnesota for fifty cents per hundred        with the use of horses and oxen.
pounds. The round trip took almost a week. He also supplemented
his income by fishing on Roseau Lake and then would haul the fish
to Warren, Minnesota to sell.
  Mikkel homesteaded in Deer Township in 1898, where he built a
small house and a bam with the help of his father.
   One memorable evening after dark, when Mikkel and his dad
were about to retire for the night, there was a loud knock on the
door. When Mikkel opened the door, there stood an Indian with a
big knife in his hand motioning for him to come outside with him.
Mikkel was scared and hesitated to go, but his dad said he had no
                                                                              Mikkel plowing with oxen. (photo from Helen (Berti/rud) Kilen)
choice but to go with him. They walked to the bam where the
Indian went up to a cow and pretended to skin her. Mikkel                  Anna always had a large garden and canned up to 800 or more
understood that the Indian wanted to know ifMikkel had a hide for       quarts of vegetables, pickles, and jams each year. All the sauces
him. Mikkel shook his head and the Indian understood he didn't          and jams came from the fruit she and her family picked growing
have any and then left.                                                 wild in the area, such as chokecherries, blueberries, and plums.
  In 1908, Mikkel married Anna Everson, daughter ofAndrew and           Besides doing all her laundering by hand by scrubbing clothes on
Gunild Everson, who was also from the Ross area.                        the washboard, she always had a good supply ofhomemade breads,
  They raised ten children: daughters Clara (Mrs. ToralfBoe), Olga      cakes and other goodies on hand. She was well known in the area
             _ .......,.-.,..-       .......   (Mrs. Fred Thomsen),     as an excellent cook and neighbors and strangers were always wel­
                                               Gunda Bertilrud,         come in their home to share a meal or a cup of coffee and sweets
                                               Mabel (married Roy       any time.
                                               Anderson who died in       They were both baptized in the Lutheran faith and long-time mem­
                                               1974, later married      bers of the Bethlehem Lutheran Church of rural Greenbush where
                                               Ernest Erickson, who     they were active in all church activities. Anna was an active long
                                               died in 1993), Lillian   time member of the Bethlehem Ladies Aid. Mikkel served on the
                                               (Mrs.        Edward      township board and also on the Gavick school board, plus he was
                                              Lennon), Helen (Mrs.
                                               Arthur Kilen ), and
                                               sons Arnold (Myrtle
                                              Olson), Edwin (Joan
                                              Novacek), Rudolph
                                               (Vema Hanson), and
                                              Maurice       (Arlene
                                               Carlson).
                                                  Mikkel and Anna
                                               were both hard work­
                                               ing people . The
                                               homestead was a
                                               grain farm with milk
      Mikkel and Anna Bertilrud Wedding        cows, three oxen
       (photo from Helen (Bertilrud) Kilen)    named Tim, Tom, and            Mikkel and Anna Bertilrud (photo from Helen (Bertilrud) Kilen)

                                                                    467

  active in cooperative work in the area.                                                                      (Ben) (1912-1981) married to
     The children had to walk two miles to the Gavick School on a                                              Caroline Neumiller (1911-1994);
  route where it is not uncommon to hear wolves in the distance.                                               Ernest (1915 - 1984) married to
  Indians would camp in the woods south ofMikkel and Anna's land,                                              Artillian Solom (1922-1994) 1
  where the older children would have to walk by them to get to the                                            child; Peter (1918-1949) married
  school, but they never bothered them.                                                                        to Dorothy Erickson (Deceased) I
    The children also had the job of cleaning the .schoolhouse. They                                     .     child.
  would heat the water at home and carry it all the way to school for                                             The Bialkes farmed a half sec­
  two dollars a month.                                                                                         tion, growing the customary grains
    Gypsies could often be seen passing by on the road past the home­                                          and seeds and raising cattle and
  stead. Men would be riding in the wagon with the women walking                                               sheep. John, who was also a car­
. behind. They would camp in areas where "snack roots" (snakeroots)                                            penter, built a house and a bam
  grew so they could dig and dry them to sell for medicinal use.                                               with the assistance of his oldest
    Mikkel and Anna both stayed on the original farmstead until they                                           son, Frank. However, with the
  passed away. Mikkel died December 12, 1970, and Anna died No­                                                farm economy at a really low point
  vember 5, 1972.                                                       John and Mary Bialke; taken in 1914    and the Great Depression looming
  Submitted by Helen (Bertilrud) Kilen and Angela (Kilen) Peterson.     when they moved with eight of eleven   in the future, finances were poor
                                                                             to              from Gilman,      and the Bialkes almost lost the
                                                                        MN. (photo courtesy ofB.J. "Dutch"
                     Frank and           Bialke                                                                farm.
                                                                        Bialke)

                                  Frank Bialke was born in Decem­
                                ber of 1894. He was one of ten
                                brothers and no sisters. He married
                                Agnes Lasniewski. They had three
                                children: Genevieve, Dorothy, and
                                Hilary. They farmed in Barnett
                                Township and were members of
                                Blessed Sacrament Church. He was
                                an early campaigner for rural elec­
                                tricity and was on many commit­
                                tees, which included the creamery
                                organization. He was also involved
                                in many community activities.
                                  Frank was a rural mail carrier for
                                many years, even delivering mail        Bialke family - 1920 after father (John) died. Back LtoR: Severen (1905), Ray
                                                                        (1904), Barney (1902), Adam (1897); Front LtoR: Mary (1877), Ernie (1915),
                                on foot. He was a good farmer and
                                                                        Jack (1916), Ben (1912), Martin (1908), and Pete (1918) held by Frank (1894).
 Frank and     Bialke     cour- especially in raising sheep.
                                                                               courtesy ofB.J. "Dutch" Bialke)
 tesyofMaryAnnandDavidSchires)           leved'In educat'IOn beyond
                                  He be I'
                                the country school.                       Following the untimely death of her husband, John, on February
    He eventually moved off the farm into Greenbush. He died of         4, 1920, Mary had a very difficult life, raising her many sons with­
 cancer December of 1945.                                               out a father. Nevertheless, she advanced them all to manhood, and
 Submitted by MaryAnn and David Schires.                                in her latter years she supplemented her income with earnings re­
                                                                        sulting from her high quality cooking and baking talents at the lo­
                      John and Mary Bialke                              cal restaurants and hospital.
                                                                          Most of the Bialke children had offspring, who now live in many
    The Bialke family migrated from Gilman (near Foley, Minne­          parts of the world.
 sota) to Greenbush on April 6, 1914, and settled in Barnett Town­      Submitted by J. "Dutch" Bialke (son ofFrank Bialke).
 ship. Originally, their parents had immigrated from Poland and
 Czechoslovakia in the mid-1800s.                                                     The Family of Henry and Marit Bjerk
   John Bialke (1867-1920) and Mary (Jedlicki) Bialke (1877-1961),
 who had married in latter 1892, had eleven (11) sons, but daugh­         Henry Mathias Nathan Bjerk was born to Eric Asbjornsen Bjerk
 ters. Their children were as follows:                                  (1831-1909) and Britha Madsdatter Aabolle Bjerk (1855-1893) in
    Frank (1894-1949) married to Agnes Lasniewski (1896-1972) 3         Buffalo County, Wisconsin, on March 21,1869. He had seven sib­
 children; Jacob (1895-1897); Adam (1897-1977) married to Julia         lings. His parents were Britha Madsdatter Aabolle (Bjerk) and Eric
 Kasprick (1902-1996) 2 children; Barney (1902-1947) married            Asbjornsen Bjerk, who was born in Luster Co Norway and died in
 Eleanor Lasniewski (1908-1990) 4 children; Raymond (1904-1988)         Roseau.
 married to Ora Carvell Voth (19 I5-present); Severyn (1905-1994)          In September of 1894, Henry married Marit Thorsdotter Ulven
 married to Mela (1911-1986) I child; Martin (1908-1990) married        Reierson (born February, 1876) in Holt, Minnesota, where they lived
 to Frances Riske (1913-1997) 3 children; John (Jack) (1910-1969)       until 1901. Then he farmed at Mud Lake for a time before home­
 married to Marie Schires (Deceased 1975) 4 children; Benedict          steading in Huss Township, Roseau County.
                                                                    468

                                                                         had eight children; and Sharron married Ron Williams and had five
                                                                         children.
                                                                            (6) Nannie (Nance) Matilda Bjerk Johnson- born April 2, 1904,
                                                                         died April 8, 1973- Nance married William Johnson. They had six
                                                                         children, Giles, Faye, Phyllis, Darlene, Aryls, and Eileen.
                                                                           (7) Selmer Raymond Bjerk- (a twin) born 1906, died 1974- Selmer
                                                                         and Ethel raised four children, LaVonne, LaVern, Curtis, and Nadine.
                                                                            (8) Arthur Earl Bjerk- (a twin) born 1906, died 1976- Arthur and
                                                                         Nellie (McFarlane) had three children: Art married Wanda, Deloris
                                                                         married Richard Bohr, and Dennis married Lynn.
                                                                           (9) Pearl Clarice Bjerk- born 1907- Pearl married Emil Ornquist.
                                                                         They had five children. Avis married George Wallin; Eldor, also
                                                                         known as Speed, married Bonnie Franks and had two children; Dean
                                                                         married Fern Curtis and had three children; Morlyn married Debra
                                                                         Lien and had one child; and Carol married Gorden Taylor (now
                                                                         divorced) and had four children.
         Henry and Marit Bjerk (photo courtesy ofCarmen Sather)
                                                                            (10) Marie Gladys Bjerk- born January 19, 1911, died August 9,
      He built a three-room log cabin. Later the boys cut their own      1911.
  logs, sawed their own lumber, and built a house. Henry always              (11) Gladys Hannah Bjerk- born July 1, 1912- Gladys married
  farmed with mules and never owned a tractor, but he invented the       Walter Thibedo and Alan Marlar. Gladys had two children,
  first bean threshing machine. The machine, which he never pat­         Marcedes and Audrey. Marcedes married Russ Sasse and Roy
  ented, can be seen at the Northland Threshing Bee. He also was a       Wichgers, both died ofcancer. Marcedes had three children. Audrey
  blacksmith. Henry smoked a pipe with a cover until he died. He         married Gerry Little and had two children.
  ate with his knife and poured his coffee into a saucer to drink it.      (12) Myron Arnold Bjerk- born September 18, 1915- Myron mar­
      Marit was a midwife as well as a housewife. She always had         ried Lillian Larson (divorced) and later married Julia. Myron had
  peppermint candy for her grandchildren. The first meeting of the       four children, Marlys, Arden, Richard, and Janet.
  Norwegian Ladies Aid was held at Marit's home on May 2, 1905.             (13) Baby Boy Bjerk- born 1917, died 1917.
  At this meeting the Aid was organized. Charter members were:           Submitted by Carmen Majer Sather.
  Mrs. Fred Wiskow, president; Mrs. T. Gilbertson, treasurer; Mrs.
. A. Amundson, secretary; Mrs. H. Smebak; Mrs. H. Bjerk; Mrs. O.                        Henry and Mary (Novak) Blazek
  N. Gordon; Mrs. Severt Anderson; Mrs. L. Lorenson; Mrs. H. S.
  Gjovik; and Mrs. Hamness.                                                Henry Blazek came from Czechoslovakia with his family at the
     Marit had a stroke and was confined to a wheelchair for the last    age ofeleven years. His family first settled in Walsh County, North
  twelve years of her life. Her daughter-in-law, Ethel, took care of     Dakota, and later moved to the Haug, Minnesota area. Henry home­
  her at home. Marit died at the Greenbush Hospital on October 8,        steaded a small farm two and a half miles north of the Haug Store.
  1950.                                                                    Henry and Mary (Novak) Blazek were united in marriage in Janu­
    Henry sold the farm to Norman Erickson and moved to Badger in        ary 1903. A few years later they moved to a better house a mile
  1942.                                                                  away, which was later occupied by Arvin Gorden.
    Henry and Marit had thirteen children:                                                                              Henry and Mary had
     (1) Edgar H. Bjerk- born 1894, died May 5, 1950- Edgar, never                                                   seven children: Mary,
  married, was a photographer having Bjerk Studio in Strathcona for                                                  Gabriella,      Pauline,
  a time and later a studio in McIntosh, Minnesota.                                                                 Frank,      Henry Jr.,
    (2) Bertha Bjerk Martinson- born May 24, 1896- She raised two                                                    Angeline, and Yarmilla.
  children: Pearl, and Magnus. Pearl married Leroy Nelson and had                                                      In 1932, they moved to
  four children. Magnus married Marajore and adopted two chil­                                                     1 a farm three miles north
  dren.                                                                                                              of Greenbush and lived
     (3) Richard Bernard Bjerk- born August 5, 1898- Richard, who                                                    there until 1941. Their
  worked for Fox Studios in Hollywood, married Hazel Winjum. They                                                    three oldest daughters
  had two children. Lois married Jack Davis, and Jeanie married                                                      who were living in Cali­
  Gene Fisk.                                                                                                         fornia urged them to
     (4) Oscar Helmer Bjerk- born July 19, 1900, died 1963- Oscar                                                    move out there, which
  married Helen Moser. After she died of cancer, he married Naomi                                                    they did in 1943. As of
  Anderson. Oscar was a barber in Karlstad. Oscar and Helen had                                                     June 2004, two of their
  four children, Joyce, Rodger, Jack, and Terry.                                                                    children         survive­
     (5) Edith "Ida" Bjerk Reierson- born        19, 1902, died Octo­                                                Angeline (Kenneth)
  ber 1, 1988- Ida married Obert Reierson.           had six children.                                              Bothum and Yarmilla
  Orla married Clarence Majer and had three children; Betty married      Henry and Mary (Novak) Blazek, August 1948, (Severyn) Duray.
  Les Haugen and had two children and raised three more; Virgil                Dad 71 years and Mom 65 years.
  married Lois Eickstad and had four children; Beverly married Rob­
  ert Swan and had six children; Shelby married Elvin Ostrno and         Submitted by Yarmilla Duray

                                                                     469

                       John and Stella Blazek                                  lifetime member of St.
                                                                               Aloysius Church at Leo and
  John and Stella Blazek came from Czechoslovakia. John, born in               Mary was a member since her
Tucapy, Czechoslovakia on March 28, 1873, came to Tabor, MN                    marriage.
with his family in 1888. In 1894, they moved to Roseau County                    Their children were: Rafine
and settled in Soler Township. They built their home there and                 (Lorraine Mlodzik), Floyd
engaged in farming. Stella M. Kozel was born in Mi1ensko, Czecho­              (Alice Stanislawski), Delores
slovakia on August 14, 1876. Her family came to Pisek, ND in                   (Merle Anderson), Loretta
1904. John and Stella were married in Pisek, January 19, 1909,                 (Philip Pelowski) and Rudy
and made their home in Soler Township.                                         (Alice Mlodzik). Floyd died
                                                                               November 29, 1973, in
                                                                               Roseau and Mary died March
                                                                               26, 1974, in Greenbush.
                                                                               Submitted by Lorraine
                                                                               Blawat.


                                                                                                                   Floyd and Mary Blawat wedding July 6,
                                                                                                                   1926. (photo courtesy ofLorraine Blawat)

                                                                                                    Frank and Elizabeth Blawat

                                                                                 Frank Blawat was born October 9, 1864, in Kolosblwa, Poland
                                                                               and came to the United States at the age of 19 years in 1883 as a
                                                                               stow-a-way on a ship, leaving his parents, three brothers and one
                                                                               sister in Poland. Elizabeth Gerszewski Blawat was born Novem­
  John, Stella, Mary and Frances in front of their home in Soler township.
                    (photo courtesy ofErnest Janousek)                         ber 15, 1865, in Poland and came to the United States with her
                                                                               parents, two sisters and six brothers.
  John served as treasurer of Soler Township board for a number of                Frank and Elizabeth were married January 19, 1892, by Father
years. They attended St. Aloysius Catholic Church at Leo. Besides              Matthew Grochowski in Pulaski Township, Warsaw, ND. Frank
his own farming he had custom threshing crews. He also made                    helped build a railroad from Ardoch, ND to Neche, ND with
many tools and etc. in his blacksmith shop.                                    Elizabeth's brothers while Elizabeth cooked for the men. In Au­
  They had four children but two sons died in infancy. Their daugh­            gust 1901, they homesteaded a farm in Barto Township and farmed
ters were Mary who was born in 1912 and Frances who was born in                until their son, Severyn, took over when Elizabeth died on August
1914.                                                                          5, 1923. Frank continued to live with Severyn until he died on May
   Mary married Frank Kukowski in 1959 and they continued to                   4,1947.
reside on the Blazek farm. Frank and Mary had no children. Frank                 Some original buildings remain on the farm which is still owned
passed away in 1980 and Mary continued to reside on the farm                   by a grandson, Rafine Blawat. Frank and Elizabeth traveled to
until she moved to the nursing home in 1995. She passed away on                Stephen, MN with horses and wagons to sell their grain and to pur­
Apri1'?,2001.                                                                  chase supplies. They bought their first car in 1919.
  Frances married Frank Janousek in 1936 and they resided on the
farm' they purchased in Soler Township. They have three children:
Leonard (Thi1da Waage), Marlene (Adrian Pulczinski), and Ernie
(Shelley               Melgaard Erickson) who continue to live in
the Greenbush area. Frank passed away in 1977 and Frances passed
away in 1986.
   The Blazek farm in Soler Township, Section 14, became a cen­
tury farm in 1994 and is now owned by grandson, Ernest Janousek.
Ernest purchased the farm in 1997.
Submitted by Ernest Janousek.

                       Floyd and Mary Blawat
                                                                               Frank and Elizabeth Blawat with children: Victoria, Floyd, Mary, Severyn,
                                                                               Bill (Valentine), Leonard, John, Lucy and Elizabeth in 1919. (photo courtesy of
 Floyd Blawat was born May 4, 1898, in Barto Township, Roseau
                                                                               Lorraine Blawat)
County and was the son ofFrank and Elizabeth Gerszewski Blawat.
Mary Blawat was born April 1, 1909, at Warsaw, ND and was the                   Their children were Leonard (Frances Perkerewicz), Mary (Albert
daughter of Frank and Angeline Perkerewicz Marynik.                            St. Antoine), Severyn (Victoria Perkerewicz), Floyd (Mary
  Floyd worked in a coal mine in Hibbing, MN for several years                 Marynik), Victoria (1. B. Efta), John (Sylvia Fleshman), Bill (Albina
before his marriage to Mary Marynik on July 6, 1926, at Warsaw,                Novacek), Lucy (Max Duray), Elizabeth (Alex Wojciechowski) and
ND. They farmed in Barto Township until retirement in 1964, at                 Joe Clement, who died as an infant.
which time they moved into the city of Greenbush. Floyd was a                  Submitted by Lorraine Blawat.
                                                                             470

                 John and Mary (Pukwla) Bolek

   John Bolek was born in Zolynzo, Poland in 1872. He came to the
 United States in 1890. He worked for a few years in the coal mines
 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, before moving to the farms of North
 Dakota. In the late 1890s, he came to Roseau County where he
 took a homestead in Polonia Township.
   Mary Pukwla was born in Debeca, Poland, in 1878. She came to
 America during the 1890s, stopping at Cleveland, Ohio, where she
 had some relatives. She worked in a bakery there. In 1906, she
.moved to Roseau County and married John.
  They had six children: Mike, Joe, John, Stanley, Johan, and Myron.
 They belonged to St. Aloysius Catholic Church. Mary died in 1959.                 Peder "Pete" Borgen in the early 1930s with his mail car.
 Submitted by Linda Gieseke with information from an article by                              (photo submitted by A.J. Pulczinski)
 Joe Bolek in the Roseau County History Book.
                                                                           December 18, 1943, at Greenbush, Minnesota; Elmer was born July
             Peder P. and Anna (Halverson)                                 13, 1912, at Greenbush married Alice Melby and died June 28, 1984,
                                                                           in Oregon City, Oregon; Menvil was born on January 24, 1915, at
  Ingeborg Anna (Halverson) Borgen           born July 9, 1880, to Ole     Greenbush, Minnesota, married to Bernice Duray on June 11, 1940,
and Mary (Huset) Halverson in Lake Johanna, Minnesota. She lived           and living in Greenbush; and Esther was born November 12, 1918,
in Johanna, attended school and worked there until she was mar­            at Greenbush, Minnesota, married to Benard Bendickson in 1940
ried at the age of 19.                                                     and died January 27, 1992, at Spokane, Washington. One other
    Peder Borgen was born on December 24, 1875, in Ringabo,                son, also named Elmer was born January 3, 1906, and died in in­
Gudbrandsdalen, Norway. He came to America with his parents                fancy on September 28, 1907. He is buried in the East Lake Cem­
when he was 14 years old. They settled in the town of Lac qui              etery in Crow Lake Township, Stearns County, Minnesota.
Parle, Minnesota, where he lived for six years with his oldest brother       Peder and Anna had twenty grandchildren. They celebrated their
and then moved to Brooten.                                                 50th Wedding Anniversary in 1949 at the Bethel Lutheran Church
                                              Peder and Anna were          in Greenbush, with all their living children and most grandchildren
                                          married July 8, 1899, at         present. Peder passed away on February 21, 1950, and Anna on
                                          Brooten, Minnesota. In           December 12, 1963. They are both buried in the Bethel Cemetery
                                          1907, they left Brooten on       at Greenbush.
                                          a train to Karlstad with their   Submitted by Menvil and Bernice Borgen.
                                          children and Ii vestock.
                                          From Karlstad,          came              Louis "Willie" and Anna (Aamodt) Botoshe
                                          by horse and wagon on a
                                          very muddy trail. There            Louis Joseph "Willie" (Batoche) Botoshe was born February 18,
                                          were no telephone poles,         1880, in St. Vincent, Minnesota. Willie was baptized in the Catho­
                                        . roads or railroads when they     lic faith at Assumption Catholic Church in Pembina, North Dakota,
                                  ...., . came to Greenbush. They          in February 1880. His godparents were Louis Godin and Marie
                                f.I~~!lQl obtained a homestead on the      Laroque.
                                          SE l/4 of Section 5 in             Louis married Anna Sophia Aamodt Grumbo in May 1910 at Leo,
                                          Barnett Township in Roseau       Minnesota, Roseau County. Anna was born November 1,1888, in
                                          County five miles east of        Sigdahl, Norway. Her parents were Erik and Johanna (Nelson)
                                          Greenbush. He cleared            Aamodt, both from Norway. Anna's first husband was Michel
          Peder and Anna Borgen           most of the farmland and         Grumbo (Grandbois) who was born November 10; 1881; he died
experienced many frontier hardships during his twenty-four years           March 22, 1906, in Greenbush and is buried in St. Mary's Cem­
offarming. They purchased their first car in 1927. They then moved         etery in Badger, Minnesota. Anna was baptized Lutheran but later
to the village of Greenbush, where they purchased land and built a         baptized into the Catholic faith on December I, 1905 in Green­
home in 1931 . Some of their land became the Greenbush baseball            bush, Minnesota.
field and part of the Greenbush Park. (Their son, Menvil and his              From 1902 to 1904, Anna carried mail from Old Greenbush to
wife, Bernice, still own the family farm and live in the home Peder        Leo. She was also a midwife and during the smallpox epidemic
built at Greenbush.) Peder was a mail carrier for twenty-three years       she helped to vaccinate the people of the town. Willie and Anna
and was on the school board of District 34, which was located east         lived three miles west ofWest Greenbush where he raised and sold
ofGreenbush. After consolidation he became a school board mem­             horses.
ber of District 66 for some twenty years . They were members of               Willie died February 10, 1958, and his wife Anna died February
the Bethel Lutheran Church in Greenbush.                                   11, 1968. Both died in Greenbush, Minnesota, and are buried in
  They had six children who were: Mable, born October 20, 1902,            the Blessed Sacrament Cemetery.
at Lake Johanna, married Conrad Braaten in 1944 and died on Feb­              Willie and Anna had eight children: Cecelia 1910-1980 (Gust
ruary 21, 1982, at Brainerd, Minnesota; Oscar was born November            Gustafson), Mary 1912-1982 (Leo Johnson), Hilda 1913-1983 (John
20, 1904, at Lake Johanna, married Edla Grahn in 1929 and died             Svegdah1), William 1918-1980 (Lily Martell), Mae 1922 (William

                                                                       471
                                                                                gasoline. John and Laura's children were Eugene (Gene) who mar­
                                                                                ried Georgine Novacek, and Jack who married Ann Wilebski.
                                                                                   Laura and her father are buried in the Blessed Sacrament Cem­
                                                                                etery near Greenbush.
                                                                                Submitted by Myrna Sovde. Sources: Ruby Scales, Leona Emery,
                                                                                Roseau County school records, Tribune. See Roger Botoshe and
                                                                                Ellen Goslien histories.

                                                                                                       and Cecelia <Batoche) Botoshe

                                                                                   It is with Roger Batoche that the name change from Letendre to
                                                                                Batoche (Botoshe) was begun. After questioning family members
                                                                                as to why it is, the following reasons were given to me. In the time
                                                                                of Roger's circle of life, much persecution of the Indians of the fur
Willie Botoshe and Grandchildren; Back: Donald Johnson, Ray "Sparky"            trade era was going on from the Rebellion.
Gustafson, Annie Botoshe, Willie Botoshe, Arnie Gustafson, Gayford Gustafson.     Roger was a peaceful man, close to his religious beliefs and to his
Front: Leona Johnson, James Johnson, Norbert Johnson. (photo 'courtesy of       family. Indian children were taken from the homes of their fami­
Leona "Mickey" Emery)                                                           lies and sent off to mission schools with the idea that they were to
Martell), Caroline 1925-26, Francis 1928-1999 (Kenneth                          tum into white men and women. Their hair was even cut off so
Halvorson), and Nonnan 1920-1991 (Adell Lutner). Cecelia, Hilda,                they did not look like savages and would blend into the white man's
and Mary lived around the Greenbush area all their lives. William               society. Their heritage was completely taken from them.
lived in Iron River, Wisconsin. His children are George, Alta Young,              Roger tried to get away from all of this, so he moved his family to
Elva Swanson, Kenneth, Roger, and Loretta. Francis, who lived in                northern Minnesota to live in peace. He took the nickname of his
McGrath, Minnesota, had one child, John Halvorson. Mae is still                 ancestors, which was a nickname of the town they started in
living in Concord, California. She had three children, Janice, Wendy            Saskatchewan, Canada.
and Wanda Martell. Nonnan was in WWII and was on a ship on                        It was in Greenbush that he found his peace and lived his circle of
the way back to Gennany when the war ended. He lived in Minne­                  life. Roger was a hunter and a fanner, and he also raised horses on
apolis. His children are Ruby Scales, and Nonnan James Roger                    a farm on the ridge near Greenbush, Minnesota. Roger's brother,
Botoshe, Jr.                                                                    Pat Botoshe, and his sister, Ellen Goslien, also lived in the area.
Submitted by'Ruby Scales, edited by Myrna Sovde. See also Gust                    Roger was born July II, 1842 or 1847, in Winnipeg, Canada. He
and Cecelia Gustafson, John and Hilda Svegdahl, Leo and Mary                    married Cecelia Desjarlais in 1872. Cecelia was born November 3,
Johnson histories.                                                              1846, also in Winnipeg. Roger and Cecelia had been married 57
                                                                                years at the time of his death.
                 Pat and Mary (Grumbo) Botoshe                                    Roger died September 16, 1929, in Greenbush. At the time ofhis
                                                                                death he hardly had any eyesight left. He had also contracted seri­
    Baptiste (Patrick) Botoshe (Letendre) was a brother to Roger                ous complications from an illness. A small pox epidemic had bro­
Botoshe and to Ellen Goslien, also local residents. Pat was born in             ken out in the town and surrounding areas of northern Minnesota.
St. Vincent, Minnesota, about 1867 and died in 1945. On July 20,                Roger wished not to be a burden to his family so he lost the will and
1905, heo marriedMary Delia Grumbo (Granbois) in Roseau County.                 fight to live.
The witnesses were Alex and Anna Grumbo.                                                                                      He is buried on the family fann
   The Grumbo family name was actually Granbois, but with cen­                                                              west of Greenbush on the ridge
sus takers and sometimes teachers' misspellings, or perhaps because                                                         in the woodland by the oak trees
that is how the name sounded to most people, the name was gener­                                                            and pine trees. There used to be
ally Grumbo. At least two Grumbo families were shown as attend­                                                             a white fence but a fire destroyed
ing school in District 40, Hereim Township, in the early 1900s.                                                             it. Peter Montry, a family rela­
Grombous children also attended school in District 25 of Dewey                                                              tive, put the white picket fence
Township in 1899.                                                                                                           around Roger's burial ground.
   Pat and Mary Delia had three children, Elizabeth (1907-1937),                                      ~,~"'f'1~a"f.':ii1f.j Two babies, who also had small­
Laura (1906-1982) and Pat Nonnan (February 20, 1913). Mary Delia                                                            pox, are buried next to Roger.
died three days after the infant son and both were buried in Badger                                                         (The graves are on DNR land,
on February 25, 1913.                                                                                                       near the James and Janice
   Pat's obituary read, "His wife died in 1912 (1913) leaving him                                                           Swenson home.)
with two little girls to be both mother and father to. He provided a                                                           Cecelia died August 26, 1933,
home for them and always kept his home neat and spotless. He                                                                in Greenbush and is buried in the
was a good, honest worker and everybody was           friend. He was                                                        Catholic cemetery ofthe Blessed
noted for his walking ability and did not mind walkIng from here to                                                         Sacrament Church.
Hallock in one day."                                                                                                           Roger and Cecelia's children
  Daughter Laura married John Harper. In 1920 they moved from                                                               were: James, Rose, Delia and
their fann to the Sereson house near the Bethel Church. John had a              Roger Botoshe with grandsons William Willie. James (Elzear) April 8,
filling station. In 1926 he installed a third tank to provide ethyl             and Norman Botoshe.                          1872 to December 27, 1949,

                                                                            472

married Ellen Sayers but had no children. Rose (Rosalie) was born          Church, on Highway 11 and a half mile east of Pelan Pioneer Park.
July 24, 1876, and married Frederick Montrueill known as Fred              They built all new buildings and a big cement block house which
Montry . Delia, born November 21, 1878, married Fred Lavoy.                for that time, was a very nice home.
"Willie" whose full name was Louis Joseph Batoche Letendre, was               They were active in the Pauli Church and in the community.
born February 18,1880. Willie married Anna Aamodt.                         Gurina hosted many Ladies Aid gatherings at her home, and Avle
  Roger and Cecelia resided in Greenbush for forty years and were          was custodian at the church for many years. They had cattle and
one of the first settlers of Greenbush, Minnesota.                         raised grain.
Submitted by Ruby Scales. See historiesfor Willie andAnna Botoshe,          The children were: Pete; Agnes (John [Jack]) Nezo; Helmer; Mabel
Fred and Rose Montry, Fred and Delia Lavoy.                                (Knute) Skaro; Carl (Em Torgerson); Ida (Lloyd) Thompson; Gladys
                                                                           (Jim) Helgeson; and Arley (Bernice Hetland). Ofthis family, only
                 Hans and Clara (Sather) Boyum                             Gladys survives. Gurina died in 1935; Avle died in 1957. They are
                                                                           buried in the Pauli Cemetery.
  Hans Boyum was born in Sogo, Norway on January 2,1878. He                  In 1945, Agnes and her husband, John Nezo, purchased the farm.
came to America in 1897 at the age of nineteen. He arrived in              Avle lived with them until his death. The stately house, a landmark
Rushford, Minnesota, and walked the five miles, carrying his suit­         to area residents, was nearly demolished by fire in 1955. It was
case, to his Uncle Knute Boyum's farm. He worked on the farm for           rebuilt into a one-story structure.
five years and later at a nearby farm. He attended some            at         The Nezo's had two children: Gloria (Roynell) Erickson, and
Winona College to become more proficient in the English language.                                                      William [Bill] (Shirley
  His uncle, who was in real estate, encouraged him to go north where                                                  Underdahl) Nezo. Bill
land was cheaper. He worked in a logging camp at Roosevelt, Min­                                                       died in 1972, leaving his
nesota, for two years. He then went to Greenbush where he pur­                                                         wife and three daughters to
chased land in Barnett Township from Dave Rowland for $17 an acre.                                                . survive him. Agnes con­
  Hans met Clara Sather at a basket social when he was the highest                                                 ,"	 tinued to live on the farm.
bidder on her basket. She was a Roseau County schoolteacher and                                                        After she married Carl
the daughter of B. C. Sather of Badger. They were married on                                                           Spangrud, they lived on
Christmas Eve in 1912. Clara's last teaching position was at Stokes                                                    the farm for several more
school near Badger.                                                                                                    years, eventually selling
   They were parents of three children: Clarice Billberg, Beatrice                                                     the farm to Richard
Erickson, and Kenneth Boyum. The family was involved in pio­                                                           Vreeland. Agnes died in
neer life:      fieldwork with horses, milking cows in the log bam,                                                    1990, and Carl died in
and tending to chickens and hogs. Cream and eggs were brought to                                                       1992 . Vern and Mary
town by buggy or sleigh, bringing in periodic income.                                                                  Langaas live on that site at
   A Model T Ford and other vehicles replaced the horses. Small                                                        the present time.
tractors were first used in the mid-thirties. Later, other improve­                                                    Submitted by Gloria Nezo
                                                                                    Avle and Gurina Branvold
ments made work easier.                                                               (Gloria Erickson photo)          Erickson.
   They were members of Bethel Lutheran Church of Greenbush.
Clara Boyum passed away in January of 1945. Hans continued to                                    John and          Brazier
live on the farm until his death in June of 1970, at the age of92.
Submitted by Linda Gieseke with information supplied by Beatrice             The American branch of the Brazier family began in 1893 when
(Mrs. Kenneth) Boyum to the Roseau County History Book.                    Jean Baptiste Francios Brazier (shortened to John Brazier when he
                                                                           arrived to the United States), left Paris, France. He arrived in the
                  Avle P. and Gurina Brandvold                             USA at 18 years of age with two dollars and seventy cents. John
                                                                           worked in New York for a while before moving to Minnesota.
 Avle, wife Gurina, and their children moved to Dewey Township             Having worked in the restaurant business in France, he found jobs
about 1916, from Erskine, Minnesota. They bought the farm, W 1/2           cooking for the harvest crews in the summer and for the logging
Section 28, from Evan Erikson, just south and east of the Pauli            crews in winter. In 1890, he became one of the early settlers of
                                                                           Barnett Township.




                                                                                                           (photos
                                                                                                        submitted by
                                                                                                                            <.

                                                                                                                                 '/   ~   Y

                                                                                                                                              .

                                                                                                      Colleen Lorenson)
The balcony faced north towards Highway 11. The original homestead cabin                                                  Olga (Anderson)
stands behind the house. (photo courtesy ofGladys Helgeson)                      John Brazier                               wife of John Brazier

                                                                       473

 Nine years after homesteading in Barnett, he married Olga Ander­        nothing to do with him.
son of Roseau, Minnesota. To this union nine children were born:           Leonard Brekke was born on April 5, 1892, at Hazel Run, Minne­
Frank (Genevieve Emery), Orville (died as a young man), Harry            sota. He lived with his grandparents in Dewey Township, Minne­
 Jladys Asleson), Henry (Beau Mondie McFarlane), Walter (Dor­            sota, until grown. He worked at Everett, Washington, a few years
      Dostal), Gladys (died as a child), Laura (Gehard Nelson),          before returning to settle on a farm in Soler Township in 1916. He
Adeline (George Watson), Benneth (Arlene Osse, Joan Breken).             purchased the farm in 1918. On September 29, 1917, he married
  John and Olga worked very hard to get their homestead built up         Rose Minarik, who was born September 28, 1900.
for themselves and their children. The children often told stories of      Leonard and Rose were very active in the community: Leonard
good times with the neighbors who provided social and moral sup­         served on the hospital board; was director of the Greenbush Eleva­
port. These neighbors included the Hogans, Nelsons, Bialkes,             tor; was a member of the Greenbush Shipping Association; and
Waages, and Durays.                                                      served as clerk ofSoler Township for many years. He was active in
  Letters written between John and his brother in France give an         the Oiland Church, serving as treasurer for several years. If church
idea of life in Barnett Township in the early 1900s.                     funds were low, he would pay the pastor from his own funds . He
                                                                         delivered mail from Haug and delivered cream to the creamery.
Dear Brother,                                                              Rose did janitor work for Oiland Church, always seeing that the
  I am taking pen to paper to wish you a good and happy new year         church was clean and ready for all occasions. She walked to the
and good health and hope that you will feel good as me because I         church to start the fire to heat the building, in those days with wood.
feel great my dear brother. You asked me if! was frozen and I told       She never received, nor expected, pay for that. Rose served as
you no, but if you asked me now I could answer not only the ears         president of the Ladies Aid for several years. Rose often hosted
but it has happened now three times that my hands got frozen and         Oiland's special speakers in her home. She was also a mid-wife,
the tips of my fingers have peeled and it's not finished as I must go    delivering several children in the community and sometimes she
every day to the village one or two times and on Sundays 3 or            would care for them in their home. She was a wonderful home­
times. And as for work in the small bam I don't do too much as I                 and everyone was welcomed to the Brekke home. Rose
am the one who manages the work and I have command the other             was a wonderful cook, baker, and gardener.
as he doesn't speak English. Well dear brother, the morning of the
New Year I went to the big house and wished them a Happy New
Year and the boss gave me a gift and the boss's wife gave me (this
was not legible). John Brazier

  Tn retUrn, portions of the letters from John's brother respond to
   ways ofAmerican life from his home in France.

My dear Jean (John in USA),
   The neighbors, family and friends are flabbergasted by the way
they do harvest over there and wonder what the people do with all
that wheat. But what amazed them more is to see how much money
you make over there, some of them die of jealousy. I gave your
address to the Cretinois son, he is learning to be a baker at Servonat
at LaCote. You are lucky you left this last year because if you were                Leonard and Rose Brekke 1967 - 50th Anniversary.
                                                                         Menford, Adeline, Rose, Leonard, Luella and Lenore. (photo by Ruby Brekke)
still here you wouldn't have missed this years wine and we cannot
drink part of a bottle without your head turning and we have some          Rose and Leonard had six children:
as dark as the Clinton of Carcel. I am keeping some for when Jo­            (I) Adeline, born May I, 1918, married Delford Day Dec. 25,
seph comes and if possible I will give his 30 liters for you to drink,   1941, following the Christmas Day service. Delford was in the
but I cannot remember having such wine and it sells right now for        service and later became a Baptist pastor. Delford and Adeline had
40 frs per helioleter. Finally my dear Jean, I think that you are        seven children. (2) Lenore, born July 12, 1922, died August 3,
going to get fat if you eat so much meat and it would do me good         2003, married Reuben Lee. She attended Bible School and nurses
since I am such a carnivore. The whole family that it would              training. They lived at Detroit Lakes and also Fergus Falls. They
too long to name in detail asks me to send their friendship and wish     had three children. (3) Menford, born October 1, 1927, died Au­
you good luck, something that we cannot say here. Joseph Brazier         gust 2, 1999, married Ruby Jorgenson October 2, 1954. They pur­
Submitted by Colleen (Brazier) Lorenson.                                 chased the Brekke homestead and built a new home there. They
                                                                         had three children; Lee Jon (Nancy Schram), they have 2 children;
              Leonard and Rose (Minarik) Brekke                          Don Ray, unmarried, owns DRB Fab at Greenbush; Ronna Marie
                                                                         (Raymond Riffle, Gary Seydel), she has 3 children. (4) Harvie
 Leonard Brekke's parents were Lewis and Johanna (Dallager) who          Merle, born June 29, 1931, died July 10, 1931. (5) Baby Boy, born
    'e married on July 4, 1891, at Wang, Yellow Medicine County,         and died September 25,1932. (Twin) (6) LuElla, born September
             Lewis was a steeple builder. He fell offthe scaffolding     25,1932, married Gilmore Karevold June 9, 1951. They farmed at
when working on a church and died in June of 1892, when Leonard          Fosston andtetired to Moorhead. They had four children. Leonard
was only eight weeks old. His mother, Johanna, then married Jens         died June 15, 1971 and Rose died December 21, 1981.
Peterson and had seven more children. Leonard lived with and was         Submitted by Ruby Brekke.
raised by his grandparents, Lars and Martha, as his stepfather wanted
                                                                     474

                              John Byhre                                      was the son of Christian, and lastly, that he lived on Rud's place on
                                                                              the hill in Norway. That's probably why he and his brothers and
  The name Byhre wasn't familiar, at least not until hearing the              sisters dropped the last name when they came to America in 1878.
pronunciation (bear-rah) with a little bit of a Norwegian brogue.             Whether that was when they reached Ellis Island or later, no one is
By 1900 John Byhre homesteaded the quarter with the description,              sure.
S 1/2 NW 1/4 and N 1/2 SW 1/4 Section 5 Deer Township. It is                     They sailed across the Atlantic Ocean on one of the first steam
better known as the Gilbert or Gilman Bertilrud place and is now              ships. It was fitted with both steam and sails. They arrived at Ellis
one of the farms owned by Ernest and Carol Hemp.                              Island, New York, in 1878. From there, they traveled by train to
  John, born in 1878, the son of Amund and Kari Peterson, came                Pelican Rapids, Minnesota. News of the American Homestead Act
with his parents from Rothsay, Minnesota. His brothers Thorvald,              probably influenced them to immigrate to America.
and Christian and sisters Anna (Otto) Foss and Gina (Syver)                     In 1894, at the age of23, Brede with two brothers and four other
Haugtvedt came at the same time. A brother Amund Olson was in                 friends traveled to northern Minnesota looking for homesteads.
Wisconsin.                                                                    These seven who made the journey had all been born in Soler, Nor­
                                                                              way. Soler Township was later named after these men. With a light
                                                                              wagon and a team ofhorses these young men followed the Pembina
                                                                              Trail to Stephen, Minnesota, which at that time was the town near­
                                                                              est to the area to which they were heading. Here they turned east,
                                                                              traveling on the Beach Ridge of Old Lake Agassiz through what is
                                                                              today Karlstad and on to Pelan. At this point, they headed north­
                                                                              east to an area that is now about eight miles north of Greenbush.
                                                                              The trip took them about two weeks. Here they stopped to camp
                                                                              and hobble the horses as they always did each night or during the
                                                                              noon meal. The next morning they decided to stay a few days and
                                                                              look for homestead sites.
                                                                                After a couple of days, they felt it would be safe to not hobble the
                                                                              horses during the noon meal. The horses, however, took off head­
                                                                              ing in the direction from which they had come. They decided to
                                                                              pool their money and send Brede after them. With no roads to
                                                                              follow, he tracked them southwest to the Barto homestead which
Left: John Byhre, Hilda Foss, Annie Foss holding Alma Foss, Anna Byhre, Pe­
ter Foss, Otto Foss, Grandma Kari and Grandpa Amund Peterson, Christian
                                                                              was about four miles from their campsite. Mrs. Barto had seen the
Foss, Uncle Peterson, Anton Foss, at the Otto Foss home.                      horses going by and caught them with her pony. Barto Township
                                                                              was named after these homesteaders.
  Not much is known about John Byhre since he left the area and                  In 1895, after filing their claims in Crookston, Minnesota, the
went to Canada to homestead. John Byhre married Gunda Stasted                 young men returned to improve their homesteads in accordance
in 1901. Gunda died in childbirth or shortly after. The child,                with the rules of the Homestead Act. After meeting all the require­
Randine, was given to Gunda's mother to raise. Randine didn't                 ments of the Homestead Act, each of these young men was granted
know about her father until she was married and had several chil­             an official homestead document. Brede's homestead document,
dren.                                                                         signed by President Theodore Roosevelt, was granted October 13,
  John married soon after since the Poplar Grove Church records               1901. Don Christianson still has the original document.
showed John and Anna Byhre had two children, Adolph born Au­                    Brede selected a site eight miles straight north ofGreenbush. One
     24, 1903, and Kalma born December 24, 1904. Family records               of the six who came was Evald Haug who had the first post office
show three more children: Laura, alger, and Raymond;                          at the present Ernest Janousek farm. One reason they gave for com­
  John and Anna were baptismal sponsors for Julius Ted, in 1903               ing here from Pelican Rapids is that it was less hilly.
and in 1905 John was sponsor for Hilda Carolyn, children ofHarold                Brede's brother, Christian's homestead was located seven miles
and Sina Johnson. Several ofthe families in that neighborhood left            north ofGreenbush in Barto Township. Over the years it was owned
the Poplar Grove Church about that time, so no more about these               by Ben Christianson and Gary Erickson. Gary is the son of Andy
families can be learned from those books.                                     and Oline Erickson and Brede Christianson's grandson.
  The Byhre name was not in the 1913 Atlas, so their place had                   The first job the young men faced was building cabins. At that
been sold before that time. John sold his place to Severin (Sam)              time, all the land north of Greenbush was prairie with a few small
Thompson, who later sold it to Gilbert and Hilda Bertilrud. Hilda,            groves of poplars and brush scattered here and there. This made it
the daughter ofAnna and Otto Foss was John             niece.                 necessary for the men to travel north to the cedar swamps ofCanada
Submitted by Myrna Sovde. Sources: Donavan Foss, Poplar Grove                 to get logs. The logs were hauled by horse and sleigh across the
records.                                                                      frozen swamps to Christian's homestead. Because Christian had a
                                                                              boiler's license, a steam sawmill was set up on his homestead where
                       Brede O. Christianson                                  the logs could be cut into lumber.
                                                                                 In 1899, Brede married Mathilda Pederson. Mathilda and her
   Brede O. Christianson Rudshaugen was born in Soler, Norway,                sister Malena were to have a double wedding and the date had been
in 1871 to OlufC. (Christian) Rudshaugen and Olia Rudshaugen.                 set. However, Ole Slind, Malena's future husband, had a misun­
In keeping with Norwegian custom, the 0 in Brede's name was the               derstanding with his father so the wedding date, with the agree­
first initial of his father's first name. The next name told that Brede       ment of Brede and Mathilda was postponed. Later a new date was
                                                                          475

set and the four traveled by horse and buggy to Roseau to get the               away on 3/21/99. In 2004, Myrtle moved into the nursing home.
license, have the wedding ceremony, and take pictures. Mathilda                   Don married Sharon Christianson from Morgan, Minnesota in
was the daughter of Jonas Pederson and Malena Serins Idland                     1975. Don continues the farming and milking operation to this
Pederson from Madison, Minnesota. Their homestead, located about                day. Sharon works at the Roseau Area Hospital as a registered
six miles north of Greenbush, was low and wet. Not satisfied with               nurse. They have four children : Blake- 1978, Brede- 1979, and
the land, they decided to move to Canada.                                       twins, Craig and Curt- 1982.
                                                                                 At present, two of the boys are farming with Don and plan to take
                                                                                over when he retires.
                                                                                Submitted by Donald and Ronald Christianson.

                                                                                    Memories passed            to grandson. Don Christianson

                                                                                   When they first came here, there were all kinds of mosquitoes
                                                                                and ticks and only smoke to keep them away. Another problem
                                                                                they encountered was that they only had scraggly jack pine and
                                                                                bushes here so they had to haul logs from Canada to build with and
                                                                                to heat with.
                                                                                  Money was scarce in the early 1900s. The railroad line ended in
                                                                                Stephen at that time, so he would haul freight and groceries from
                                                                                there to Greenbush and Haug, mostly by horse and sleigh. Later
                                                                                Brede invested in a 1917 Model T that he used to haul mail from
Brede and Mathilda Christianson family:        Front row: Rudy, Brede, Ruth,
Mathilda holding CIa rise, Ben, Melvin. Back: Alma, Olava, Joe, Mabel, Oline.   Greenbush to the Haug Post Office and also some freight.
                                                                                   There have always been dairy cows on the farm. They used to
  Over the years the family was to grow to ten children: Olava (Mrs.            have chickens and pigs also.
Ernest Roetman) 1900; Joe (Esther Mattson) 1902; Mabel (Mrs.                      Brede's son Rudy fanned with horses until 1944 when he bought
Dave Rowland/Mrs. Ross Copeland) 1905; Oline (Mrs. Andy                         a new B John Deere for $1,079 from Herb Reese who was the dealer
Erickson) 1907; Alma (Mrs. Haakon Wold) 1910; Bennie (Viola                     in Greenbush at the time.
Skullerud) 1912; Melvin (Wilma Lee) 1915; Rudy (Myrtle Lee)                        In 1946 they got electricity on the farm . One of the first things
1917; Ruth (Mrs. Lawrence PelowskilMrs. Earl Erickson) 1919;                    they bought was an electric motor for the               machines. He
and Clarise          Leonard Swart) 1921.                                       also made a grain elevator out of wood with steel paddles. Before
  All the children attended the Haug School and six graduated from              that, they had to shovel all the grain into the granary. In 1948, he
Greenbush High School. Clarise was a senior the year the first                  bought his first combine, a 6-foot 12A John Deere for $1 ,730. He
high school burned down. One amazing thing, for this time, was                  hired breaking done on some of the land that year for $10 per acre.
that nine of these ten children graduated from high school.                       In 1950, Rudy sold alfalfa hay for six dollars per ton, wheat- two
  Brede helped organize and pick the site for the Oiland Lutheran               dollars per bushel, oats- 70¢ per bushel, flax- four dollars per bushel,
Church and Cemetery, serving as the first secretary and treasurer               and one-day-old calves- $15 each. He bought gas for the tractor for
for many years. Besides singing solos, he directed and sang tenor               17.8¢ per gallon. They separated the milk and sold the butterfat to
in the church choir. He served on the Greenbush Creamery Board,                 the Greenbush Creamery for about 90¢ per pound. The telephone
Greenbush Shipping Association, Soler Town Board, the Haug                      bill for the year was ten dollars.
School and the Haug-Leo School Boards. He helped start the Haug                    In 1952, Rudy traded the B John Deere for an AR, list price of
School District, which became one of the first consolidated school              $2,650 less trade in of$800. He bought an Allis Chalmers one-row
districts in the state. He also helped organize the Haug-Leo School             corn chopper in 1953 for $1 ,700 and did some custom chopping
District. In these two school districts, he served as treasurer for 27          furnishing tractor, chopper, and two wagons for five dollars per
years. He kept the school funds in his personal account. In 1928                hour. In 1954, he sold cows on the market for 9¢ to 13¢ per pound.
when the economy was slowing, he had the bank directors sign a                    "Farming over the years has been enjoyable though with several
guarantee to cover the school funds. When the Greenbush bank                    memorable moments. It certainly is a good place to raise a family"
closed their doors in 1929, the bank directors had to cover and pay             according to Don. In 1973, Rudy and Myrtle won the clean fann
up those funds .                                                                contest and a trip to the state fair. In 1995, Don and Sharon also
   Brede farmed most of his life selling cream, eggs, and grain.                won the clean fann contest and the trip to the state fair.
Besides farming Brede became a mail carrier from 1919-1923 to
help make money to support his growing family. He hauled the                              O. K. and Malena (Halvorson) Christianson
mail from Greenbush Post Office to the Haug Post Office.
  Mathilda Christianson died of cancer in 1928 and Brede died in                  O. K. (Ole) Christianson was born at Nes Hallingdal, Norway, on
1949. He is laid to rest beside Mathilda in the Oiland Lutheran                 March 17, 1871, to Mr. and Mrs. Christian Iverson Langslet, one of
Cemetery.                                                                       eight children born to this union. He attended public and Christian
  Rudy married Myrtle Lee of Badger in 1940. They lived on the                  schools until he was 15 years old. In the spring of 1888, at the age
farm with Brede until 1941 when Rudy bought it for $15 per acre.                of 17, he' immigrated to America. He first came to Hitterdahl, Min­
They have four children: Ray- 1941, Marilyn- 1943, Donald- 1945,                nesota, where he worked as a farm hand for about two years and
and Eleanor- 1953. Rudy and Myrtle sold the farm to Don in 1975.                attended the public country school at Ulen in the winter. In 1890,
They built a house in Greenbush and moved there. Rudy passed                    he took jobs on farms in Hamden and Richwood townships, where

                                                                            476

he met Malena Halvorson.                                                 cultivation, seeded to grass.
  Malena Halvorson was born to Gabriel and Margit Halvorson on              In 1944, O. K. and Malena moved to Detroit Lakes. A farewell
July 16, 1871, in Richwood Township, Becker County, Minnesota,           party given in their honor was held in the Bethel Church parlor.
where she grew up.                                                       Featured speakers were Rev. J. I. Nystuen, Chas. A. Anderson, M.
   O. K. and Malena married        July 18, 1892. In the spring of       J. Kotchevar, and J. M. Roche. Musical selections were provided
1901 , the Christianson family homesteaded on 160 acres in Deer          by Edwin Anderson and Joan Stenberg.
Township about seven miles south of Greenbush. They proved up               Malena died at the University Hospital in Minneapolis on April
the homestead and farmed for several years. O. K. was one of the         28, 1955, and just twenty-four days later, on May 21, 1955, O. K.
organizers ofDeer Township, and served as clerk ofthe town board.        passed away in Minneapolis.
   In the fall of 1910, they sold their farm and opened an "eating          O. K. and Malena had four daughters: Alma (Wheeler), Minnie
house" in the "old Kulas Building" in Greenbush. Later they pur­         (Lofgren), Adeline (Carpenter), and Cora (Heyman).
chased the site and built the OK Hotel. It had electric lighting,        Submitted by Eunice Korczak from research done by Milt Sather.
running water, bath and indoor toilets. "With eleven guestroorns
and office and writing room fitted up with easy chairs and rockers,              Joseph. John. and Frances (Los) Chrzanowski
it was a fine hotel." The spacious dining room, with seating for
thirty, offered home cooking. A 1925 newspaper article called it            Frances Los was born in Russia in April 1870. Joseph
hotel that gives a cheer of good feeling to every ,patron;. a booster    Chrzanowski was born in May 1866. They married in 1889 and
for Greenbush. It is run on the American plan, $2.50 a day."             moved from Poland (Russia) to America in 1891. They had three
                                                The Christiansons        children: Stella, Joseph Jr., and Helen. Stella was born in June of
                                             served the public for       1896. She married Joe Novak and had one son Syl (June Owen).
                                             many years in the ca­         Joseph Jr. was born in July of 1898. He married Lucille Mooney
                                             pacity of hoteliers and     (also known as Pieniazek). They had four children: Dorothy
                                             served the town in nu­      (Ludwig Kasprowicz), Genevieve (Felix Gonshorowski), Leonard
                                             merous offices in the       (Lois Sovde), and Carol (Edwin Kukowski).
                                           I affairs of the village,       Helen was born in 1902. She married Joe Mooney and had seven
                                             school, and Bethel          children: Jake, Nora (Sheft), Edward (Irene Bialke, Etta Hontvet),
                                             Lutheran       Church .     Florence (Hill), Delores (Ambrose Dolney), Joseph Mooney, Jr.
                                             Malena was active in        (Joyce Penas), and Rudy (Eileen Sobtzak). Frances and Joseph
                                             church activities and       homesteaded in Polonia Township.
                                             played an important                                               Joseph died in 1908. Frances
                                             part in the Ladies Aid.                                       then married Joseph's brother,
                                             O. K. held the positions                                      John. They had three children:
                                             of village clerk of                                           Violet, Martha, and John Jr. Vio­
                                             Greenbush, clerk ofthe                                        let married Felix Blazejewski and
                                             school board, secretary                                       had Richard "Yogi" Blazejewski,
                                             for the Bethel Lutheran                                       Albert Blazejewski, Angeline


                    ;j:J~
                                                                                                           Martha Kostrzewski, and Rose­
                                                                                                           mary Wilson. Martha married
                                                                                                           Vincent Mlodzik and had two sons:
                 .SE .l'1\! IV~,:".
                    ,N ,                      thirty years. In an ar­                                      Jerome (Joyce Workentine)
                           "  . .             ticle on the occasion of                                     Mlodzik and Lambert (Delores
      '.    :R'i'~~~                          their golden anniver­                                        Mrozek) Mlodzik. John Jr. married
sary celebration, The Greenbush Tribune stated, "We doubt that                                             Angeline Kulas and had no chil­
there is another village clerk in Minnesota that can claim a longer                                        dren. He then married Marie
continuous service." O. K. also served for many years as village                                           Kukowski. They had three chil­
assessor, was secretary-treasurer for the local Federal Land Loan        John and Frances Chrzanowski dren: Kathy Munro, Ann Dziengel,
Association, and for ten years, he held the position of director from    (photo submitted by Genevieve and Jack Chrzanowski.
Roseau County at the Sanitarium at Thief River Falls. The previ­         Gonshorowski)                         Frances had heart trouble for
ously quoted article also says, "He has put in much time and thought                                       years and died ofheart failure. Her
for the welfare of the village and school district." In 1940, O. K.      obituary appeared in the Greenbush Tribune June 4, 1931. They
campaigned, apparently unsuccessfully, for Representative.               described her as having a happy disposition and always willing to
  On the occasion of their golden anniversary, O. K. and Malena          lend a helping hand. She was buried at the Leo Cemetery.
       feted by such Greenbush notables as: Mr. and Mrs. Umpleby;          Genevieve Gonshorowski remembers her Grandmother Frances
Mr. and Mrs. H.J. Gavick; Rev. Tollefson; Waldo Evenson; Mrs.            as being a very happy, smiley lady who always had a package of
Heltne; Mrs. Maynard Peterson; Mrs. Tollefson;           OlafHildahl;    Juicy Fruit gum in the striped wrappers in her pocket. She would
C. A. Anderson; Harvey and Lenor Lillemon; M. J. Kotchevar; J.           give her one piece every time she saw her.
M. Roche; Halvor Langslet; and "the harmonizers" composed of             Submitted by Linda Gieseke with information from Genevieve
members of the city council and the school board.                        Gonshorowski, Eunice Korczak, the Greenbush Tribune. Marie
  In addition to the OK Hotel, the Christiansons owned a 147-acre        Chrzanowski. and Elinor Koshenina.
farm just outside city limits. In 1925, sixty-five acres were under
                                                                     477

                   Peder and Oleanna Coltom                                           Andrew and Mary (Osowski) Cybulski

    Peder Martin Coltom was the 10th child of Ole Anders Coltom             In the late 1800s Andrew and Mary (Osowski) Cybulski came to
  nd Johanna Johnsdotter. Peter Martin was born in East Toten,            America from Poland with two daughters, Michalyna (Lena) born
          on April 14, 1866, and died December 3, 1937. He came           1878, and Annastasia (Stella) born 1886. They settled by Warsaw,
to America at the age offour months, first living in the Sacred Heart     North Dakota, where a third daughter, Lelokardya (Laura) was born
area of Minnesota and later moving to the Hatton, North Dakota            in 1894.
area. He married Oleanna Kalbak Tomte on January 20, 1897, at               They moved to a farm in Barto Township, Roseau County, Min­
Park River, North Dakota. She was born March 14, 1874, and died           nesota, around 1895. In 1912, they sold the farm to John
December 3, 1942. After they married, they lived near Hatton where        Pietruszewski who married their daughter, Laura, in 1911.
two children were born, Evinda in 1897 and a son who died at birth.          Andrew and Mary moved into Leo. Mary served as a cook to
 . In 1903, they moved to Deer Township where they homesteaded            Father Drewnicki. Andrew and Mary were a great help to their daugh­
on the NW 1/4 of Section 24. Conrad was born there in 1905 and            ter Lena after her husband Frank Kukowski died July 5, 1917, fronl
Otilia in 1909. They lived near the Poplar Grove Church, and Mrs.         a farm accident. Lena was expecting her thirteenth child, Susyan
Coltom would harness a mule, hitch it to a cart, and drive to Ladies      (Mrs. Romuld Duray). She was born October 23, 1917, and is the
Aid. They lived on several other farms until Peder quit farming in        sole survivor ofthe Frank and Lena Kukowski family. Susyan lives
1921. Later they moved to Strathcona.                                     in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with her granddaughter Cherie.
  After Peder quit farming, he worked for the county and state high­       Andrew and Mary Cybulski's granddaughter, Theresa (Mrs. Adrian
way departments. He also served as the local vet. He had a com­           Borowicz), who is Laura Pietruszewski's youngest daughter cel­
plete case of Dr. Kocks Veterinary products and also a book of vet­       ebrated her fiftieth wedding anniversary on May 25, 2004, at St.
erinary medicine. -These items were still in their house when the         Paul, Minnesota.
contents were auctioned after Conrad and Emma died.                       Submitted by Margaret Dostal Kuznia.
   In 1935, after his marriage to Emma Lee, Conrad Coltom brought
his new wife home to Strathcona and lived with his parents, Peder                             Sidney and Laura Dahl

Martin and Oleanna. Evinda married Mr. Thompson, and Otilia                                 and Knut and Hannah Dahl

married William Johnson.
Submitted by La Von and Orrin Coltom.                                          Knut and Hannah Dahl were my grandparents. They home­
                                                                          steaded east and south ofBadger. Some oftheir neighbors included
                             and Mary Connelly                            the Gregerson, Skime, Dahlsrude, and Hillman families. There were
                                                                          four boys born to them: Sidney, Joseph, Edwin and Bennett.
   Ellen (Mrs. John J.) Walsh had two sisters Margaret and Mary             Knut Dahl died at a very young age. Therefore the boys and the
McCue* . Margaret born in 1861, married Edwin Connelly and                mother had to continue on. A very helpful bachelor neighbor, Mr.
resided in Graceville, Minnesota. When her husband died, she and          Hillman also helped, and after a few years he and Mrs. Dahl were
her young daughter, Mary Connelly, born in 1894, lived              the   married. They continued to live on the farm for several more years
Ellen and John Walsh family, and moved to Roseau County with              and were blest with three more children, Laura, Carrie, and Roy.
them in the early 1900s. Mary Connelly attended grade school in              Times were getting rough to make a living in those early years;
District 60, the Gavick School, in Deer Township part of the time.        maybe 1913 and on. They decided to try to move on to Oregon.
  Maggie Connelly was among the signers petitioning for a school          Little is known about their trip, but I have been told it started with
for the southwest comer ofHereim Township in 1912. Thepetition            teams and a wagon. They'd travel for days, then stop and rest or
was rejected for not having enough of the landowners' signatures.         find a job to make· a few dollars and then move on. By the time
  Maggie died in 1912 or 1914* and was the first person buried in         they reached Montana, they had worked enough to continue the
the Blessed Sacrament Cemetery according to the Walsh family              trip by train. (It took three months to get to Montana.)
history. *(She wasn't listed as a signer on a school petition in 1913.)     The two girls and Roy went with their parents, but the four older
   Mary Connelly continued to live with the Walshes after her             boys stopped in Grand Forks, North Dakota, and stayed there with
mother's death. The neighbors always referred to Mary Connelly            an aunt for awhile.
by her full name to distinguish her and Mary Theresa Walsh, since            Later, three of the four Dahl boys enlisted in the U. S. Army,
they lived in the same house. There were also other Marys: the            namely Sidney, Joe, and Edwin. Sidney, in the years between mov­
aunt, Mary McCue, and later Mary Estelle, daughter ofMary Theresa         ing to North Dakota, had fallen in love, and he and my mother,
and Manley Millard.                                                       Laura Bagley, were married just three days before he was shipped
  Mary Connelly is credited with beginning the S1. Ann Sodality- at       to France. He didn't return for three years. But they had seven
Blessed Sacrament in Greenbush. She was employed as a house­              children and were married forty years before their deaths.
keeper for different priests, first in Greenbush, then in Plummer,          After Sidney returned, they tried fanning in the Grand Forks and
Wilton, and finally in Two Inlets, Minnesota, where she served Fa­        Manvel area, but after, many failed crops and poor land, they were
ther Zarzecki until she died ofcancer in Minneapolis in 1971. Mary        invited to try northern Minnesota. Since Dad had been born near
  buried near her mother in the Blessed Sacrament Catholic Cem­           Badger, they decided to move. The year was 1930. With the help
                                                                          ofDad's brother Edwin, who had a car, they loaded up a wagon and
 *McCue, McQue, McKue, McHugh, have been used interchange­                rack and started for Greenbush with the load pulled by a team of
ably by various public sources as schools, newspapers, etc.               horses. Two cows were led behind. Furniture and a crate with a
Submitted by Myrna Sovde. Sources: Ella Walsh Hurt, Walshfam­             dozen chickens were on board plus some hay and oats for the ani­
ily book, Blessed Sacrament Church book.                                  mals. Dad said it took them three days.

                                                                      478

  After reaching Greenbush, they bunked with the Lieberg family daughter of near-by neighbors, Edward and Karina Watterud, was
who had invited them up (to Greenbush). They stayed there through born November 5, 1888. Christ and Gunda cleared land, farmed,
the winter or about three months. They found a place to live and built a home, and began raising a family of six children. For a time
Dad had a job, so they moved to their own home in the area known Christ milked cows. He also broke horses for others.
as Haug.                                                                 Christ was a founding member of Bethlehem Church, and was
   The school was directly across the road; District 16. Oiland there to help when the church building was moved from Pelan to its
Church was only two and a half miles away, so all would be good. present site, in Lind Township. Christ and Gunda were both mem­
We had many good neighbors: the Amt Holms, 1. 1. Kneppers, bers of the church, and all the children were baptized there.
Melbys, Wolds, Brandvolds and others. We lived there from 1930           Gundadied at home at age thirty-five from a miscarriage with
or 31 to 1946. Dad worked several years for, Axel Burkee, a farmer her seventh child. The other children were: Eddie, fourteen; Katie,
and he also worked with W. P. A. on building the municipal build­     thirteen; Morris, eleven; Gladys, eight; Willie, five ; and Hazel, two
ing in Roseau and the Greenbush School. He built several houses years old. Katie helped to raise her brothers and sisters, which
and barns also.                                                       enabled Christ to keep the family with such young children together.
   Our family life was a cheerful one; we all learned the old time      In the early 1940s part ofthe family lived on the NW 1/4 of Sec­
dances which were held in many friends' homes . We did a lot of tion 6 in Deer Township. In the later years of his life, Christ and his
swimming in the big ditch just north of our house and roller skated son, Morris, lived on the ridge near Pelan Park, where Carl
or ice skated in winters. Our school house at Haug contained two Brandvold built a new home along Highway II. Christ died at age
school rooms and also had indoor plumbing, coat rooms and a lunch 77 and is buried at Bethlehem Cemetery.
area and play room (now called a gym). There was a basement             Eddie was born November 20, 1908, and married Hilda Brandvold.
under the school that had two large coal burning furnaces, a good They had six children: Edward, James, LeRoy, Jeanette, Harvey,
well and a small lounge for the janitor, which was my dad for sev­    and Gary (Eddie died in 1995). Katie, born October 19,1909, mar­
eral years. Our school days were happy times. We could run home ried John Langaas, and had two children, Kenneth and Joyce. Katie
across from the school for our noon lunch.                            died July 5, 2004. Morris was born October 30, 1911, never mar­
   Our family consisted of five sons and two daughters. Wallace ried and died July 16, 1963. Gladys, born May 18, 1917, married
was in the U. S. Army and was wounded at Normandy. Laurence, Carl Magnuson and had two children, Shirley and Curtis. Gladys
a U. S. Marine, was killed at Midway Island invasion. Howard died September 1, 1994. Willie was born August 13, 1917. He
served with the U. S. Navy and was wounded in North Africa. Ralph married Ardyce Love and they had David and Joy. They live in
was in the U. S. Army and served during the occupation of Ger­        Park Rapids, Minnesota. Hazel was born August 8, 1920, married
many. Vernon was in the U. S. Army in Korea. The girls were Ellerd Paulson, and had six children, Gloria, Diann, Judy, Jane,
Haiel (Albeit Aasen) and Ethel.                                       Rodney and Duane. Hazel died November 8, 1959.
   My first teachers at Haug School were Charles Christianson, Submitted by Shirley Langaas and Myrna Sovde. Source: Dallager/
Lenora Erickson, and Mabel Dallager Sovde. When I attended high . Watterud family book by Judy Paulson Altman.
school in Greenbush, I rented a room from Marie Moen, who had
eight girls staying there at one time. The only drawback was no                                 Harold
indoor bathroom.
Submitted by Hazel Dahl Aasen.                                           Harold and his parents, Lars and Martha Dallager, came from
                                                                      Granite Falls, Minnesota, about 1896, and homesteaded in Section
          Christopher and Gunda (Watterud)                            34 of Dewey Township. Harold lived with Lars and Martha. They
                                                                      had cattle and crops. Harold worked hard. He buried all his big
                                              Christopher "Christ" rocks by digging beside them with a shovel and then rolling them
                                           Dallager, son of Lars into the hole.
                                           Nilson Dallager and          The closest winter road to town was from the Bethlehem Church
                                           Martha (Berge) Dallager and east. In the winter he drove his Model T on top of the snow­
                                           was born January 7, drifts. It was so light, it would stay on top of the snow the mile and
                                            1878, near Granite Falls, a half south to the church, and on into town. He was disgusted
                                           Minnesota. Christ came when he traded for a Model A, as it was so much heavier and he
                                           to Roseau County with couldn't drive on top the snowbanks.
                                           his parents in 1896 or       In the late I940s he sold his farm to Barney Anderson and moved
                                            1897. In 1899 or 1900 to his nephew, Leonard Brekke's home, until he passed away.
                                           he filed on his home­      Leonard was the son of Harold's sister, Johanna. Harold had cared
                                           stead in Dewey Town­       for Leonard when his mother remarried, after the death ofLeonard's
                                           ship. This quarter was father.
                                           in Section 34, and was Submitted by Art Anderson. See Lars and Martha Dallager his­
                                           later owned by Martin tory.
                                           Kirkeide and then
                                           Merton Kirkeide.                           Lars and Martha
                                             On February 25, 1907,
                                            Christ married Gunda        Lars Dallager was born February 3, 1851, at Vang, Valdres, Nor­
                                            Watterud in Pelan, Min­   way. Since he was the youngest in the family he was not eligible to
          Christ and Gunda Dallager
       (photo courtesy ofShirley Langaas)   nesota. Gunda, the inherit any family land, so he immigrated to America. He married

                                                                   479

  Martha H. Berge, who was born in 1839 in Norway. She was twelve        Dallager. The only way to be certain which Carrie had the home­
  years older than Lars.                                                 stead was to find when she deeded it away. At that time she was
    In 1896, Lars and Martha along with sons, Nils, Harold, and Christ   married so the name Dallager appeared, proving which Carrie it
  moved to Roseau County, Minnesota in Dewey Township near               was. The legal description of Karen's homestead was S 1/2 NE 1/4
  Greenbush. Their sons homesteaded their own land. Lars and             Section 4 and SW 1/4 NW 1/4 and NW1/4 SW 1/4 Section 3 in
  Martha lived with their son, Harold.                                   Lind Township.
     Lars was involved with the beginning of                  Lutheran      Karen, as Carrie H. Sogn, joined the Bethlehem Church in 1904,
  Church. The Bethlehem congregation was organized December              but the congregation had been meeting in      log cabin since 1903,
  14, 1901. Lars was trustee for two years and his son, Harold, was      according to church minutes.
  treasurer. As early as 1900, the congregation was meeting in the          Karen Marie Sogn and Nels Dallager married on May 29, 1907,
  Dallager home, where they continued to meet for many years. The        in Barnesville, Minnesota, where Karen still had family including
. congregation bought chairs for Martha as a gift because they met in    a brother, Iver. Karen's move to Nels' farm was a short one. Her
  their log house.                                                       log cabin was less than a mile from Nels' farmhouse.
    Martha died July 24, 1921. Lars died at the age of 88 in 1936 and       Karen and Nels became parents of daughter, Mabel, on February
  is buried at Bethlehem Cemetery.                                       27,1908. She was only a few months old when Nels died on June
     Lars and Martha had six children (including twins, Johanna and       15, 1908, from tuberculosis contracted while in the army. He was
  Margaret); Nils (1872-1908) married Karen Sogn; Johanna (1874­         buried in the Pauli Cemetery rather than at Bethlehem, where they
   1937) married Lewis Brekke/Jens Peterson; Margaret (1874-?);          were members. Nels had made Karen promise he would not be
  Louise (1875-?) married Pete Melness; Harold (1876-1948); Christ       buried in the low land at Bethlehem, where the graves would often
  (1878-1955) married Gunda Watterud.                                    have water in them. He had a fear of water and wanted to be buried
    Their daughter,Johanna, married Lewis A. Brekke in 1891. Lewis       on the ridge near Pelan. Ironically, when Nels died, the water was
  and Johanna had a child, Leonard Brekke, born April 5, 1892. Two       so high his body had to be taken by boat across the Two Rivers to
  months later, Lewis, a steeple-jack, fell and died, and when Johanna   the Pauli Cemetery.
  remarried, the stepfather rejected Leonard, so in addition to their       Karen and baby Mabel lived at her parental home in Barnesville
  own children, Lars and Martha raised him.                               for a time and later with her brothers, Christ and Martin Sogn.
  Submitted by Ruby Brekke.                                               Christ's quarter bordered the land Karen had inherited from her
                                                                         husband. Her brothers farmed her land and she was able to keep
                  Nels and Karen                                         the land through the years though sometimes it was tough. Mabel
                                                                         became a teacher. She taught in rural schools for 21 years and in
        Dallager was born September 16,1872, in Renville County,          Greenbush for 24 years.
 Minnesota, to Lars and Martha (Berge) Dallager. The family came            When Mabel (1908-1999) married Nestor Sovde (1912-1982) they
 to Roseau County in 1896 or 1897. Nels was in the Spanish Ameri­         lived on the farm with Karen. Karen died in 1960. Mabel and
 can War and was in the Philippines for four years. He told how a        Nestor had one son, Noral, who married Eva Jean Vlvin. They
 mule laid down, and how he protected himself by shooting from           have four children, Greg, Nathan, Heidi, and Lisa.
 behind the mule. Nels, his parents, and brothers, Harold and Christ,    Submitted by Myrna Sovde. Sources: Noral Sovde, Roseau County
 were among the founders of Bethlehem Church in 1900 or 1901.            Heritage book, Bethlehem records, Roseau Co. Registrar, Dallager
    In June 1904, the N 1/2 SW 1/4 and N 1/2 SE 1/4 of Dewey             family records.
 Township was deeded to Nels Dallager. The property had been
 homesteaded by Louis Nelson.                                                                       Sam L. Darst
    Karen, the daughter of Hans H. and Sofia Sogn was born in
         .                               Hadeland, Norway on July          Sam L. Darst was born January 4, 1886 at Spring Valley, Minne­
                                          2, 1876. She had come to       sota. He had three brothers. In May of 1914, he bought a farm in
                                         Roseau County by 1900           Barto Township, three miles north of Greenbush, where he lived
                                         and homesteaded in Lind         with his wife, Ruth, and four children: Conley, Beatrice, Valeria,
                                          Township near her father       and Warren.
                                         Hans Sogn , along with            In March of 1919, he was director ofthe new public owned tele­
                                         brothers Martin, Christian,     phone company and was Barto town clerk in January of 1920. Sam
                                         George, and Andrew, and         raised registered purebred Holstein bulls from two to 24 months,
                                         sisters Helen and Lena          and also heifers and bull calves. He was director of the Greenbush
                                         (Oline).                        Cooperative Creamery board when the new creamery was dedi­
                                            Family history had it that   cated in 1926. He was elected supervisor of Barto Township in
                                          Karen homesteaded. How­        March of 1928.
                                         ever, the 1913 Atlas and a        Sam took ill on election day, took to bed the next day, and died
                                         patent paper spelled the        early morning in May 1928. He was 42 years old. His oldest son,
                                          name as Carrie. Andrew         Conley, was only 14. His death was a distinct loss to the commu­
                                          Sogn's wife was Carrie,        nity and the county. He was active in civic life and one ofthe area's
                                          also. Two places showed        best fanners and county boosters. Sam is buried at Bethania Cem­
                                          the name as Carrie H. Sogn,    etery in Greenbush. His wife was buried in Little Falls in the 40s.
                                          which was thought to be          Sam's son, Conley, married Alpha Suby, daughter of Osmund and
           Nels and Karen Dallager        Karen     Marie       Sogn     Hilma Suby of Barto Township. Conley was very active in the

                                                                     480
county, also, as is their only son, Glenn, who now farms both the      way. Karolina Dock died February 23, 1909, in Greenbush. She
Darst and Suby homesteads.                                             was buried in the Synod, or Bethel, Cemetery.
Submitted by Linda Gieseke with information .from Glenn Darst,           The October 29, 1909, paper told that Lizzie Dock was spending
the Greenbush Tribune, and the Roseau County Museum.                   the winter in Mekinock, North Dakota with her sister to attend
                                                                       school.
                 Arie DeRaad Family History                              K. O. Dock owned the Dock Hotel and built an addition to the
                                                                       barn in the back, in October of 1909. In the June 25, 1911, paper
  Arie DeRaad III and Maggie Boebeldyk DeRaad homesteaded in           there was a story about K. O. Dock being a resident of Greenbush
Barnett Township, Roseau County in about 1910. It was the Dutch        since the beginning of the town. He then moved to Thief River
heritage that the first born son always be named Arie. Arie DeRaad     Falls to be in the automobile business.
III was born in Pella, Iowa, on April 29, 1865. When Arie was 5          There was a Dock Post Office located in the NE 1/4 Section 34 of
years old, he moved with his fanlily to homestead in Sioux County      Hereim Township.
in northwest Iowa. When he was 17 years old, his family home­            Carl Dock was paid $7.50 by the village, in October of 1909, for
steaded in Grandview, Douglas County, South Dakota. They expe­         two months pay. Leonard Dock and Nels Boe were helping to put
rienced much hardship with breaking the prairie, building a sod        up wire grass, near Karlstad, in September of 1911.
house and out buildings, and coping with drought and grasshop­         Submitted by Linda Gieseke with information from Myrna Sovde
pers.                                                                  and Eunice Korczak taken from The Greenbush Tribune.
  Arie DeRaad III married Maggie Boebeldyk on March 2, 1892,
in Grand View, Douglas County, South Dakota. Maggie was born                                Albert and Stella Dolney
February 18, 1873, at Koogebush, Netherlands. Maggie came to
America at the age of two. They lived at Grand View for four              Albert Dolney served in WWI. After that came a couple of life
years.                                                                 changing years. In 1918, he nloved to Polonia Township where he
  They moved to Leota, Minnesota, where there was a Dutch-Ameri­       bought 480 acres from Paul Schase and in 1919 he married Stella
can settlement. They spoke Dutch almost exclusively in the DeRaad      Pelowski. Stella, born in 1888, was six when she came by wagon
home, but they spoke English very well with no trace of an accent.     with her parents, Andrew and Anna Pelowski, from Winona, Min­
  They moved to Greenbush, Minnesota, in about 1910. Their sev­        nesota.
enth child was born in Leota, Minnesota in 1908, and their eighth,       Albert was born in Granville, South Dakota in 1891. Two broth­
the youngest child was born in 1911 in Greenbush.                      ers, Joseph and Frank A. also came to northern Minnesota, while
   Their children were Arie IV (1892-1945) who married Sarah           two brothers and a sister remained in South Dakota.
Black. He' was called Black Arie by the family because he had             Albert and Stella had six children: Adelaide 1920 (Paul Carr),
really black hair. Nicklaas (1894-1958) married Ida Olson. Neil        Adrian 1922 (Emily Gryskiewicz Kuznia), Ambrose 1926 (Delores
was born in 1896 and died in 1976. Dick was born in 1898 and           Mooney), Albin 1926 (Mary, Rachel), Marcella 1928 (Bill Lewis),
died in 1979. Albert (1904-1969) married Myrtle Erickson. Ida          and Eugene 1931 (Marlys). Ambrose and Albin were twins which
was born in 1905 and died in 1918. Margaret (1908-199.6) married       meant double mischief.
Johnny Anderson. Marie (1911-1995) married Oel Anderson..                Albert, along with August Kukowski, were two of the first in the
   Arie IV was in World War I and contracted TB. All the other         area to raise sweet clover. It was considered a weed, until they saw
children grew up in the Greenbush area. They moved west ofGreen­       the price the seed brought. They also raised flax, oats, wheat, cattle,
bush and that is where Dick and Neil lived in later years. All the     and later sheep, chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese. Adrian didn't
DeRaad boys were excellent hunters.                                    like the ducks and geese that came to the steps ofthe house to make
   Dick ordered a fiddle through the Wards catalog and played for      their dirty little deposits.
many bam dances. Marie told the story that she went to the barn          1934 was a tough year for Albert and Stella. First they hailed out,
dance with Dick from 8 p.m. on a Saturday night to 5 a.m. Sunday       and in October they lost their house in a fire. They brought in
morning. Dick played every dance and she danced every dance.           another house that had been located one-fourth mile to the east. In
Dick played by ear and could not read notes. Nick, Neil, Dick,         1961 they moved near the Greenbush Hospital into the house where
Margaret and Marie remained in the Greenbush area all their lives.     Keith Kapphahn lives now.
Submitted by Marlene Anderson Johnson.                                   To show how desperate times were during the thirties, the Great
                                                                       Depression era, the following stories are offered. One day when
                          Dock Family                                  Albert was in town he met a young couple with a child who had no
                                                                       place to go. When he came home, he told Stella about the two
  These items of information about the Docks were obtained from        young people who were willing to work. She replied that they had
old newspapers. This is' all the information that we could find.       plenty of food put up, so if he wanted their help, he should go get
  o. K. Dock was one of the eighteen members who organized the         them. After they had been there awhile, it came out just how des­
Greenbush Cooperative Creamery in April 8, 1905. He was elected        perate they were. The young man said, "I had four shells, one for
director of the first creamery board.                                  the wife, one for the kid, and one for me."
  The Dock Brothers had an ad to haul fat hogs to market on Octo­        In another incident, a local man worked all winter for smokes and
ber 22, 1908, and on May 7, 1909, they had another ad for poultry,     food. When Stella and Albert bought him an overall jacket for
hides, tallow, etc. Peter Dock         to Fergus Falls and stayed in   Christmas, he was overjoyed.
the meat business.                                                       The fann that Stella's parents homesteaded is back in the family
   Karolina, Mrs. K. O. Dock, was born September 26, 1854, in          again.
Illinois to Knute and Maria Bekkedahl, who were both born in Nor­      Submitted by Myrna Sovde. Source.' Adrian Dolney.

                                                                   481
                           The Dolneys                                    Uncle Frank was born October 4, 1872, in Hastings, Minnesota,
                                                                        and died August 9, 1970, at the Greenbush Nursing Home. Aunt
  In 1889, my cousin Ben Dolney came to America and settled in          Victoria was born May 30, 1877, in Poland and died November 1,
South Dakota for awhile, but in 1898 he came to Greenbush and           1957, in Greenbush. Uncle Albert was born December 2, 1891, in
settled in Polonia Township. Then in 1916, my              Frank and    Grenville, South Dakota, and died August 21, 1965, in Greenbush.
Aunt Victoria Dolney and family moved to              Township and      Aunt Stella was born February 28, 1888, in Winona, Minnesota,
homesteaded. In 1918, my Uncle Albert DQlney came to join his           and died March 22, 1978, in Greenbush. All are buried at Blessed
brother in fanniQg, and also bought land in the same township. He       Sacranlent Cemet.ery.
married Stella Pelowski in 1919 at St. Aloysius. They had to work          Frank Aloysius Dolney, a nephew to Ben and Margaret Dolney,
very hard, for trees had to be felled and the land had to be cleared    took over the farm. Ben was born December 8, 1869, in Lubinia,
by hand or horses.                                                      Poland and died February 20, 1959, in rural Greenbush. Margaret
  In 1927 Ben went to Chicago and married Margaret Cannon, an           was born in Ireland on January 20, 1892, and died December 21,
Irish immigrant born in 1892, and brought her back here, and they       1962, in Greenbush. Frank was born July 29, 1915, in Poland and
settled on his homestead. They had no children.                         died December 1, 1985. All are buried at St. Aloysius Cemetery.
   Uncle Frank and Uncle Albert both helped in local happenings            My aunts and my grandmother loved their fanlilies and grand­
such as township boards, school, church, co-ops, and other projects.    children and enjoyed crocheting, knitting, sewing, raising flowers
Most of this was after the Great Depression           left a mark on    and gardens, making quilts, embroidering, and other crafts and ac­
everyone, whether in the rural areas or in town and business.           tivities.
  In 1921, my grandparents, Joseph and Rosalia Dolney, settled on          My grandparents, Rosalia and Joseph Dolney, lived in various
a farm in Barto Township. (Mrs. Elizabeth Wojciechowski lives           places in Badger and Greenbush before moving in 1948 to Little
there now.) They had seven children when they came, and five            Falls where they stayed until their deaths. While they lived in
more were born to them.                                                 Greenbush, my grandfather helped build Blessed Sacrament Church.
  When the cattle were put out to graze, my aunts and uncle Anton       Their children are Anton, Connie (McFarlane), Mary, Theresa,
had to take turns watching them. My aunts helped with farming,          Monica, Josephine, Della, Betty, Philip, Cecelia, Esther (my mother),
caring for the animals, shocking grain, gardening, canning,             and Theodore. Later on, my grandfather liked watching TV and
whatever else that had to be done to help the fanlily survive.          my grandmother had her geese, ducks, chickens, her garden, and
  When they wanted to go visiting or to church in the winter, they'd    the grapes that grew around the garage. My grandfather resided at
hitch up a sleigh or wagon with horses and load it with straw and       St. Otto's Nursing Home in Little Falls when he died. He was born
blankets and heated stones to keep warm. In the summer, they'd          January 29, 1883, in Silver Lake, Minnesota, and died August 31,
waJk to church or to the neighbors to visit. Sometimes it'd be three,   1980. Rosalia Dolney was born February 5, 1887, in Grenville,
five, or more miles to get there.                                       South Dakota, and died August 13, 1982, at St. Gabriel's Hospital.
  When they put the cattle out to graze, the older children watched     Both are buried at St. Mary's Cemetery in Little Falls.
over them. They had to be careful when watching the bull, as he         Submitted by Mary Ann Johnson, Granddaughter and niece ofthe
charged them if he got in an ornery mood, as would a"Cow with a         Dolneys.
calf. They'd make a mad dash for safety. They took turns milking
the cows by hand and feeding them. All the families had cattle,                     Joe and          Duray:            Families
chickens, ducks, geese, and a big garden. Everyone carried water
for all their needs, from personal to household, to the animals.          Joe and Agnes Duray were united in marriage in June 1924. Joe,
   They'd go out to find berries to make pies, jams, jellies, and to    a widower, brought along five children, Romuld, Victoria, Annie,
can and even eating raw. Everyone pitched in to make the work           Adeline, and Rose, ranging in age from twelve years to three years.
lighter and get done faster, from the youngest to the oldest.           Agnes brought along two children, Severyn and Bernice, ages seven
  They were all members of St. Aloysius Catholic Church of Leo.         and three. Two children were born to Joe and Agnes, Andrew in
  They had no conveniences that we have today, no cars, radios, or      1925 and Doris in 1927.
televisions until later.                                                  This family of eleven made their home on a farm six and a half
  In 1927, my Uncle Frank and Aunt Victoria Dolney moved south          miles southeast of Greenbush (SW 1/4 Section 30) in Barnett Town­
of Greenbush in Hereim Township (Harvey Dallager lives there            ship. The farm had been homesteaded by Joe's parents, Joe and
now). In 1938, they had a home built near the airport (Bob Pederson     Mary (Wysocka) Duray.
lives there now) and lived there the rest of their lives, until Uncle     Joe Duray was previously married to Mary Lasniewski. Agnes
Frank went to stay with his niece, Connie McFarlane, before going       Grittner divorced Walter Urbanski (last name later changed to Ervin).
into the nursing home. Uncle Frank loved flowers and 'had a large       Walter worked on the pipeline so the family traveled extensively
garden. He sold the produce. He was also a craftsman -who loved         including to Oregon and Canada. Daughter, Bernice Borgen, was
making and selling expandable jewelry boxes, sewing boxes, foot­        born in Redverse, Saskatchewan. Following the divorce, Agnes
stools, lawn swings, and other items. Their children are Sophie,        moved back to Greenbush with her parents, Frank and Caroline
Rose, James, Annie, and Theodore.                                       Grittner.
  My Uncle Albert and Aunt Stella moved into Greenbush just south         After Agnes' mother passed away, Joe and Agnes took her father,
of the hospital (Keith Kapphahn now lives there). Uncle Albert          Frank Grittner, into their home and cared for him for six years until
liked to read his papers and watch TV. Aunt Stella enjoyed flowers      his death in 1949. Sadly, Agnes passed away from cancer at age 52
and visitors. Their children are Adelaide, Marcella, Albin, Ambrose,    in 1952. Joe continued to live on the farm with his daughter Doris,
Adrian and Eugene. Their son, Adrian and his wife, Emily took           until his sudden death from a heart attack at age 75 in 1966.
over the farm and now Dale and Mary Kuznia and family farm it.            Joe and Agnes' merged family were close knit. Romuld married

                                                                    482

				
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