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Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes-University Degrees Online


									 Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes

Text A The Freedom Givers
Text B The Dream, the Stars and
       Dr. King
  Text A: The Freedom Givers
Part I Pre-reading Task: Abraham,
Martin and John
Enjoy a piece of music (originally sung by
Dion, the chief singer of the Belmonts)
    Abraham, Martin and John
   Has anybody here seen my old friend Abraham?
 Can you tell me where he's gone?
 He freed a lot of people,
 But it seems the good die young,
 But I just looked around and he's gone.
 Has anybody here seen my old friend John?
 Can you tell me where he's gone?
 He freed a lot of people,
 But it seems the good die young,
 But I just looked around and he's gone.
   Has anybody here seen my old friend Martin?
   Can you tell me where he's gone?
   He freed a lot of people,
   But it seems the good die young,
   But I just looked around and he's gone.
 Didn't you love the things they stood for?
 Didn't they try to find some good for you and me?
  And we'll be free. Someday soon, it's gonna be
 One day.
 Has anybody here seen my old friend Bobby?
 Can you tell me where he's gone?
 I thought I saw him walkin' Up over the hill,
 With Abraham, Martin and John.
     Listen to the recording two or three times and
         then think over the following questions:

1. Can you guess who Abraham, Martin, John and Bobby are?
2. What did these people stand for and their special contributions?
3. Do you know why they all died young and who killed them?
4. Can you guess what the texts in this unit are going to be about?
1. They are Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King, President John F.
Kennedy and Bobby Kennedy, John Kennedy’s brother.

2.They stood for the civil-rights leaders, who advocated black civil-rights.
3.They were assassinated young because they fought for the civil-rights,
which resulted in making many enemies.
4. The texts in this unit are going to talk about the civil-rights and its
                        Part II Background Information

             1. Knowledge of American geography
   The     Southern      States
    (marked with blue and
    green): Al: Alabama, Ar:
    Arkansas; F: Florida; G:
    Georgia; L: Louisiana; M:
    Mississippi;    N:    North
    Carolina; S: South Carolina;
    Ten: Tennessee; Tex: Texas
    and V: Virginia
   The Deep South states are
    marked with green.
                2. Freedom and rights:
   Freedom of the individual is considered one of the
    essential features of western civilization, which is itself
    sometimes called the Free World.
   This freedom is often expressed in terms of rights to do
    certain things or to be treated in a particular way.
    When a person does something that others think strange,
    British and American people will often say, “It’s a free
    country,” meaning that although thy disagree with the
    choice they recognize the other person’s right to make it.
            3. The civil rights movement
   (in the US) the national campaign by African-Americans
    for equal rights, especially in the 1950s and 1960s.
   The campaign included boycotts (=refusals to buy
    particular products), the actions of freedom riders, and in
    1963 a march to Washington led by Martin Luther King.
   It succeeded in causing the introduction of bussing and
    affirmative action.
   The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of
    1965 were also introduced as a result of the civil rights
    movement, which has helped to change the attitudes of
    many white Americans.
           4. The Underground Railroad

     A secret system used in the US before the Civil
      War for helping thousands of slaves to escape
.     to the free northern states or Canada.
     The slaves were called “passengers”, the
      people who helped them were “conductors”,
      and the slaves hid in “stations” (safe houses)
      along the way.
5. Josiah Henson
   He was born a slave on 15th June, 1789 in
    Charles County, Maryland. He was sold
    three times before he reached the age of
    eighteen. By 1830, Henson had saved up
    $350 to purchase his freedom. After giving
    his master the money he was told that the
    price had increased to $1,000.
   Cheated of his money, Henson decided to
    escape with his wife and four children.
    After reaching Canada, Henson formed a
    community where he taught other ex-slaves
    how to be successful farmers.
    His autobiography, The Life of Josiah
    Henson (1849) was read by Harriet
    Beecher Stowe and inspired her best-
    selling novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin.
                           6. Levi Coffin
    He was born in Greensboro, on
    28th October, 1798.
   Later he became as a member of
    the Society of Friends, Coffin
    attempted in 1821 to start a school
    for slaves but their owners refused
    to allow them to attend.
   In 1826 Coffin moved to Newport,
    Indiana. This was on the route
    where fugitive slaves made their
    way from the South to Canada.
    Coffin soon became involved in
    helping the runaways and it has
    been estimated that over 3,000
    slaves stayed at his home during
    their journey.
   Built in 1827 and now a
    National Historic Landmark,
    this house was owned by Levi
    Coffin (1789-1877), a Quaker
    abolitionist. Because of his
    outstanding role in the
    operation of the Underground
    Railroad, Coffin has been
    termed its "president." It is
    believed that Coffin and his
    wife Catherine helped more
    than 2,000 fugitive slaves
    escape to freedom, using this
    house as a principal depot.
                          7. John Parker
                                      John Parker was born into slavery in
                                       Norfolk, Virginia in 1827. He bought
                                       his freedom for $1,800 and in 1849 he
                                       and his wife moved to Ripley where
                                       he worked in the ironworks. Parker
                                       was an integral part of the
                                       Underground Railroad; he helped
                                       fugitive slaves cross the Ohio River
                                       from Kentucky as they went north to
                                       freedom. For nearly fifteen years
                                       Parker risked his life and his own
                                       freedom by hiding in coffins, diving
                                       off a steamboat into the river with
The John Parker House in Ripley,       bounty hunters on his trail as he
                                       fought for the freedom of the enslaved.
         Part III Comprehension Questions:

1.Why did Barbara Carter speak proudly of her great-great-
2. Why did the author travel to Henson’s last home?
3. What was the Underground Railroad? Who forged it?
4. Why did the author want to tell the readers the stories of the
   heroes of the Underground Railroad?
5. How did John Parker win his freedom?
6. Why did some people try to capture John Parker?
7.Why did Levi Coffin, a white man, help black slaves to freedom?
8. What risks did Coffin run while helping slaves?
9.What difficulties did the slaves have in traveling the
   Underground Railroad to freedom?
10. Why did many slaves go to Canada?
11.Why did Henson decide to escape?
1.For her great-great-grandfather, Josiah Henson has lived on
   through the character in American fiction that he helped
   inspire: Uncle Tom’s Cabin. (L9-10)
2.To know more about the man. (L15-17)
3.(See to the culture note Josiah Henson and other
   courageous men and women together forged the
   Underground Railroad. (L20-21)
4.Because the heroes of the Underground Railroad remain
   too little remembered and their exploits are still kept
   unknown. (L29-31)
5. He saved enough money to buy his freedom. (L40-41)
6.Because he was a guide who helped people not to be
   captured by slave hunters. (L42-44)
7. Because he believed in Christianity that they should
 help those who were hungry and had no clothes to
 wear, no matter what color they were. (L59-61)
8. He was the risk of getting his store and home
 burned and even thrown to prison.
9. They had to march a journey of hundreds of miles,
 during which there were no signs and few maps.
10.Because slavery had been abolished there early in
 1833. (L87-88)
11.Because he faced the situation of being separated
 from his family.
       Part IV Language Points:
1. Slender: (of people) slim; not very wide but comparatively long
  or high
 Examples: Although her face was quite plain, she had long, slender
  expressive hands, like a concert pianist.
  King crabs have long, slender legs, with a span over 1 meter (3
 Synonym: lean, narrow, slight, thin; fragile, spindly, skinny
 Anonym: fat, obese, plump, paunchy, chubby, stout
2. Settlement: a place where people have come to settle
  Examples: Manhattan was the site of the original Dutch settlement
  of New Amsterdam.
  The village is a settlement of fifty houses.
  Syn: Community, colony, camp, outpost
3.Confident: feeling or showing thrust in oneself or one’s
  ability (usu. Followed by about/of/that clause)
 Examples: Michael was confident that he would be enrolled
  by Harvard University.
 The more familiar you are with this machine, the more
  confident you will be about using it.
 The soccer team is quite confident of being able to win this
  important game.
4. Give up: abandon an attempt to do sth.
 Examples: He’s given up smoking since his illness.
  The rescue team had given up all hope of finding the two
  divers alive.
  She was working part-time but she suddenly gave up.
 Syn: abandon, give up, quit, desert, discard
5.Ironically: it seems ironic (that)
  Examples: Ironically the widespread use of antibiotics seems to
   be causing a lot of unexpected health problems.
  Ironically it is often the poorer people who give the most.
  Ironically, most people came to watch the match on the day it
   poured with rain.
6.Racial: relating to a person’s race, or to different races of
  Examples: Slavery is closely associated with racial prejudice,
   the belief that one race is superior to another.
  Mandela was elected President in South Africa’s first multi-
   racial elections, held in 1994.
  c.f.: ethnic: of a nation, or tribal group that has a common
   cultural group.
  ethnic minorities/groups/communities
  Example: In China, there exists ethnic problems rather than
   racial problems.
7. Stand up (for sb./sth.): speak, work, etc. in favour of
  sb./sth.; support sb./sth.
 Examples: You have to be prepared to stand up for the
  things you believe in.
 Don’t be afraid to stand up for yourself.
 Always stand for your friends.
8. Historic: famous or important history
 Examples: In his book, Churchill recalls that historic first
  meeting with Roosevelt.
 More money is needed for the preservation of historic
  buildings and monuments.
 C.f.: historical
9.Site: place where a building, town, etc. was, is or will be
 Examples: The local government hasn’t yet chosen the site
  for the new skyscraper.
 There are many archaeological sites in southern England.
 This monument marks the site of the battle.
 Rescue workers rushed to the site of the plane crash.
10.Mission: particular task or duty undertaken by an
  individual or a group
 Examples: Some delegates were immediately sent to Israel.
  Their mission was to negotiate a ceasefire.
 The five young people have been on a mission to help the
 My mission in life is to help poor people.
11.Forge: (fig): create by means of much hard work
 Examples: The two countries agreed to forge closer
  economic ties.
 She forged a new career for herself as a singer.
 Syn: mould, cast, shape
12. Underground: in or into secrecy or hiding
 Examples: His mother took him to Hong Kong where she
  worked in the underground communist movement.
  For about thirty years the African National Congress
  (ANC) operated as an underground organization.
13. Web: network of fine threads spun by a spider or some
  other spinning creature; complex series or network
 Examples: The little boy was frightened by the spider’s
  web in the window.
  Every day thousands of we surfers flock to this popular site,
  posting messages.
  Other usage: WWW: World Wide Web
14. Liberate: set free
 Examples: The new Afghan government is trying to
  liberate its people from poverty with international help.
 Many commercial and public organizations now have their
  own Web site and publish a “home page”, giving
  information about the organization.
 The troop’s aim is to liberate the country by the end of the
 Other usage: Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity
15. Authorize: give approval or permission for (sth.); give
  authority to
 Examples: The central government authorized $200 billion to
  construct new dams to generate cheap hydroelectric power.
 The President requested that Congress authorize the presence of
  US troops in the eastern region.
  He was obliged by the arguments of the Minister of Labor to
  authorize a 23 per cent general wage increase.
 Syn: legalize, allow, approve, entitle
16. Exploit: brave or adventurous deed or action
 Examples: The general’s wartime exploits were later made into
  a film and a television series.
 My grandfather entertained us with stories of wartime exploits.
17. Be intent on doing sth.: be eager and determined to do
 Examples: Working day and night, Janet seems intent on
  breaking the record in the Guinness Book of Records.
18. Peer: look closely or carefully, esp. as if unable to see
  well (followed by at/through/into, etc.)
 Examples: Stephen had been peering at a computer printout
  that made no sense at all.
 Hawking was a typical grind, underweight and awkward
  and peering through eyeglasses.
 Syn: stare, gaze, glance, gawp, gape
19. Decade: period of ten year
 Examples: Many countries were involved in Antarctic
  exploration during the first decades of the 20th century.
  Education budgets have been increased over the last
  decade in China.
 Other usage: deca- 十;mono- 一; dual- 二; tri- 三; quad-
  四; penta-五; hexa-六; hept-七; oct-八;
20. On the side: as an additional job or source of income;
 Examples: Some teachers have to find ways of making
  some money on the side.
 In order to earn money to send his children to school, he
  makes a little money on the side by cleaning windows in
  his spare time.
21. Capture: capturing or being captured
 Examples: Rebel forces captured the city after a week-long
 Some of the terrorists who were involved in the 9.11 event
 captured by the FBI.
 The whole town celebrated when two tanks were captured.
22. Close in (on/around): come near to, esp. in order to
  attack from several directions; surround
 Examples: At one time Peter took part in the capture of
  three thieves.
 The International Whaling Commission permits the capture
  of only 400 whales annually for scientific purposes.
 Vt. Examples: Hitler committed suicide as Soviet forces
  were closing in on Berlin.
 Right after the suicide exploration, Israel troops began to
  close in on the Palestinian city.
23. Painful: causing pain, hurting
 Examples: Symptoms of pneumonia include painful cough,
  fever, difficulty in breathing, rapid breathing and chest
    The old photograph brought back painful memories of
  his childhood.
24. Religious: of religion
 Examples: Daoism (Taoism) is one of the three main
  Chinese religious and philosophical traditions, the others
  being Confucianism and Buddhism.
 The local government wants to increase the amount of
  religious education in schools.
25. Conviction: firm opinion or belief
 Examples: The old woman had a firm conviction that there
  would be a better life after death.
  A non-believer, Tom doesn't have any religious
  It is her personal conviction that all corruption should be
  exposed and dealt with according to relevant laws.
26. Terminal: (building at the) end of a railway line, bus
  route, etc.; a piece of equipment, usu. Consisting of a
  keyboard and a screen, which connects the user with a
  computer system.
 Examples: Most large airports have shops, restaurants, and
  banks in the terminal building, plus special lounges for
  departing passengers.
 All staff have terminals attached to the company’s main
27. Impose: 1) place a (penalty, tax, etc.) officially on
 Examples: The government has made a decision to impose
  a further tax on wines and spirits.
 The local government tried to impose fines on the factories,
  which poured untreated waste into the river.
  2) try to make sb. Accept (an opinion or a belief)
 Examples: I wouldn’t want to impose my religious
 conviction on anyone.
 It may not be wise for parents to impose their own tastes on
  their children.
28. As for: with regard to
 Examples: As for your request for a free sample, we will
  send it to you in anout ten days.
 Some people have complained, but as for me I’m perfectly
  satisfied with the working conditions here.
29. Transport: take sth./sb. from one place to another in a
 Examples: Reducing the costs of transporting natural
  resources to production sites is one of the sky factors in
  economic competition.
  Pipelines are used mainly to transport liquids or gases over
  long distances.
30. Disguise: Give sb./sth. a false appearance (used in the
  pattern disguise sb./sth. as)
 Examples: She disguised herself as a man so she could
  fight on the battlefield.
 Jack escaped across the border disguised as a Catholic
31. abolish: end the existence of (a law, custom, system,
 Examples: Slavery was not finally abolished in the British
  Empire until 1833.
 Their mission is to abolish the global fur industry
  permanently by utilizing appropriate legal and non-violent
32. Make the best of: accept an unsatisfactory situation
  cheerfully and try to manage as well as you can
 Examples: I know it’s cold and raining but we’re here now,
  so let’s just make the best of it.
 The living conditions in the village were very poor, but we
  had to make the best of it.
33. Compel: make (sb.) do sth.; force
 Examples: In the past children were frequently compelled
  to work from an early age.
 A large debt burden compelled many developing countries
  to undertake stabilization and adjustment policies.
 Duty compelled the soldiers to volunteer for the mission.
 An energy crisis compels fuel conservation
34. At risk: threatened by the possibility of loss, failure,
  etc.; in danger
 Examples: It is reported that some areas in the west are at
  high risk of desertification.
 The buildings in the slum tend to be overcrowded,
  inadequately served by water and at risk from fire.
 At the risk of sounding ungrateful, I must refuse your offer.
35. Starve: (cause a person or an animal to) suffer severely
  or die from hunger
 Example: Some people starved to death during the long
 Children in the developed counties are living a happy life,
  while many African children are starving.
 (figu.)She's lonely, and starving for companionship.
36. In the eyes of: in the opinion of
 Examples: In the eyes of his students, Richard is a sensible
  and reliable teacher.
 In the eyes of my parent, I am still a young person although
  I am already in my thirties.
 The practice of religion in America sometimes seems
  strange in the eyes of the European.
 In the eyes of law, he was innocent, though some people
  wouldn't’t think so.
37. Pass for: appear like; be accepted or looked upon as
  (same as pass as)
 Examples: He speaks American English well enough to
  pass for an American.
 My younger sister really wants to go and see the film, but I
  don’t think she’d pass for 18.
         Part V Text Structure:

Parts   Paragraphs
One     Para 1-5     It is high time to honor the heroes
                     who helped liberate slaves by
                     forging the Underground Railroad
                     in the early civil-rights struggles in
Two     Para 6-23    By citing examples the author
                     praises the exploits of civil-rights
                     heroes who helped slaves travel the
                     Underground Railroad to freedom.
                              After winning his own
                              freedom from slavery, John

                  Story one
                              Parker helped other slaves to
                              escape north to Canada to get
                              freedom. (Para 6-10)

                                  Civil-Rights Givers

Story Two                                                            Story Three
Supported by a strong                              By         traveling       the
religious conviction, the                          Underground          Railroad,
white man Levi Coffin                              Josiah Henson reached his
helped black slaves to escape                      destination and become
at huge risk.(Para 11-15)                          free at last. Para 16-23)
          Part VI Translation:
Translate the following passage into English, using the
words and phrases given below.
 Settlement painful  capture underground   racial
 conviction disguise abolish liberate    close in on
 Henson’s painful life as a slave strengthened his
determination to struggle for freedom. Shortly after he
achieved freedom he became a member of an
organization that assisted fugitive slaves. He secretly
returned to the United States several times to help
others travel the Underground Railroad to freedom.
Once some slave catches closed in on the escaping
slaves and Henson when they were on the run. He
disguised them and successfully avoided capture.
In addition, he built a small settlement in Dresden for
escaped slaves, setting up a chapel and a school
where they could learn useful ways of making a
living. He held to the conviction that slavery would
be abolished, all the slaves would be liberated, and
the day was bound to come when racial
discrimination no longer existed.
          Text B The Dream, The Stars &
                     Dr. King
Part one :Language Practice
Fill in the gaps with words or phrases listed in the Words and
Phrases to Learn box. Change the form where necessary.
1.Despite his achievements as a _________ money manager and
  generous philanthropist (慈善家), Soros’s lifelong dream was to
  become a noted philosopher.
2.A nurse needs a lot of patience and goodwill. A bit of charm also
  helps, and a lot of _______ and training is needed.
3.The Maya civilization reached its period of greatest development
 about 250 A.D. and continued to ________ for hundreds of years.
4.You could argue that her sense of insecurity ________growing
  up in an unstable family environment.
5. Against the predictions of the opinion polls, he comfortably won
   the general election of April 1992, but his government soon
   faced ________ economic problems.
6. _______ the birthday celebration comes unexpectedly over the
   radio the announcement of the President of the country
   declaring a state of emergency for suspected enemy missiles
7. It was a series of legislative(立法的) acts that finally gave
   federal agencies power to _______ black rights and thus
   opened the way to an end to discrimination.
8. His most famous work was painted to commemorate his
   daughter’s miraculous from paralysis(麻痹症).
9. Most central banks, such as the Federal Reserve System in the
   USA, control the note issue and _________ the banking system
   against collapse.
10. The new president decided that police corruption was the first
   thing to ________ when he came to power.
11. Many people are not satisfied with the new employment laws
    which _______ against black people and other minorities.
12. Work becomes harder _______. It seems that I have to seek
    help from my professors.
13. John is ________ his brother in that he is much more
    enthusiastic about his schoolwork.
14. Black people in the area are claiming that they have been
  _______ repeated racial attacks from police officers.
15. This policy, they say, is _______ confused and at worst non
16. The official report _________ the likely benefits of the
    but avoids considering the costs.
17. Stephen has _______ since the days he could only afford one
    meal a day. He is now the owner of ten discount chain stores.
18. The new president would _______ to remember that he
19. I really admire those businesswomen who manage to
     achieve success __________.
20. The state of the country’s economy is very worrying
     _________, it seems unwise to raise tax on capital

1.Remarkable; 2. Commitment; 3. Flourish;
4. Resulted from; 5. Grave; 6. In the midst of;
7. Enforce; 8. Recovery; 9. Guarantee;
10. Remedy; 11. Discriminate; 12. With each passing day;
13. Unlike; 14. Subjected to; 15. At best;
16. Plays up; 17. Come a long way; 18. Do well;
19. Against all the odds; 20. In this context.
         Part Two: comprehension check

Choose the best answer for each of the following:
1. The writer implies that in America ________.
   a. Whites score better that blacks on intelligence tests
   b. Blacks outnumber whites in the middle class
   c. Schools have raises the ceiling of their classrooms
   d. The advances made by blacks are entirely due to one man
2. According to the author, women have gained greater equality due
     to ____
    a. better education
    b. the changing nature of work
    c. the women’s liberation movement
    d. anti-discrimination laws
3. Old hatreds against blacks are kept alive by _______
    a. military action overseas        b. news reports
    c. fear of job losses              d. affirmative action
4. It can be inferred that Newt Gingrich _______
    a. knows nothing about history
    b. thinks the English treated the Irish family
    c. agrees with Roger Wilkins
    d. is against affirmative action
5. Which of the following can we infer believe in the advice “divide
   and rule”?
    a. the author                  b. Bob Dole
    c. Dr. King                    d. Roger Wilkins.
6. The author’s position with regard to affirmative action is______
    a. entirely negative           b. entirely positive
    c. mostly negative             d. mostly positive
Keys: a d c d b b
tly negative             d. mostly positive
Keys: a d c d b b

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